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1989 Vol. 9, No. 2
Published: 1989-05-20

 
81 A STUDY 0N THE LIFE TABLE 0F WILD GIANT PANDAS
WET Fuwen,HU Jinchu, XU Guangzan,JIANG Mingdao,DENG Qitao,ZHONG Zhaomin
During1984-1986,we have got 69 specimens died in the field and determined the age of each specimen by cementum layers of incisors. According to the specimens we have studied the life table.The results are as follows:
Through the x2 -testthe sex ratio of pandas is 1:1.After calculating forth-back,left-right wldth and height of tha upper and lower canine and through vatianne analysis we find the male panda's canines are much bigger than those of the female pandas.We can judge the sex by the canines.
The youngest reproductive age of male panda is 7.5- 8.5-year-old and the female panda's 6.5—7.5.The oldest reproductive age of the male perhaps is 21 and the female can not be exactly known.But at 1east a 13-year-old female can breed.
According to the 61 specimens and observed directly the cubs,death rate we have made the life table,surviva1 curve death carve and death rate curve.The survival curve is like the letter"L" which indicates the high death rate of cubs.The death curve shows two death peaks:cubs and 12-14 year-old.
The net reproductive rate R0 =1.0672,the intrinsic rate of natural increase r=0.0056 the mean time per generation T =11.6790.
The 6-8 year-old pandas have the greatest reproductive value.As the age increases the reproductive value increases before 6-8 and decreases after 6-8.
As the bamboo has died of blooming in large area in recent decade and the food shortages during the past,the population are constantly declining.According to R。> 1 we know that the population may slowly increase as long as we protect the habits and renew the food bases.The herd of WUY1PENG "has verified this point.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 81-86 [Abstract] ( 587 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (156 KB)  ( 166 )
87 ON THE TREND OF POPULATION DYNAMICS IN GIANT PANDA BASED ON AGE STRUCTURE
XIA Wuping,HU Jinchu
The Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)is a precious endangered animal wellknown in the world.Great attention has been paid to its studies.The population dynamics is concerned widely, but it is difficult to study.However, Hu (1987)has reported recently an age structure of the Giant panda's living population at Wu-yi-peng.Wolong Nature Reserve which makes us possible to study the trend of the development of this population
Hu's original data were adjusted to age classes of3 years (tab.2). The average numbers of cubs given by one Giant panda in each age class were estimated. and the survival rates from each age class to the next one were calculated (tab.3).By "leslie matrix"(tab. 4), the age structures and the population numhers were predicted to the year of 2011 (tab.5,fig.1),and the conclusions approached are as follows:
(1) The Giant panda's population at Wu-yi-peng.Wolong Nature Rcserve is considerably stable,its development is rather slow .Up to 2011,or 33 years later,there will be only 42.6l individuals,increasing by 13.6l pandas or 46.93% or compared with the number of 1978,that means toincrease by O.977% yearly.
Observing the data in detail,a population decrease in the early period from 1981-1990 has been seen. The cause we ascertained is the unreasonable age structure of 1978,the figure of 3-5 year group was too low,less than that of the succeeding groups .It is possible that in the year about 1975, some accidents might happen such as indiscriminate hunting or capturing alive for the zoos,etc. From the predicted age structure by Leslie Matrix, it will be normal only up to 1996,that is the structure,being in the form of a pyramid.The population will increase a little faster during the 12 years 1999- 2011.The individuals increase by 7.65,or 21.86% of the 1999's population,yearly increasing rate is 1.66%.
(2) According to the nature of Leslie Matrix.the population num- ber should increase geometrically or in multiple which is a constant, it is true in the data after1999,the multiplication number is about 1.05.The yearly increasing rate will be1.64% which is the same basically as compared with the above datum 1.88% .Anyway,the population is increasing at an exceedingly low speed, but it is luck enough so long as it is increasing. It is a consolation to the people bein g concerned about this endangered anima1.
(3) Mr.Wei worked Out that the innate increasing capacity of the Giant panda's population r=0.0055688,if calculated by the folmula N =Noert ,the number form 1999 to 2011 shou1d be increaing to 34.85 individua1s,lower than out above figure.
(4)Wu-yi-peng isone of the best ecological environments for Giant panda,and the protective measures are the most effective.the Giant panda's population there,is sofeeble that any slight destruction wiI1 cause it a difficult development for ten
years.In other places where the habitats ale notso agreeable as Wu-yi-peng,or the protective measures are not so effective.any slightest catching will make the populatlon difficult to recover. Therefore,the service of Giant panda's protection must be strengthen and and the protective measures must be set elaborately as wel1.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 87-93 [Abstract] ( 852 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (178 KB)  ( 117 )
94 USE OF RABBIT ANTISERA TO IgG OF GIANT PANDA IN DEFINING TAXONOMIC POSITION OF GIANT PANDA
WANG Xicheng,HEN Xianckuan,JIANG Wuling ,HENG Changxue,ZHENG Jinzhang YE Juqun
purification of IgG from serum of giant panda was carried out and rabbit antisera to the IgG was prepared.The reactions between the antisera and sera from black bear(Salenarctes thibetanus),lesser panda(Ailurus fulgens) dog,cat,sheep,guinea pig,rabbit and human were detected by immunodiffusion and micloim -munoelectrophoresis.The results showed that the sera from carnivoie including black bear,lesser
panda,dog,cat,produced definitely precipitation line with the antisera, but those of sheep,guinea pig,rabbit and human did not react with the antisera at al1.The precipita
tion line of black bear sera with the antisera was fused with those of giant pandaIgG or seta. It showed that taxonomic position of giant panda is closer to that of black bear.We think that giant panda might be close to black bear,but not to lesser panda.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 94-97 [Abstract] ( 437 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (123 KB)  ( 78 )
98 HETEROGENEITY OF SECRETORY GRANULES WITHIN TRACHEAL MUCOUS GOBLET CELLS OF RHESUS MONKEY REVEA LED BY IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL METH0D
WANG Shiping, Judith A ST., George Charles G
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 98-102 [Abstract] ( 533 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (161 KB)  ( 107 )
103 STUDY ON HOME RANGE OF STRIPED HAMSTER
DONG Weihui,HOU Xixian, YANG Yuping
From June to Spetember 1987 home range of striped hamster were estimated by
mark and release trapping in Huhehaote district,Nei Mongo1.The trapping grid covred anareaof 4 ha,and consist of 400 points,10cm apart,with 1 trap at each point·This field work was done from lth to 1oth every month.The material consisting of a total of 627 captures for 106 individuals was collected.
The study showed using inclusive boundary strip method the areas of home range were calculated,5 trapping times Were reasonable.The areas of home range and movement distance of Striped hamster were shown in table 1.
Home range of male adults are larger than those of femalesfrom June to September .Theareas of male adults increasing (Tab.3) in that time andwas the largest in september due to reproductive activites.On the other hand, that of female were decreased and it was the smallest in September.
Home ranges of individuals are often overlapped each other in different sexes and ages in July and August,but did not in female adults in September.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 103-109 [Abstract] ( 509 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (188 KB)  ( 129 )
110 STUDY 0N THE GR0WTH AND DEVEL0PMENT 0F PLATEAU PIKA UNDER THE C0NDITION 0F ARTIFICIAL FEEDING
YE Runrong, LIANG Junxun
In this paper, the growth and development of plateau pika (Ochotcna curzoztioe)from laboratory colonies were reported and compared with that in the field and other species of pikas (0.rufescens rufescens,0,princeps) from labolatory colonies. The growthscan be divided into two:the rapid-growth Period (at 0— 3O days of age) and the slow growth period (aftet 30 days).During 0- 5 days,the growth rate is higher in this period than in othet ones, but the highest growth rate of ear length occurs at 5- 10 days of age. Length of ear and hind foot reaches the maximum values at 40-50 and 55— 65 days of age respectively. After 80 days, the growth of body length showsvery slowly and tends to stop growing. According to the analysis and calculation, the regressive equations of growth of the pikas body weight in different ages
are:
W =A +Bt= l0.7+2.6t (0≤t≤10 days of age)
W =A +Bt=1.8+3.6t (10≤ t≤30 days of age)
W =A +B1nt= -18.274+37.5751nt (30≤t≤ 65 days of age)
W =A —Ce-Bt =220-95.97e-0.002424t (65≤t≤ 105 days of age)
Based on the study of the growth and development of plateau pika,we divided the process of its growth and development into 4 different stages.
According to the comparison,the growth speed is faster in the laboratory than in the field.The glowth period of plateau pika is shorter than that of Afghan pika(Ochotona rufescens rufescens)and North American pika (O.princeps).
These results suggetsed that the characteristics of growth and development of plateau pika is profitable for taming and being utilized as a new laboratory anima1.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 110-118 [Abstract] ( 281 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (250 KB)  ( 113 )
119 STUDY ON LDH ISOENZYMES OF THE HIMALAYAN MARM0T DURJNG HlBERNATl0N AND N0N—HlBERNATl0N
WEN Deqi, LIU Guofu , HUANG Xiaolong
The distribution of the lactate dehydrogynase(LDH )isoenzyme bands in four tissues of the hibernation and non-hibernation himalayan marmor (Marmota himalayana)were analysed by means of the polyaczylamide ge1 disc electrophoresis and the oral LDH activity was determined. The results obtained are as follows:
1.Five bands were found in kidney and skeletal muscle,from anode to cathode in turn were LDH-1.LDH-2,LDH-3,LDH-4and LDH-5. Four bands were found in heart,andthe proper order were LDH -1,LDH-2,LDH-3 and LDH-4.Only 1iver tissues of hibernation differ from the ones of non-hibernation.two bands(LDH-4 and LDH -5)were discovered only in liver tissues of hihernation himalayan marmot.However,four bands,LDH-2,LDH-3,LDH-4 and LDH-5 Were found in liver of non-hibernation.Subbands appeared in the LDH isoenzymes of all other tissues except 1iver of hibernation himalayan marmot.
2. Tota1 enzyme activities of four tissues of hibernation ones were more or 1ess higher than the ones of non-hibernation.but there was no significant difference (P>0.05),Only in skeletal muscle there was significance(P< 0.05)in terms of statistics.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 119-122 [Abstract] ( 352 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (147 KB)  ( 115 )
123 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE FOOD HABITS AND REPRODUCTION OF THE WHITE LIPPED DEER
ZHENG Shengwu, WU Jayan , HAN Yiping
The white lipped deer (Cervus salbirostris) is a rare animalwith great economic value,and ecedemic in China. In order to protects, develop and utilize the resources,we study the food habits and reproduction of the white lipped deer.the research was
carried out in 1986 by the Sine-Japanese Team of United survey in Yushu,Goluo Provintures of Qinghai Province and Garze Prefecture of Sichuan Province.Of course the data collected before were used in this paper.
The white lipped deer is a plant eater. According to direct observation and the analysis of two rumina contents of the deer.the plants which the deer feeds belong to 62 among them 24species are most preferable (Table.2), grasses (Grarmneae) and sedges (Cyperraeeae) are the most important food of the deer. According to the observation, there was a close relationship between the grazing time and the biomaas of the plant communities used. The duration of grazing bouts among stags in daytime was shorter than that among does.More grazing time was spent in the morning,spent lesser at noon and much more time was lying down or ruminate itself, the next grazing peak was in the later afternoon. Tho bite rate of the deer was simi1ar in adult
stags and does (Tab.1).
In early Sept.mature stags left their usual!ivable range gradually,some of them moved directly to the rutting does and attempt to form their harems. During th rutting season,stages show excited,active and eat almost nothing.In order to monopolize the harems, there were intence competitions or fight ng between muture stags. At last,a haremholding stagwas produced. The others reverted to wander around the harem fat apart over 100m. Mating period lasted about ten days.the body weight and status of harem-holder show a rapid decline,especially in the latest period of rutting.So a new vigorous stag usualIy took it positition. 8 groups of the deers were observed (Tab.3).
Mating season of white lipped deer is different in dissimilar region,especially in different altitude (Tab.4).At this stage does also show their interest in the stags,lick and sometimes mount them.When the mating behavior is over,the conceiving does become staider.Gestation period is about 8 months (230-250 days).The mated does will birth give from the end of May to late June next year.The breed once yeas and the female onlygives birth to one young.After the birth of calves,the mother licks clean the body at once.After halfan hour of the birth,the caLf is usually able to stand. Through 2-3 days,doe commonly leads her calf move slow away the place of birth, reach to the dense shrub or higher grass.The mother grazes or rests within the sight about lOOm far from her calf. If disturbance happen, the calf quickly hides itself,and the mother commonly escapes toward to the opposite direction so as to leave the calf. She attempted to turn away the sight of the enemies.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 123-129 [Abstract] ( 446 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (218 KB)  ( 115 )
130 STUDIES ON UNGULATES COMMUNITY AT YANCHIWAN NATURE RESERVE
ZHENG Shengwu, YU Yuqun, HAN Yiping, WU Jiayan
The structure of ungulate communities were investigated at Yanchiwan of Subei County in 1987. Results are as follows:
1. The comparative complexity due to natural environment of this place causes species of ungulate to have compalatively numerous. A total of three families and seven species are found there. Among them ,five species belong to rare animals.
2. According to species composition and dominance of the ungulate and combining with ecological condition,they can be divided into four communities:
I. pseudois nayaur+ovis ammon+cervus albirostris community.
Ⅱ.cervus albirostris+ovis ammon+poephagus mutus community. Ⅲprocapra picticaudata +asinus kiang community. Ⅳasinus kiang+Gazella subgutturosa community.
3. The line transect sampling method was used,density of ungulate were calculated in four different ecological habitats (Table 1).
4. Among the four communities,the index of diversity on the community Ⅱ is higher (0.9179) and that of community Ⅲ is lower (O.38O0).The index of evenness on the community Ⅳ is higher (O.9887)and that of community Ⅲ is 1ower (0.3459)(Tab1e2,3).
5. Cervus a1birostrisI poephagus mutus and Asinus Kitang are the conserved species of the first category in China, the endangered species in the Red Data Book and CITES.Their numerical distributions were delineated in Fig.1.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 130-136 [Abstract] ( 472 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (229 KB)  ( 100 )
137 THE POPULATION DYNAMICS AND PREDICTION T0 NUMBERS 0F RATTUS RATTOIDES
HONG Chaoehang, YAN Gaolin, ZHENG Bendong
The population dynamic and prediction to population number of Rattus rattoides Hodgson,were studied hom Oct.1984 to oct.1985 in Gutian county. Fujian.The result wgs briefly summarized below.
1。Raftus rattoideswas a dominant species of feral rebents in Gutian county,average capture rate was 17.76% ,and being 75.35% of the whole feral rodents captured. The peak of the population density occurred in Nov.to Dec.
2 . There Were obvious relationships between the population characteristics and the density. The population characteristics varied with densities.A correlatoon matrix used for representin g the relationships among population characteristics was derived
. The result showed that female ratio of adults, adults sex ratio,pregnancy rate and average litter size are all important population characteristics.
3.Using regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis by IBM Pc/XT microcomputer, four new regression equations that could estimate the population density four or five months before were made. The density of Rattus rattiodes coulb be calculated by the following formulas
(1) Y =4.7774+0.2231x
W here Y represents the population density of Rattus rattoides (capture rate)five months 1ater,x represents the fema1e ratio of adults.
(2) Y =48.4995—0.5378x
W hale Y represents the rats population density of five months later, x represents the Sex ratio of adults.
3) Y=10.7266+0.2560x
Where Y Teplesents the rats population density of five months later, x represents the pregnancy rate.
(4) Y =8.8532+1.7122x
Where Y reprsents the rats population density of four months later,x tepresents the average litter size.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 137-145 [Abstract] ( 478 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (249 KB)  ( 119 )
146 STUDIES 0N S0ME B0DY C0MP0NENTS AND ENERGY VALUE 0F F0UR SPECIES 0F SMALL R0DENTS IN THE SILIN RIVER BASIN ,INNER—M0NG0LIA
CHEN Yanmei
Studies on body components and energy value of four species of small rodents Mouse-hares (Ochotona daurica), Striped hamster (Cricetulus barbensis). Maximowiczi's vole (Microtus maximowiczii) and Narrow-skulled vole (Microtus gregalis)were
carried out in Silin River Basin,Inner-Mongolia. Differences in different age groups and feeding habits or metabolic patterns in different species are stated in this paper. Along with the growth periods, increases of different body components are out of balance.It seems to be of some specific character. The growth indexes including physiological age index,caloric value in biomass,ratios between calcium and phosphorus and calcium and magnesium have their own variation ranges. Significant differences of body components have also been found between different sexes in the same species.
Food habit influence some indices of some components.Moreover,the two voles of the subfamily Microtinae have the similar value of many cornponents that shows the systematic significance.
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 146-153 [Abstract] ( 695 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (211 KB)  ( 117 )
155 SOM E DYNAMIC MATERIALS OF SEVERAL MAMMALS ON THE
NORTH SIDE OF KUNLUN IMOUNTAINS DURING THE PAST 30 YEARS
1989 Vol. 9 (2): 155-156 [Abstract] ( 216 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (63 KB)  ( 126 )
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