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1995 Vol. 15, No. 4
Published: 2008-07-07

 
241 HISTORICAL AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS 0F PRZEW ALSKI'S GAZELES
JIANG Zhigang,FENG Zuojlan,WANG Zuwang,CHEN Liwei
Przewalski 's Gazelle, Procapra przexoalskii (Buchner),is a species only found in
central China,In 1875,Przewalski first collected the first specimen of the gazelle in southern Ordos. Inner Mongolia.Historical distribution of the species covered Inner Mongolia,Gangsu and eastern Qinghai.After 120 years,distribution of the species shrunk to Qinghai Lake(36°32′-37°15′ N,99°36′-100°47′ E) area.The gazelles are now isolated in three populations which live on the east,northwest shores of the lake,there is no chance of gene exchange between the east and northwest populations.In 1986,there were about 350 Przewalski's gazelles in the Qinghai Lake area.Daily census in 1992 counted 37 gazelles inside the Bird Island Protected Zone on the west shore,but the number down to 19 during our last survey at the end of 1994.However,also in the Buha River delta,we counted 79 Przewalski's gazella in 3 groups in the spring of 1995.On the east shore,there used to be about 100 Przewalski 's gazelles in late 1980's,where they lived on the margins of rangelands.However,the pastures have been fragmented by game fences and the wild herbivores have been fenced out since October,1994.At the same time,the third population of about 70— 8O survivors in the Chalatan area is run after by poacbers.All to gether the total number of Przewalski 's gazelles still live at the three sites may be fewer than 200.they may be the only survivors of the species in the world.We do not know how long the species will survive.It may extinct before we can understand its evolutionary and genetic backgrounds:However,we are seeking all possible means to save the species,including in situ captive breeding and exsitu conservation.Judging by its habitat and numbers,the Przewalski's Gazelle is the most critical endangered ungulate species in China ,probably in the world.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 241-245 [Abstract] ( 719 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (156 KB)  ( 166 )
246 GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATIONS OF POSTCRANIAL SKELETON AMONG THE POPULATIONS OF NEOPHOCAENA IN CHINESE WATERS
GAO Anli,ZHOU Kaiya
Geographical variations of postcranial skeleton among the Yangtze,Yellow Sea and South China Sea populations of the finless porpoise,Neophocaena phocaenoides,in Chinese waters were studied with t-test,covariance analysis (Table 2)and stepwise discriminant analysis(Table 3,Fig.2)using 42 measurements based on 142 specimens of all ages (38 from the Yangtze population,59 from the Yellow Sea population and 45 from the South China Sea population)collected in 1974 to 1991 by the Cetacean Research Laboratory,Nanjing Normal University.The results showed that:(1)Geographical variations in the postcranial skeleton among the three Chinese populations were demonstrated in all the ages even for the neonates(Table 2,Fig.2).But the differences were interpreted by a group of variances.No single difference could be used as diagnostic character for subspecies identification.(2) Summary of the results of the comparison among the populations(Table 2 and 4)demonstrated that,the postcranial skeleton in the South China Se a population was the most developed,that of the Yangtze population was the next,and that of the Yellow Sea population was the lowest.(3)Differences between the South China Sea and Yangtze populations were larger than that between the South China Sea and Yellow Sea populations,and therefore were the largest(Table 2,Fig.2).This is in agree with the result determined by external and skull measurements.(4)The degree of the difference and overlap in the measurements among different geographical populations implies that the adaptationary changes of the skull took place slower than those of the external morphology during the evolution of the finless porpoise populations,and those of the postcranlal skeleton,in turn,slower than those of the skull.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 246-253 [Abstract] ( 660 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (187 KB)  ( 149 )
254 THE PRELIMINARY OBSERVATION ON LIVING HABITS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL REARING FINLESS P0RP0ISE IN SWAN OXBOW ,HUBEI PROVINCE
YANG Jian,ZHANG Xianfeng,WEI Zhuo,WANG Xiaoqiang,CHEN Peixun
In order to save the endangered aquatic mammal Baiji(Lipotes vexillifer),it is no
doubt that establishment of nature reserves is a effective way.Since a high attention to the animal is paid of worldwide,any unfavourable influence is considered to be remarkable.For this reason,from March 1990 to 0ctober 1993,we made a detailed study on the living condition and the suitability to the habitat of 11 finless porpoise(Neophocaena phocaenoides),similar to the habits of Baiji in Yangtze river,which are experimental rearing in the Swan Oxbow,Hubei province,before introducing Baiji for a further ecological assessment on establishment of nature reserve.
Results show that the finless porpoises adapt to the environment of the Oxbow very well.In it,they could be living normally,finishing pregnancy,parturition and fostering their calves.The calves would also live and grew up normally,more over there are suitable environmental conditions which the porpoises prefer and escaping defences for dolphin in the Oxbow.All these further confirm the reasonableness of establishhing a Baiji nature reserve in the 0xbow.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 254-258 [Abstract] ( 1000 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (133 KB)  ( 114 )
259 PRELIM INARY STUDY ON FOOD SELECTION AND FEEDING STRATEGY OF RED PANDAS
WEI Fuwen, WANG Wei, ZHOU Ang, HU Jinchu, WEI Yi
Red panda's feeding strategy and bamboo biomass were studied in the Mabian Dafengding Natural Reserve in order to understand better how this herbivorous carnivore to adapt the special food—bamboo leaves.Among the three bamboo species.red panda prefers leaves and shoots of Qiongzhuea macrophylla to those of Bashania glauca,because the nutritive quality of the former is better than that of the latter.Pandas never feed on Chimonobambusa pachstachys due to the worst nutritive quality among the three bamboo species.Besides,the red panda also likes to select new leaves on the one or two years old stems.Daily energy requirement of a red panda is estimated 3 626.443 7 kJ, annual requirement 1.323 7×10 6kJ.Leaves of Qiongzhuea macrophylla per square meter can supply 2 850.09 kJ digestible energy.If a red panda only uses 1% of the total energy supplied by leaves per square meter,only 0.046 5 km2 bamboo leaves can meet the annual energy requirement of a red panda.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 259-266 [Abstract] ( 547 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (213 KB)  ( 167 )
267 ACTIVITY RHYTHMS AND DISTRIBUTION OF NATAL DENS FOR RED FOXES
ZHOU Wenyang , WEI Wanhong
The red fox,Vulpes vulpes,was investigated with snow tracking,radiotracking and directive observation at the Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem ,Academia Sinica.from March to September 1994.The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and use of natal dens,activity rhythms,and home range sizes for the foxes.
1. The fox did not dig the dens by itself, all natal dens were using the tunnel systems of the Himalayan Marmots.At the early period of breeding season.it searched and selected the dens with the multi—entrance(average 4.8 entrances/den),the distribution in the alpine shrub (71 %),the distance far away from disturbance factors (average more than 1.5 km.)and the middle part of slope(71% );its reason was safety.The average utilized period of dens was 3.3 year.
2.The activity peak of the fox was at night mainly for foraging food and diurnal activity was that of adult playing with the youngs near the dens,its peak was 1800一0800hr.
3.During the breeding season,both of adult male and female took care of the
youngs and had the same activity area. The average home range size of adult fox was 7.9 Km2 and of the young was 2.29 km2 .The home range between adjacent individuals was overlapping.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 267-272 [Abstract] ( 734 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (181 KB)  ( 143 )
273 STUDIES ON THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THEF0LLICLE CELLS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OOCYTES OF MINK
LIU Yutang, QIN Pengchun
In this paper,formation of cumulus oophorus in mink(Mustela vison)were studied by light,electron microscope and histochemical techniques.Result showed that,during development of follicle cells,some round m itochondria with few cristae,numerous single rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and abundant free ribosomes present in the cytoplasm .few Golgi complex were seen.Stacks of microfilaments and som e vesicles(1-2um in diameter) that have a thin coat within it’s membrane occur as the follicle cell are unilaminar columnar.Exocytosis could be observed on the plasma membrane of follicle cells,and sometimes zona pellucida material is sandwiched in between these cells adjacent to the oocyte.It indicated that follicle cell might participate in formation of zona pellucida also.As the formation of the autrum ,the granules that contain phospholipids and neutral fat start to occur within follicle cells.During whole development,the follicle cell processes extend through the zona pellucida to anchor on the plasm membrane of the oocyte by means of intercellular attachments.In the later phase of the large antrum follicles,the corona radiate cells extend and make a obvious radial shape,opposing against the outer aspect of the zona pelucida.The extension appear in other cumulus cell in varying degrees too.Sheaves of microfilaments alternate with rough endoplasmic reticulum cistenae,and they run parallel to major axis within the extended cytoplasm of the corona radiate cells.It indicated that microfilaments play a great role in the extention of follicle cells.The extention of cumulus cells make whole cumulus oophorus turn into porous and filled with hyaluronic acid.It would be advantageous to sperm’s penetration and getting into oocyte afterwards.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 273-278 [Abstract] ( 936 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (179 KB)  ( 123 )
279 STUDIES ON THE AGE DETERMINATION INDICES OF YARKAND HARE(LEPUS YARKANDENSIS)
CHEN Yongguo, ZHOU Yongheng, NIE Wenkui
In order to determine the ages of Yarkand Hare(Lepus yarkandensis),seveen growth indices of the specimens were studied by using prineipal component analysis,They were body weight,head and body lengths,full skull length,zygomatic width,the length of incisive foramen,mandibular length and the dry weight of eye lenses.On the first principal component axis (Z1), the contribution rate of the male correlation matrix was 79.36 %while the female one was 88.97%. The analyzed indices arranged in order of factor load Oil the first principal component axis, showed the following findings:
1.On the axis of Z1 male and female full skull lengths had the greatest factor
Loads.So,full skull length could reflect the growth best.
2.The factor loads of the length of incisive foramen and mandibular length on Z1
were above 0.93. So both the lengths could be used as age indices.
3.Although body weight and head and body lengths were convenient age indices,it was not easy to measure the head and body lengths accurately and the exact body weight would be affected when female hare were pregnant.
4.Dry weight of eye lenses was not a suitable age index for Yarkand Hare because of their small factor loads on Z1.
To sum up,the full skull length would be used as the age indicator for Yarkand
Hare. Through further analysis, the population of Yarkand Hare could be divided into three age groups:juvenile (full skull length was less than 69.00 mm ), subaduh(69.OO一75.5O mm) and adult groups (over 75.50 mm)
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 279-283 [Abstract] ( 516 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (111 KB)  ( 155 )
284 ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION AND LDH ISOENZYMES RESEARCH OF THE LIVER CELL IN NYCTALUS VELUTINUS
ZHANG Weidao, JIN Chengliu, ZHAO Ru, WANG Moqing
Using light and electron microscopy techniques and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,we have studied the 1iver cells ultrastructure and its LDH isoenzyme in the Nyctalus velutinus.The results indicated that the abundant Mitochondria,rough endoplasmic reticulum,glycogen granules,ribosomes,lipid droplete,lysosomes and developed Golgi complex were present in the cytoplasm portions of the liver cells.There are a layer of rough endoplasmic reticulum to surround the mitochondria.This close relationship between the mitochondria and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)were not observed in the other tissue ce1l of N.velutinus and a majority of mammals cells.LDH isoenzymes of the liver cell is essentially LDH-M ,that principally catalyze pyruvate to reduce into lactate.This indicates that energy production of mitochondria in the liver cell apparently not passed the path way of glycolysis→pyruvate→the oxidative phosphorylation of acetyl coenzyme A .but through degradation of fatty acid to offer the oxidative phosphorylation for acetyl coenzyme A.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 284-288 [Abstract] ( 527 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (150 KB)  ( 136 )
289 DYNAMICS 0F THE RODENT COMMUNITY IN THE CHIHUAHUAN DESERT 0F N0RTH AMERICA
ZENG Zongyong, YANG Yuemin, SONG Zhiming, LUo Mingshu
The frequency distributions of the 6 ecological variables of the rodent community in the Chihuahuan Desert of southwestern North America were verified using the chi-square test and Kormorgorov test.And moving averages and exponential smoothing methods were employed to predict dynamics of the 6 community variables.The results reveal that: 1)joint population density,biomass.species evenness and biomassevenness had a normal distribution;2) frequency distribution of number and diversity of species was skewed to the right(skewness<0),no common theoretical probability distribution could describe these two variables;3)single moving averages was a better model for predicting fluctuations of species diversity and double moving averages for that of species evenness;4)Single exponential smoothing fitted dynamics of the other variables wel1.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 289-297 [Abstract] ( 701 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (201 KB)  ( 260 )
298 ERYTHRCYTIC IMMUNE FUNCTION OF PLATEAU PIKA
YE Runrong, CAO Yifan
The erythrocytic immune function of plateau pika(chotona curzoniae)was measuredand analyzed by the immune rosette assay of erythroeytic complement 3b(RBC—IC) receptors and immunocomplexes(RBC—IC)in this paper,The tested animals (26 young individuals,24 adults,and 14 old ones)are from the closedpopuiation domesticated in Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology,Academia Sinica,Xining,Qinghai.The resultsindicate that:(1)There are Cab receptors on red blood membrane in every age group ofthe pika,and all these receptors are able to adhere immune complex.(2)The erythrocyte(mean 8.5× 10)per individua1)is 2 125 times as more as the Ieucocyte (mean 4.0× 10) er individual)of the adult pika,so there are much more possible chance for the erythrocyte to adhere immunocomplexes.These facts obviously suggest that the crythroytcs play an important role in theimmunologleal system of the pika. There is no statisticaI difference between male and femaleindividuals in the same
age group of the pika.The difference ofred blood cell immune/unction also was eompared between differentage roups of the pika.The immune function of the pika gradually decrease with the increase of age.The erythrocytie immune adherence activities (RIrosette ratio)of different age roupsare respectively 43.35±9.11(the young),34.71±8.18(the adult)and 28.25±7.06(the old).
By comparing,red blood cell immune adherence activity of the pika is higher thanthose of human. hare and race.So Plateau pika woutd be an available species of laboratorialanimal for researchon red blood cell immunology.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 298-301 [Abstract] ( 537 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (111 KB)  ( 130 )
302 THE P0PULAT10N AGE 0F MANDARIN V0LE(MICROTUS MANDARINUS)
WANG Tingzheng, ZHANG Yue
1116 mandarin voles (515 male,601 female),were trapped in the farmland and orchardsof Lingbao and Lushi in the western Henarr province,from Feb. 1991 to Apr.1992.
Based on the values of the body weights excluding viscera,reproductive conditions and the color of the fur,we divided the voles into five age groups with the frequency distribution of total body weights excluding viscera(TBWEV): I.Juvenile,in an immature stage and TBWEV≤11.5 g I I.Subaduh,alittle part of this group are in a mature stageand TBWEV > 11.5 g and≤ 20.5 g}II. Adult I,all the voles are in a maturestage and TBWEV~ 20.5 g and≤ 26.0 g;N.Adult I,in a mature stage and TBWEV>2 6.0g and≤30-5 g}V.Old,TBWEV >30.5 g.
T- test on the age groups divided by the body weight,the body length,the greatestlengthof skull and Zygomatic width wele not all more significant.It showed the trustworthiness of TBW EV.There was seasonal fluctuation in the population age composition,based upon the reproductive peaks throughout the year.
1995 Vol. 15 (4): 302-308 [Abstract] ( 657 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (169 KB)  ( 129 )
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