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1988 Vol. 8, No. 4
Published: 1988-11-20

 
241 STUDIES ON POPULATION DENSITIES, CONSERVATON AND EXPLOITATON OF FOREST MUSK DEER (MOSCHUS BEREZOVSKII) IN THE NORTHWEST OF THE SICHUAN BASIN
WANG Huizhi, SHENG Helin
The population densities of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) were studied in different habitat-types and altitude-ranges in natural reserve and non-reserve area in the Northwest of Sichuan Basin from October 1986 to May 1987.The following conclusions were obtained from analysis of the field censusing data. 1. In natural reserve, the population densities (M±S.E.) of forest musk deer in primeval forest, secondary arbor forest,secondary shrub forest and the optimum habitat were 3.94±1.57, 1.55±0.23, 0.61±0.22, and 9.88(ind/km2) respectively, and no forest musk deer was found in artificial forest. The population density of forest musk deer in secondary shrub forest is significantly lower than these in primeval forest and secondary arbor forest (P<0.05).2. According to the results of survey and local vegetation conditions, the estimative figures of the optimum density of forest musk deer in primeval forest, secondary arbor forest, secondary shrub forest, and the whole non-reserve area of North-West Sichuan Province, were 3.5-5.0,2.5-3.5,0.5-1.5,and 1.5-2.5 (ind/km2)respectively.3. In non-reserve area, the population density(M±S.E.) of forest musk deer in secondary arbor forest was 0.15±0.09 ind/km2. It is significantly lower than the one in seconeary arbor forest of natural reserve (P<0.005). It is too low to have the hunting value. In case of no hunting activities it will take 6-7 years to restore to 1.5-2.5 ind/km2. (the estimative figure of the increasing rate of forest musk deer is 49.8%), and then may be hunted. Numbers of hunted musk deer must not surpass 60% of ths total breeding numbers (or 20% of the numbers of the total population).4. The main factors which influence the horizontal distribution of forest musk deer are vegetation type, arbor and shrub density, and ground-hardness. The altitude-range of distribution of forest musk deer is limited by the vertical distribution of vegetation and the degree of human disturbance.
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 241-249 [Abstract] ( 203 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (823 KB)  ( 128 )
250 THE RECENT DISTRIBUTION, STATUS AND CONSERVATION OF PRIMATES IN CHINA
MA Shilai, WANG Yingxiang
This Paper reports the recent distribution, status and conservation of Chinese primates. In China, there are 20 species of primates, 2 species of slow loris (Nycticebus coucang and N. pygmaeus); 6 macaque species (Macaco mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. thibetana, M. arctoides, M. assamensis and M.cyclopis); 5 langur species (Presbytls entellus,p.pileatus,p.-phayrei,P.frarcoisi and Pygathrix nemaeus); 3 species of golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellanae,R.bieti and R.brelichi); and 4 gibbon species (Hylobates lar, H.leucogenys, H.concolor and H.hoolock), being all limited in southern and southeastern China (see Table 1 and Fig. 1 - 3). They are listed as the protected animals by Chinese government, of which presbytis pileatus and Nycticebus pygmaeus are protected by Yunnan provincial government, and Macaca mulatta, M. thibetana and M.arctoides are 2nd class protected animals of China, the rest species are all 1st class protected animals. Killimg or hunting are strictly forbidden.According to our survey since 1975 and the literature records, the recent natural distribution range and the numbers of Chinese primates are all narrowing and reducing although they are emphasized protected animals by Chinese government, however, the number of Sichuan golden monkey, Guizhou golden monkey, white-headed langur in Guangxi province and three subspecies of black gibbon in Yunnan are increasing slightly. The main reason of the narrowing in distribution and reducing in number is hunting and forest-destroying (Table 2). This situation cannot be completly changed in a short period.However, Chinese government has paid great attention to the conservation of the natural environment and to the rare wildlife. So far, there are more than 3 hundred Nature Reserves being established in China (total area of the Reserves is about 17,670, 000 hectare, reaching to 1.8% of Chinese territory), 20 of which belonging to the National Forestry and Wildlife Type Nature Reserves. The Reserves relating to the primates conservation are about 95 places (Table 3).It is reported (Zhang, 1986) that 4 hundred Reserves will be made in China before 1990. By then, the area of the Reserves of China will be about 2% of the territory. By 2000, Reserves may be developing into 500-600 places. Its total area will be reaching to 3% or 4% of the territory of China, which is close basically to the level of common countries in the world. Therefore, we believe that Chinese primates shall be well protected and developed in the near future.
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 250-260 [Abstract] ( 369 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1072 KB)  ( 410 )
261 STUDIES ON THE ANATOMY AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE NASAL TRACT MUSCLES OF THE FINLESS PORPOISE, NEOPHOCAENA PHOCAENOIDES
GAO Guofu, ZHOU Kaiya
The nasal muscles consists of five muscle layers: pars posteroexternus, pars anter- oexernus, pars posterointernus, pars anterointernus and pars protundus. Pars interme-dius is absent. The major and miner intrinsic muscles are very weak. No diagonal membrane muscles are found.Study on the architecture of the nasal tract muscles was made by three specimens. Physiological cross-sectional area, estimated maximum tetanic tension and ratio of wet weight to estimated maximum tetanic tension for each muscle were calculated by determining muscle weight,muscle fiber length,average sarcomere length and fiber angle of pinnation. Fiber lengths varied from 19.7 to 42.7mm. The muscle length and fiber length of deeper layers are shorter than those of superficial ones. All muscles have similar relative fiber length. The fiber angles of pinnation for all muscles are zero and this arrangement of fibers permit the maximum force potential during contraction. Velocity and displacement of anterior portion of nasal muscles are about 50% greater than those of posterior ones. This superiority is conspicuous for the anterior portion of pars anteroexternus, which control the vestibular sac. The posterior portion of nasal muscles has greater ability of force production. The rostral muscle inserting the melon has great potential in force production.
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 261-270 [Abstract] ( 177 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1476 KB)  ( 133 )
271 STUDIES ON LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME OF TISSUES FROM SOUTH CHINA HARE, LEPUS SINENSIS
ZHOU Yucan, JIANG Kesheng
This paper deals with the tissue specificity of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme in South China hare.Eleven tissue LDH isozymes have been analysed by means of poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. It has been found from results that there are five zones in tissues of muscle and liver;four zones(LDH-1,-2,-3 and -4)in the brain,lung,ovary and caecum;three in the stomach,kidney,eye and testis; and two(LDH-land LDH-2)in the heart. However, Certain general correlation have been noted, M subunits have the preponderance in tissues of muscle and lens while H subunits in tissues of heart, brain, lung,stomach, kidney, ovaey and caecum, and both M and H subunits, come close to equality in tissues of liver.The electrophoretic variants of LDH isozymes in tissues of South China hare are found.The sub-bands appeared within six LDH isozyme zones of three tissues(stomeah,kidney and ovary).
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 271-274 [Abstract] ( 223 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (999 KB)  ( 121 )
275 PHALLIC MORPHOLOGY OF 13 SPECIES OF THE FAMILY MURIDAE FROM CHINA, WITH COMMENTS ON ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
YANG Anfeng1, FANG Lixiang2
The value of the male phallus in the classification of rodents has been proved by Burt (1936), Hooper (1958), Lidicker (1968) and many others. In this report, 13 species belonging to four genera of the Family Muridae, and a total number of 53 penises were prepared and examined.1. On the basis of analysing our 53 penises, we found that all the lateral bacular processes of the Muridae have a common characteristic, i.e. they are all cartilaginous.2. The distinctive features of the penises of Rattus: (1) absence of dorsal papilla and lateral papillae; (2) both have completely essified distal bacula; (3) the proximal baculum is straight, not bowed dorsally; (4 ) lack of medial projection of the urethral lappets, in addition, urethral lappets are low, and most of them extend only half way to the height of distal bacular elements; (5) both of the outer craters have lateral grooves located midlaterally.3. The examination of the seven species of Rattus showed that the R.fulvescence, R. niviventer and R. andersoni have more common features, including: (1) all their distal bacula possess a bifid tip, while the other species do not; (2) all have small dentates on the rim of the outer crater, while the others possess lobulate papillae; (3) a high numerical value in robustness of the distal baculum.4. Characteristics features of the Apodemuss : (1) dorsal papilla and lateral papillae are present; (2) the distal baculum is cartilaginous; (3) the proximal baculum shaft is conspicuously bowed dorsally; (4 ) the distal baculum is drawn close to the two lateral bacular processes and seem to be arranged in a trilobed row; (5) all the urethral lappets possess medial projections; (6) lack of lateral grooves.5. The glans of Apodemus agrarius and A. chevricri are distinct from the other two species, A,draco and A. peninsulae by their slender dorsal papilla and by having two small medial projections of the urethral lappets instead of one. The penis of A. agrarius is distinct from the other species by its larger size of the baculum.6. The most conspicuous features of Mus are: (1) lack of dorsal papilla and lateral papillae; (2) a strongly bifid and hooked distal baculum that projects beyond the outer and inner crater; (3) a complete lack of dorsal, ventral and lateral grooves in the outer crater; (4 ) inner crater is taller than the outer crater; (5 ) lack of medial projections of the urethral lappets; (6) the proximal bacular shaft is bowdorsally.7. Micromys penis: (1) presence of dorsal papilla, but lack of lateral papillae; (2) the tip of the cartilaginous distal baculum projects conspicuously beyond the outer and inner crater; (3) there is no noticeable expansion in the base of the proximal baculum; (4 ) Micromys is like Mus in lacking the medial projection of the urethral lappets; (5) the most distinctive feature is its enormously elongated baculum; the index number of the baculum length is 10, that means the length of the baculum is one-tenth of the body length.Analysis of physical characteristics and various measurements revealed that there are many distinct intergeneric and interspecific differences. These results of the study has laid foundation for further studies to draw definite conclusion regarding the true affinities of the Chinese Muridae.
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 275-287 [Abstract] ( 406 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1010 KB)  ( 97 )
288 ON USING BACULUM TO DETERMINING THE AGE OF MALE NORWAY RAT
CHEN Ronghai, DONG Zhigang, YANG Chunwen
In this paper, the Norway rat (Rattus norvigicus caraco) was caken from Changchun, Jilin province, during Oct. to Nov. 1986. The baculum length was used as the age criterion to study 414 male rats and divided them into five groups.GroupⅠ . Juvenile: the baculum length was less than 13.0 mm.Group Ⅱ. Subadult: the length was 13.1—9.0 mm.Group Ⅲ. 1st stage of adult: the length was 19.1—5.0 mm.Group Ⅳ. 2nd stage of adult: the length was 25.1—1.0 mm.Group Ⅴ. OIder: the length was more than 31.1 mm. Variance analyses show that the average length of baculum in different age groups were different significantly(F = 720 FXX0.01,df = 412).Statistical analysis indicate that the 5 groups are different significantly in the measurements of testis (except groups Ⅳ and Ⅴ) and skull including the weight,length,and width of the testis and the skull measurements: greatest length, condylobasal length, zygomatic width, inter-orbital and diastema.The result has shown that using the baculum length to determine the age of male Norway rat is feasible and relatively accurate.
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 288-293 [Abstract] ( 244 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (496 KB)  ( 133 )
294 ACTIVITY HABITS OF RHESUS MONKEYS AT NANWAN PENINSULA OF HAINAN ISLAND
JIANG Haisheng, LIU Zhenhe, YUAN Xicai, WANG Hansheng
The activity habits of the rhesus monkey at Nanwan Peninsula of Hainan Island were observed from 1981 to 1985. The macaques spent most of their activities in daytime in feeding and moving which peaked from 7:00 a.m.to 10:00 a.m.and from 3:00 p.m.to 5:00 P.M.Foraging routes ranged from 1000 to 2300 M per day,but in rainy days foraging routes were shorter.Sometimes the group separated into two sub-groups to search for foods.Each group had some fixed roosting sites.The group might roost on the same site for one night or several nightes in succession.A group of the animal acted in various line up for preventing infringment of the same kind and menace of the natural enemy. After growing for five or six years, the group could be big enough to separate into two new groups.
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 294-298 [Abstract] ( 210 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1054 KB)  ( 159 )
299 A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON BRANDT'S VOLE DISTRIBUTION REGION IN CHINA AND ITS RELATION TO VEGETATION AND WATER-TEMPERATURE CONDITION
SHI Dazhao
Brandt's vole (Microtus brandti) distribution region in China and the relation between its distribution and vegetation, water-temperature condition are discussed in this paper. The results show that meadow vegetation restricts the vole spreading to east, and the main restriction factor of its spreading to west is water-temperature condition,
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 299-306 [Abstract] ( 166 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (625 KB)  ( 307 )
307 EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA ON THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF TYPE Ⅱ EPITHELIAL CELL AND PULMONARY SURFACTANT SYSTEM IN OCHOTONA CURZONIAE AND RATS
CHEN Qinming, YE Yucong
Effects of hypoxia on ultrastructure of type Ⅱ epithelial cell and pulmonary surfac-tant,system in Ochotona curzoniae, altitude-migrated rats (the fourth filial generation of Wistar rats from the lowland to Xining, then before the experiment migrated to 3300m), and altitude-brought Wistar rats (from the lowland brought to 3300m)have been carried out, and the lowland Wistar rats were as control group.The results showed the percentage of lung weight of O. curzoniae was not as heavy as in altitude-migrated rats (P>0.05) and altitude-brought rats (P<0.001), but similar to that of the lowland rats.Their lung tissus were observed with transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the microvilli of type Ⅱ epithelial cells decreased, mitochondria degenerated and swelled, the lamellar bodies evacuated and the synthesis markedly reduced in altitude- brought rats, while the ultrastructure of those cells of the lowland rats was normal. However, none of changes had been observed in these indexes mentioned above in native mammal pika(O. curzoniae) at the same experimental conditions. The ultrastructure of altitude-migrated rats varied between O.cur-zoniae and altitude-brought rats.
1988 Vol. 8 (4): 307-313 [Abstract] ( 206 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1436 KB)  ( 109 )
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