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1986 Vol. 6, No. 2
Published: 1986-05-20

 
81 ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN GIANT PANDA BY PIXE Ⅰ . TRACE ELEMENTS IN HAIR AND LIVER
WANG Nengming1, CHEN Suqing1, CHEN Jianxuan1, ZHANG Dazhong1, FENG Wenhe2
In this paper the authors analyse the trace elements in hair and liver of giant panda by PIXE and test the ratios of trace element contents in liver and hair to Zn separately. Trace elements in the foreleg hair and liver of epileptic and normal giant panda were measured by PIXE. Experimental results show that the K and Fe contents in the liver of diseased giant panda are very much higher than normal giant panda, but the Ca and Cu contents of the latter are significantly higher than the former. The K, Ca, Zn contents in the hair of diseased giant panda are very much higher than normal giant panda, whereas the Fe content of the latter is significantly higher than the former. However the Mn and Zn contents in the liver, the Mn and Cu contents in the hair of the diseased panda do not differ from the normal animal.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 81-87 [Abstract] ( 285 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2568 KB)  ( 65 )
88 ANAESTHETIC OF A CATCHED LIVE TIGER(PANTHERA TIGRIS ALTAICA)
1
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 88-88 [Abstract] ( 246 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1182 KB)  ( 130 )
89 THE DISTRIBUTION AND THE CHANGING TENDS OF BEAR RESOURCES IN HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE IN THE LAST TEN YEARS
MA Yiqing
The bears are large animals and have become a hunting target for a long time in Heilongjiang Province because of the value of their furs, fat, gallbladders, palms and meat. There are two species in this province, namely the black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus ussuricus) and the brown (Ursus arctos lasiotus), which are sympatrjcally distributed over the Lesser Xinganling Mountains and the mountainous area of east Heilongjiang. But along the Great Xinganling Mountains only are found the brown ones. In winter, especially after the fall of snow, these two species of bears are in a state of hibernation, either inside tree holes or in burrows. The hunters mainly hunt winter sleeping bears or capture the young ones in spring. Because of the over hunting and the destruction of their habitats, the quantity of bears are coming down with each passing year.This article analyses the distribution and the changing tends of bear resources in the recent years in Heilongjiang Province, according to the information about purchases of bear skin from 1971 to 1982. Figures show that in the last ten years, the quantity of bears are becoming less. We can see this clearly from the diagram of fig.2. From the map of bear distribution (fig.l), we can also see that the bears in Heilongjiang province are mainly distributed in the area of Lesser Xinganling Mountains and the Zhan-gguangcailing Mountains.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 89-92 [Abstract] ( 404 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2279 KB)  ( 75 )
93 A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE REARING AND BREEDING OF OUNCE, PANTHERA UNCIA
LIAO Yianfa, LUO Huanwen, LIOU Dening, XU Shuren, YUAN Binkui
This paper deals with the oestrus, mating, pregnancy, parturition and breast-feeding of the ounces,as well as the behaviour and growth of youngs.The oestrus of ounces usually occurs in Apring, but for some times mayoccur in early summer. A female ounce began to have an oestrus on March 5 - 7, 1984 and was mated with a male in Xining People's Park, QinghaiProvince.The female ounce gave birth to 3 youngs on July 13.The pregnancyperiod was 99 days.This is the first reproduction record of ounces in China.The young ounces opened eyes on 8 - 9 th days postnatal, and was able to see moving things within one metre on 23th day, to see immobile things within two metres on 40th day postnatal and to see anything within 5 metres on 60th day postnatal. The eye-sight of young ounces are as same as that of the adult on 90th day postnatal.The senses of hearing and smelling of young ounces are highly sensitive.The authors have also studied the relation between the body weights and the body measurements and the average food intake of 3 young ounces, some measures were taken for the reproduction of ounces, such as the increase of light supply and physical exercises, the feeding with living animals and the control of eating quantity.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 93-100 [Abstract] ( 451 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (5219 KB)  ( 69 )
101 THE STATUS OF MUSK-DEER FROM ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA
COLIN P·GROVES, FENG Zuojian
In 1982 the known range of the Musk-deer(genus Moschus)in Chinawas extended to Anhui Province.The newly discovered population was allocated to a new taxon,Moschus moschiferus anhuiensis Wang,Hu& Yan,1982. Although traditionally the genus Moschus was regarded as monotypic(Ellerman& Morrison-Scott,1951),three species were distinguished indetail by Flerov(1952)and Gao(1963).The latter author provided detaileddescriptions of the three species,and since then all commentators have con-ceded that this general picture is correct.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 101-104 [Abstract] ( 342 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2361 KB)  ( 35 )
107 THE RINGED SEAL AND OTHER PINNIPEDS WANDERING OFF THE COAST OF CHINA
ZHOU Kaiya
The ringed seal, Phoca hispida ochotensis, an adult female of 43 kg in weight, and 1.105m in length, was caught on the beach of Ganyu County (34°50′ latitude, 119°10′E longitude), Jiangsu Province on June 6, 1982. The specimen has been well preserved by the Department of Biology, Nanjing Normal University.So far as known,it is the first capture of this species along the Chinese coasts, In addition to the ringed seal,other three species: Steller sea lion, northern fur seal and bearded seal-Eumetopias jubata, Callorhinus ursinus and Erignathus barbatus,were. also found along the Chinese coasts.And a few individuals of the larga seal,Phcoca largha,fiom the Pohai Sea population were caught on the beach of Jiangsu and the mouth of the Yangtze River.The steller sea lion caught on the beach of Lusi (about 32°N latitude), Qidong County, Jiangsu Province in April,1966 was a male of 583kg in weight and 2.85m in length.It set the record of this species being captured at the southermost in the western North Pacific. The only record of the northern fur seal caught along the Chinese coasts has been a female,43kg,1.22m, caught on the beach of Jimo County (about 36°N ]atitvde),Sh.andorg Province in September, 1971.Two bearded seals were caught respectively off Nin-gbo City (about 30°N latitude)and Pingyang County (about 27°N latitude) of Zhejiang Province.The Pingyang specimen collected in July, 1971, a male of 71 kg in weight and 1.76m in length is the bearded seal caught at the southermost along the coasts of Asian seas.The larga seals of the Pohai Sea population is a far south breeding group in the world.After the breeding in January-February, they start to disperse along the coast of Pohai Sea,March-May.During this period a few individuals were found on or off the shore of Jiangsu and Fujian Provinces. On March 5,1985, an adult male of 42kg in weight and 1.3m in length was found on the beach of Ganyu County,Jiangsu Province.The capture of a young male was recorded at Liuduo,Binhai County (about 34°N latitude), Jiangsu Province in April, 1966. Another young female was caught at the mouth of the Yangtze River in May 1955.The known record of the southermost capture was off the coast of Pingtan County(about 25°N latitude),Fujian Province.Besides, a male larga seal ascending the Tumenjiang River was caught, in April 1965,30 km away from the Japan Sea.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 107-113 [Abstract] ( 419 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (4352 KB)  ( 58 )
114 NEWS IN BRIEF OF THE ITH ASIAN BEAR CONFERENCE
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 114-114 [Abstract] ( 242 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (691 KB)  ( 128 )
115 BIOCHEMICAL REFERENCE VALUES IN TREE SHREWS(TUPAIA BELANCERI CHINENSIS)
PENG Yanzhang, YE Zhizhang, ZHANG Yaopin
This paper deals with biochemical reference values of tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri chinensis)on serology by routine methods in general hospital, and compares the results with ether publications concerned in some main items(Table 6-8).All of 81 adult animals(38 ♂,43 ♀ )tested in this research were fed less than a month in captivity,and feeding were banned for 16 hours before taking blood samples for observations.No anaesthetic was to be applied when blood was being taken. Some differences were discovered between species and subspecies, such as in serum protein fractions, blood sugar levels, serum albumins and serum cholesterol levels etc.The blood sugar values of tree shrews in wild were lower than values of those in cage.In wild conditions,the blood sngar value of T.g.sordida is higher than that of T. g. ferrugenia, and seems to become a distinguishable characteristic between species and subspecies.Different results in the three tests for T.b.chinensis made by LIN Jiq-iang(1984),DAI Changbai(1983)and the authors maybe due to the errors in test method as well as in what technique is used and how long the feeding time is.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 115-124 [Abstract] ( 337 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2698 KB)  ( 189 )
125 THE ESTIMATION OF AGES FOR GREY MARMOTS (MARMOTA BAIBACINA)
YANG Ganyuan, ZHANG Zhijian, ZHANG Lanying
Seven hundred and thirty-seven specimens of grey marmots (Marmot baibacina) were collected in the western part of Boluokeru Mountain, a branch of Tianshan, from June to August, 1983.The worn degrees on the grinding dental surfaces of grey marmots were studied. And 12 age-groups were identified among the marmots, according to the varied worn degrees. They are as follows:I . Teeth not well erupted;Ⅱ. Striped dentinal worn scars in the transverse mid-ridge of P2;Ⅲ. P2 and M3 not wormⅣ. Lunate enamel worn scars in P2 and M3 protocone;Ⅴ. "T" shaped dentinal scars in M3 protocone;Ⅵ. M3 protocone connects with middle and posterior transverse ridge, forming "⊂ " shaped dentinal scar;Ⅶ. M3 protocone connects with anterior,middle and posterior transverse ridge, forming "E" shaped dentinal scanⅧ. The enamel of protocone surfaces of various molar teeth is worn into raised thin edge, with external teeth depressed)Ⅸ. The thin enamel edges of various molar teeth and tooth rings are worn off;Ⅹ. M1 shows a "spoon" shape;Ⅺ. M1 and M2 show "spoon" shapes;Ⅻ, M3 surface shows five-petaled shapes along the gum.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 125-129 [Abstract] ( 316 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3361 KB)  ( 48 )
131 STUDY ON THE POPULATION AGE-STRUCTURE OF THE GREATER LONG-TAILED HAMSTERS IN BEIJING-TIANJIN AREA
ZHANG Jie
The author studied the population ecology of the greater long-tailed hamsters from April, 1983 to June, 1985 in Beijing-Tianjin area.A total of 989 speciemens were obtained, among which 508 were males and 481 females.This paper reports the following results of the study on the population age-structure.1. With the body weight excluding all the viscera as a major index,speciemens were divided into four age groups,Group I . Juvenile : The weight was≤40g.Group Ⅱ .Subadult:The weight was 40. 1-75g.GroupⅢ Adult( 1 ):The weight was 75. 1-120g.GroupⅣ.Adult(2 )sThe weight was>120g.This division of age groups is relatively accurate and easy to practice.2. The population size of different age groups varies with different seasons. Two peaks of juveniles'quantity occured in May and Aug.For the subadults it occured in Aug. -Sep.,adult( 1 )in Oct.,adult(2 ) in this Oct. - next Apr..3. The total sex ratio is ♂ > ♀, and the sex radio between ♂to ♀ increases with the age of Gricetulus triton.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 131-138 [Abstract] ( 343 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (502 KB)  ( 134 )
139 THE AVERAGE DAILY METABOLIC RATE AND ESTIMATION OF DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF ROOT VOLE
JIA Xixi, SUN Ruyung
The average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) of root voles ( Microtus oeconomus Pallas) were measured at several ambient temperatures(Ta), 10℃ -30℃ at the Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem at Menyuan, Qinghai (3200M elevation).Three measurements were taken during the year: Green up period (May), Exuberance period (July-Aug.) and Withering period (Sept. -Oct.).The results showed that the ADMR increased while the Ta decreased below 25℃ Ta . The ADMR was the highest in the Withering period (5.31mlO2/g·h) and the lowest in the Green upperiod(4.46mlO2/g·h).In the Exuberance period it was 4.58mlO2/g·h.The animals'average daily energy requirement estimated by ADMR was approximately 0.513kcal/g.day in the Green up period, 0.527 kcal/g·day in the Exuberance period, and 0.611 kcal/g.day in Withering period.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 139-146 [Abstract] ( 281 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (522 KB)  ( 131 )
147 ANALYSIS OF THE HOUSE RODENT COMMUNITY SUCCESSION AND THE RELATION TO THE HOUSING STRUCTURE IN TANGQIAO, SHANGHAI
ZHU Longbiao1, QIAN Guozhen1, SU Yanming1, SUN Yunting1, DAI Zhiwei2
From March to May of 1985 an ecological survey was made at Tangqi-ao,section of Shanghai suburban transition area to examine the aspects of the rodent distribution and their relationships with the housing structure. There are four species of rodents in the study aiea:Rattus flavipectus,R.norvegicus,Mus musculus and Apodemus agrarius.The rodent community structure has varied greatly since the sixties(1963).At that time the Rattus flav-ipectus comprised 84.95% of the total,but by now the Mus musculus has become the dominant species(80.70%).The difference was significant (t = 31.17,p<0.01) .The survey showed that rodents inhabiting single-storey houses were more than those in buildings of more than two storeys.Different types of dwellings and buildings with many floors were all dominated by the house mouse.The proportion of numbers of the house mouse from ground floor to the third floor did not show a significant difference (X2 = 1.3738,p>0.05),but as the height increased,the Shannon-Weiner index H decreased,the diversity index on the ground floor H1 = 1.2311;on the second floor H2 =0.9311; and on the third floor H3 = 0.5435.The survey also showed that houses built at different periods were all dominated by the house mouse and its numbers showed no significant differences(X2 = 0.4869,p>0.05).The areas of multistorey buildings in Tangqiao Section have increased from 11.34% in the early fifties to 74.95% by now.After the sixties concrete houses comprised 70% of the total housing. The changes in the housing structure and the activities of human beings are the main factors that cause the succession of rodent community.As the urban district develops, more pains should be taken in house mouse control strategy.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 147-154 [Abstract] ( 305 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (499 KB)  ( 106 )
155 THE SUCCESSION OF HOUSE RODENT COMMUNITY:AFTER A THOROUGH ELIMINATION OF HOUSE RODENTS WITH INDOOR BAITING BOXES IN RURAL AREAS-INVASION OF CROCIDURA SUAVEOLENG
ZHAO Chengshan, QU Baoquan, ZHANG Shishui
An investigation on house rodents was carried out in 17 villages of 6 municipalities and prefectures in Shandong Province, 1980-1981. Under an investigation of 7996 trap-nights, no Crocidura suaveolens was trapped. Starting from November, 1982, baiting boxes containing Diphacine-Na treated baits were used to kill house rodents at Sujia Village in Jinan suburb. From the end of January to early February, 1983, during 627 trap-days in the village no rodents were trapped but one Crocidura suaveolens. Since then, baiting boxes were used continuously and the density of house rodents had been kept rather low. From the September of 1983 on, a significantly increased number of Crocidura suaveolens were noted. From January, 1982 to February, 1984, 74 Crocidura suaveolens were trapped during 4024 trap-days in the whole village. The capture rate of Crocidura suaveolens was 1.84%, accounting for 68.52% of the sum total.During the 4045 trap-days of the same period of time only 10 Crocidura suaveolens were trapped in 8 nearby villages. The capture rate of Crocidura suaveolens was 0.25%, accounting for 1.83% of the total. We believed that the marked quantitative increase of Crocidura suaveolens, after a thorough elimination of house rodents with baiting boxes, was a succession phenomenon of house rodent community, although the invaded animal was an ins-ectivore.
1986 Vol. 6 (2): 155-160 [Abstract] ( 310 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (360 KB)  ( 132 )
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