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1999 Vol. 19, No. 2
Published: 2008-07-07

 
81 OBSERVATION ON GROUP TYPES OF GOLDEN TAKIN (BUDORCAS TAXICOLOR BEDFORDI )
SONG Yanling,ZENG Zhigao
Group types of golden takin in Foping Nature Reserve were summarized from 146 groups which were either recorded by direct observationor located by radio-tracking 3 radio-collared animals (an adult male, an adult female and a 3 years sub-adult female ) in the duration from July to November, 1995 and March to August, 1996. Five categories of group types could be identified from the investigation , named family group , mixedgroup, social group, aggregating group and solitary one. Among the 146groups, family groups were counted 3- times, mixed group 15 times, social group 47 times, aggregating group-times and 50 solitary one. Familygroup was basely formed by a adult female and her offspring, calf and sub-adults, and male was not necessarily associated with. With mean size of 2.72 ±1.02 ( n = 32) family group was regarded as a core group by whichmixed, social, and aggregating groups were formed. The average group sizeof mixed group was 6.67 ±3.42 ( n = 15), and it was mainly formed by a familygroup with several individuals of sub-adults. Mixed groups were not stable, sub-adults were quite often came into and left out. Home range of t hesub-adult female was much larger than that is for the adult ones. It might indicate that sub-adults would travel between groups and develop theirsocial behavior be fore they finally be came a member in a social group. Social group was the major group type in population of takins and was formedby family and mixed groups. The mean size of social group was 16.06±5.69(n = 47), and communication between members could be expected. Appearanceof social groups was associated with activity of breeding, vertical migrating and feeding, therefore social groups could be observed in any season during the investigation. Aggregating groups was only met in open habitat in summer, they were very unstable and broken soon after. Solitary takin was very common in the study area, but the frequency of solitary one seen in breeding season was higher than that in non-breeding season.
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 81-88 [Abstract] ( 616 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (213 KB)  ( 139 )
89 THE SPACIAL RELATIONSHIP OF CAPTIVE SAMBAR(CERVUS UNICOLOR)
YIN Shaoquan,XIA Shuzhong,WANG Xiaoming,CHEN Jinkang
Eight captive sambar's spatial relationship was observed in an area of 135 000 m2 in Shanghai wild animal park, 1-23 October 1997 and 9-27 January 1998. Male sambars tend to disperse (r< 0.5), but female sambar tend to gather (r>0.5). Both in autumn (X2 = 4.55, P >0.05) and winter (X2=10.6, P > 0.05), the proportion of time that each male sambar spent in each female sambar is similar. The mode that one male control all female sambars or one male control one female sambar is not exist. The pattern of sambar's spatial relationship in autumn is different from that in winter.
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 89-94 [Abstract] ( 402 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (147 KB)  ( 122 )
95 ACTIVI TY PATTERNS OF SABLES (MARTES ZIBELL INA) IN DAXINGANL INGMOUNTAINS , CHINA
MA Jianzhang  XU Li  ZHANG Honghai  BAO Xinkang
The activity patterns of 4 sables (1 Female, 3 Males) with radio collars were researched in Daxinganling Mountains, Northeast China from 1991 to 1996. There sults showed that sables were nocturnal in spring and winter, diurnal in summer and autumn. There were differences for activity patterns of sables between spring and summer (F = 4.499; df = 1, 22,23; P = 0.045), between spring and autumn (F =7.039; df = 1, 22, 23 ; P =0.015). Percentage of activity of sables was different in different seasons: 38.29 % in summer; 36.61% in autumn; 27.94 % in winter and 17.53% in spring. There was not obvious relationship between activity pattern and temperature change in spring and winter (P>0.05), but there was a clearrelationship in summer and autumn (P< 0.05). There were some differencesfor activity patterns of individuals among different seasons. Differences existed for activity patterns of F1 between spring and summer (t =2.2550; df =22; P = 0.0175), and between spring and autumn (t = 2.9290; df =22; P = 3.884 E–03). Between spring and summer, there was difference for activity patterns of M1 (t = –2.0121; df = 22; P = 0.0283).
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 95-100 [Abstract] ( 616 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (147 KB)  ( 158 )
101 AN ANALYSIS ON THE SPACING PATTERN AND HABITAT SELECTION OF WOLF DENS IN THE EASTERN REGION OF INNER MONGOLIA
ZHANG Honghai,LI Feng,GAO Zhongxin
Cluster analysis on the spacing pattern and habitat selectionof wolf dens in the prairie of eastern Inner Mongolia is reported. The results are as follows: the main factors affecting the dens distribution are human disturbance and the source of water, others are hiding conditions, slope location, slope degree. The optimal habitats of wolves dens selected on the steep slope (>25°) with hiding conditions over 30%, entrance facing north, human disturbance more than 1 km and source of water less than 1 km.
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 101-117 [Abstract] ( 675 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (142 KB)  ( 153 )
107 DYNAMICS OF THE RODENT COMMUNITY IN THE CHIHUAHUAN DESERT OF NORTH AMERICA Ⅳ.SIMULATION OF COMMUNITYV VARIABLES
ZENG Zongyong
By Monte Carlo method computer simulation is conducted to delineate the overall, annual and monthly fluctuations, and the statistical characteristics of 4 variables of the rodent community in the Chihuahuan Desert of NorthAmerica, including the number of species, biomass, species diversity and evenness. The results show that the means of 4 simulated community variables are 8.91, 1.544 kg/ ha, 1.58 and 0.73. All of the values of the real community variables are between the 95% confidence intervals of 4 simulated community variables. The number of species and biomass of the simulated community show the similar seasonal fluctuation patterns. The number of species, biomass and diversity of the simulated community show the similar interannual fluctuation patterns. When the null hypothesis is tenable: a variable has a normal distribution, X2 values show that the number of species in 962 samples, biomass in 109 samples, species diversityin 5529 samples, species evenness in 6654 samples are following the normal distribution, i.e. no one of 4 variables is normally distributed while the confidence level is 95%. The results suggest that when sample size is small, we cannot estimate the confidence intervals of these variables by mean ±1.96 s ( s is the standard deviation of a variable ). 
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 107-118 [Abstract] ( 579 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (210 KB)  ( 115 )
119 THE CHANGE OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR AND HORMONE CHANGE OF PLATEAU PIKA AFTER CONTRACEPTION CONTROL
WEI Wanhong,FAN Naichang,ZHOU Wenyang,YANG Shengmei,JING Zengchun,CAO Yifan
Forty individuals (male for 20 and female for 20) were selected to study in reproductive period of plateau pika. Ten males and ten females were treated with male sterilant and female sterilant, respectively. Through comparison between female-female, female-male and male-male within treatment group and within control group, the aggressive behaviour was studied and hormonal level was determined. The results showed that : 1) After treatment with sterilants, both male and female increased their rest time and decreased their active time, their amicable time increased and aggressive and defensive time decreased, this increased tolerance each other compared with individuals of control group; 2) Within treatment group and with control group, females and males had same aggressive intensity. Intersexual aggression was significantly lower than intrasexual ; 3) When firstly meeting, every individual displayed high aggression and defense when knowing each other, individual within treatment group again increased aggression and defense, but individual with control group displayed high amicable behaviour; 4) Among aggressive behaviour, individual within control group had high attack component, firstly used the attack and chase when met each other, then changed for offensive position, and individual with treatment group had high attack or offensive position, firstly used attack, chase and offensive position when met each other, then significantly decreased these three aggressive components; 5) After treatment with sterilants, the weight of individuals decreased, but the weights of ovary and testicle had no difference compared with individuals of control group. Within treatment group, the testosterone of testicle tissue for male significantly decreased, but the testosterone, estradiol and progesterone of blood were same as male within control group; all of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone of blood for female were lower than that of female within control group, meanwhile the progesterone of ovary tissue was significantly lower than that female within control group. These indicated that the hormone change of plateau pika after treatment with sterilants could result in the change of aggressive behaviour, then made its dominant system and social structure change, this could affect pika’s reproductive status and fitness. Meanwhile the change of hormone could block reproductive process, this also affect pika’s reproduction.
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 119-131 [Abstract] ( 850 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (173 KB)  ( 106 )
132 BEHAVIORAL INTERACTIONS AND MATING BEHAVIOR OF RATLIKE HAMSTERS (CRICETULUS TRITON) DURING THE BREEDING SEASON
ZHANG Jianxu,ZHANG Zhibin,WANG Zuwang
In a Y-maze, the focal female ratlike hamsters (Cricetuus triton) preferred body odor of males to females' or control (P<0.05) ; themale did not show a sexual preference for body odor (P> 0.05), while preferred body odor of conspecific to control, these results indicated that body odor are attractive to the hamster, and the hamster’s response to the odor had sexual difference. The focal hamster spent more time in one of arms of Y-maze with hamster demonstrator than another control arm (P< 0.05 or P < 0.01) ; males spent more time in one of arms with same-sex hamster demonstrator than another with the opposite-sex individual conspecific ( P< 0.01), and females did not spend different time (P > 0.05). The results were mediatedby combination of agonistic behavior and mating patterns. The staged dyadic encounters were conducted in a neutral arena.Paired encounters between both same sexes contained frequent agonistic acts and few amiable acts, and the victors had more attack and flank gland marking (P < 0.05 o r P < 0.01); although both male sand females exhibited less aggression when paired with opposite-sex conspecific, amiable acts were also fewer, and females received males' mounting only on the estrous day of estrous cycle and attacked males on other days of. The above results implied that the hamster was solitary and that f lank gland marking was positively related to agonistic behavior and dominant status. Ratlike hamsters had a typical mating behavior and exhibit multiple intromission followed by multiple ejaculations. Both males' Coolidge effectand females' multiple matings indicated that the hamster was polygynousor promiscuous mating.
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 132-142 [Abstract] ( 1054 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (161 KB)  ( 174 )
143 STUDY ON THE BREEDING AND INBREEDING AVOIDANCE IN MANDARIN VOLE(MICROTUS MANDARINUS
Tai Fadao,Wang Tingzheng,Zhao Yajun
According to the study on the reproduction of mandarin voles aised in laboratory, the results showed that: through observing vagina smear and appearance of vagina, it is found that the adult female induced by male had obvious estrous cycle. The mean gestational period of female vole is about 21.11±0.11 days and mean litter size is 3.43 ±0.18. If several litters were continiously reproduced by adult female, mean interval between the second and first litter was longer. If the pairs that the female and male were captured in same hole were compared with pairs that the female and male were unfamiliar, we could find that the mean interval between reproductions of the former was longer than the later and the mean survival offsprings and percent of pairs producing litters were less than the later. Thus,familiarity, kin recognition and inbreedingavoidance may play important roles in vole population breeding.
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 143-149 [Abstract] ( 658 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (145 KB)  ( 138 )
150 STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF SEX CHROMOSOMES PAIRING OF THE SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEXES IN MANDARIN VOLE (MICROTUS MANDARINUS)
GU Wei  WANG Tingzheng  ZHU Bicai
Synaptonemal complexes (SC) of mandarin vole ( Microtus mandarinus ) have been analyzed by electron microscopy with surface-spread and silver-stained preparation. Sex chromosome axes are deep dyed andsynapsis in early pachtene. In middle pachtene the almost whole Y is fully paired with about three-eighth the X and X axis forms a hairpin-likefold. The disappearance of sex chromosome is forestalled as compared with autosomal SC. Mechanism of homologous and nonhomologous pairing ofsex chromosome has been discussed.
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 150-154 [Abstract] ( 842 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3195 KB)  ( 31 )
155 DISTRIBUTION OF TAKIN IN TAIBAI MOUNTAIN NATURE RESERVE
MA Yisheng
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 155-157 [Abstract] ( 397 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (140 KB)  ( 112 )
158 PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS ON POPULATION DYNAMICS AND EFFECT FACTORS OF GANSU ZOKOR (MYOSPALAX CANSUS)
LIJingang,WANG Tingzheng,LI Jinming,ZHAO Yajun
1999 Vol. 19 (2): 158-160 [Abstract] ( 601 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (125 KB)  ( 123 )
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