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1982 Vol. 2, No. 2
Published: 1982-07-20

 
125 A PRIMARY OBSERVATION ON THE GROUP FIGURES, MOVING LINES AND FOOD OF Rhinopithecus bieti AT THE EAST SIDE OF BAIMA-SNOW MOUNTAIN
MU Wenwei1, YANG Dehua2
The east side of Baima-snow Mountain is located at the northwest of Yunnan province. It is under the administration of Deqin county of Tiching Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture。The east longitude is about 99°2',the north latitude 28°20'The vegetation mainly consists of coniferous trees.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 125-131 [Abstract] ( 252 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3493 KB)  ( 46 )
132 DAYLY RHYTHMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE CHINESE FERRET BADGER
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 132-132 [Abstract] ( 215 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (921 KB)  ( 44 )
133 ON A NEW SUBSPECIES OF SIBERIAN MUSK-DEER, (MOSCHUS MOSCHIFERUS ANHUIENSIS SUBSP. NOV.) FROM ANHUI, CHINA
WANG Qishan1, HU Xiaolun1, YAN Yuhong2
This paper reports a new subspecies of Moschus moschiferus from Anhui province, China. Holotype: No. 7903, male, adult, collected on March 27, 1979, from Changling region ( 31°10'42"/N, 115°53'48"E, altitude 500m) ,Jinzhai county, Anhui province.Allotype: No. 7904, female, adult, collected on April 14, 1979, from Xiafuqiao region, Huoshan county, Anhui province.Paratypes: No. 7915, female, adult, collected on February 21, 1979, from Dushan rsgion, Liuan County, Anhui province.Allotype is deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Academia sinica; the other type specimens are deposited in the Department of Biology, Anhui University, china.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 133-138 [Abstract] ( 335 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3656 KB)  ( 102 )
139 AN OBSTACLE-AVOIDANCE STUDY OF PREDATION BY BATS
SUN Xinde, ZHANG Senfu
An obstacle-avoidance test was used to determine the avoidance ability to stationary obstacle of ten leaf-nosed bats (Rhinolophus rouxi ) . of these seven were used to test their obstacle ability during natural predation.The mean percentages are 77.07±0.86% and 85.58±1.11%, respectively. It is shown that the reaction of avoidance ability to stationary obstacles was significantly higher (P<0.001) during predation than non-predation periods.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 139-142 [Abstract] ( 238 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2325 KB)  ( 37 )
143 THE SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF PIPISTRELLUS ABRAMUS IN RELATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
HUANG Wenji1, HUANG Xing2
An investigation of the seasonal activity of the little house bat, Pipistrellusabramus, in relation to environmental factors particularly temperature and light was made at the suburb of Shanghai.The pipistrelle, a year round resident, forming small colonies in dwellings, began to occur in a very small number at the beginning of March at an outside air temperature not lower than 10-11℃ successively for two evenings generally. The number of bats increased steadily as the weather got warmer and warmer, and as the evening temperature stood above 20℃during May, June and July, the average daily number of a colony of bats appeared to be more or less constant.In August there occurred an abrupt increase of the population size. This was due to young bats which were born in July and were capable of flight and participatod in forage. The bats became less in number in autumn. No bats in foraging could be seen from about the end of November to December and January and February of the following year. Actually there were some individuals which began to stop foraging at the end of September. Thus, it was very likely that there were pipistrellus in torpor and hibernation for a period of more than five months.In March and April, the threshold of the evening temperature for the emergence of a very small number of the bats was 10-11℃, and for most of them, it was 14-15℃. Whereas, in early winter during the first few days of November, the threshold was about 15-16℃ for few individuals of the bats and about 20℃ for more of them. At the middle and the later parts of November the threshold of the evening temperature was about 17-18℃ for the forage activity of very few bats, which was much higher than that in Spring. Thus, obviously, low environment temperature was a conspicuous limit- ing factor to the forage activity of the pipistrelles. The number of the bats emerging from their roost was correlated with the evening ambient temperature, the correlation being very evident: when n = 20 ( 7-26℃ ) , r = 0.9916, df = 18, P<0.01.When the evening temperature was favorable to the bats, light became the main limiting factor to their forage activity. In general, individual pipistrelles began to emerge from the dwelling when the intensity of sky light decreased down to 700 luxes.Most of them left the roost when light was below 500 L, occupying about 63% of 4612 bats observed. and about 13% of the bats emerged at an intensity of light ranging from above 500 to 1000 L. Only a few occured at a much higher intensity up to 25000 L or even higher. Thus, evidently the frequency of the bats leaving the roost was inversely correlated with the intensity of light.By the application of statistics the evening light measured in luxes was divided into 60 groups with Pi as 1 -60, in which 1 =50 luxes.Thus, r=-0.79612, df=59, P<0.05.The correlation was very evident.Light was also concerned with the returning of the bats at daybreak. The number of bats1 flying back to the roost was also inversely correlated with the intensity of light as in the case of emergence for foraging in the evening,except that the majority of the bats returned to the roost at a much lower intensity of light, ranging from 0-50L.Hence. in Summer as the days are long and the nights are short, the emer gence of the bats from the roost being later and their return to the roost earlier than in Spring and Autumn. Moreover, the bats left the roost later on a fine day than on a cloudy day and vice versa on returning to the roost at daybreak.In general, rains interfered with the emergence of the bats.Yet, in fine rains some of the animals might be seen foraging in the sky.With the exception of typhoons, winds showed no affect on the forage of the bats. There was also no influence of the relative humidity of the air as low as 52.5% upon the activity of the pipistrelles.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 143-155 [Abstract] ( 221 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2902 KB)  ( 71 )
157 ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND THE MAMMALIAN FAUNA OF ZHEJIANG PROVINCE
ZHUGE Yang
Eighty-six species and two subspecies of mammals have been recorded in Zhejiang province. They belong to 10 orders and 29 families. Among the more abundant mammals are Rodentia, Chiroptera and Carnivora. Twenty species are considered as new records there. In the mammalian fauna the Oriental species are dominant, and the Palaearctic species are less. Both numbers of species compared about 4 : 1 .Based on the distribution of the mammals and the geographic conditions, the province may be divided into five zoogeographical regions, namely: ( 1 ) the northern plain region, ( 2 ) the eastern hill region, ( 3 ) the western hill-mountain region, ( 4 ) the southern mountain region and ( 5 ) the island region. Most mammals inhabit in the western and southern mountains, but less common in the island region. From north to south, the faunal composition is characterized by a proportional decrease of the Palaearctic elements with a corresponding increas of the Oriental elements.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 157-166 [Abstract] ( 210 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2775 KB)  ( 59 )
167 A SYSTEMATIC REVISION OF THE SUBSPECIES OF HIGHLAND HARE ( LEPUS OIOSTOLUS )—INCLUDING TWO NEW SUBSPECIES
CAI Guiquan1, FENG Zuojian2
In 1964, GAO Yaoting (=KAO Yueh-ting ) et al. recognized five subspecies of highland hare. During recent years, more specimens have been collected from Qinghai and Xizang ( Tibet). Based on the specimens collected, the authors are of the opinion that the subspecific classification of highland hares requires a systematic revision.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 167-182 [Abstract] ( 216 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (6870 KB)  ( 69 )
183 A REVISION OF THE ZOKORS OF SUBGENUS EOSPALAX
FAN Naichang, SHI Yinzhu
The systematic and distributed problems of subgenus Eospalax, belonging to the genus Myospalax of the family Cricetidae, is unclear. The authors have observed the specimens collected from Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai and Sichuan, and have compared these specimens with those from other regions in China.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 183-199 [Abstract] ( 340 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (5828 KB)  ( 119 )
200 ON DISCOVERINGTHE Tadarida teniotis Rafinesoque IN ANHUI
1
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 200-200 [Abstract] ( 206 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (498 KB)  ( 125 )
201 ON THE KARYOTYPES OF THREE SPECIES OF CRICETULUS
XU Zhaohua, HUANG Wenji
The karyotypcs of three species of Genus Cricetulus, namely ,C.triton, C.Longicaudatus and C. barabensis were examined and described.C. triton has 28 chromosomes. the karyotype consists of 11 pairs of large to medium acrocentrics, 2 pairs of very small metacentrics, and a medium subtelocentric X and a small metacentric Y chromosomes.C. longicaudatus has a diploid number of 24.Its karyotype is composed of 4 pairs of large to medium metacentrics, 3 pairs of large and medium subtelocentrics, 4 pairs of medium acrocentrics and a large metacentric X and a submetacentric Y chromosomes; Y being also large in size。
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 201-210 [Abstract] ( 190 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (5373 KB)  ( 50 )
211 ON THE AGE STRUCTURE AND POPULATION RENEWAL OF FIELD MOUSE ( Apodemns agrarius ) FROM SHANGHAI
ZHU Longbiao, QIAN Guozhen
By use of the materials and data registered from 1962-1964 and 1979-1980 the age structure and nature renewal of the population of Apodemus agrarius in the suburbs of Shanghai were analysised.The seasonal fluctuation of population density may be drawn with a curve of double peaks, being higher in fall season, so that it may also be called"posterior peak type'', manifesting the character of subtropical seasonal dynamics. There are two breeding peaks yearly and there is a interval of breeding diapause of 3-4 months in winter.The reproductivity of population increases with that the mean age of individuls in population. The rate of fecundity and number of embryos are prominently influenced by seasonal ambient temperature. Those individuls produced at the interval of summer and autumu, being mature in 5-7 months, will be the main strength of breeding in following spring. Sex of those individuals which produced in spring come to maturity only in two months. Almost the main party of them cannot tide over the bitter cold in winter and will die off thoroughly.From these point of view, it may be recognized that the population of Apodemus agrarius renews once a year.In winter, numbers of Apodemus agrarius in pupolation continually decrease. At that very period, a good opportunity may be taken for eliminating wintering individuals and reducing rodent calamity in next year.Yellow weasals are natural enemies of Apodemus agrarius and should be better protected.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 211-217 [Abstract] ( 263 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2559 KB)  ( 70 )
219 HOME RANGE OF THE ROOT VOLE MICROTUS OECONOMUS
SUN Ruyong1, ZHENG Shengwu2, CUI Ruixian2
Home ranges of root vole ( Microtus oeconomus ) in a brush community (Dasiphora fruticosa) on Qinghai plateau ( about 3200 m. above sea level) were estimated by mark and release trapping from May to October of 1980. The material collected consisted of a total of 1705 captures of 303 individuals.Home ranges were calcuated by several different ways on the same material: inclusive boundary strip method ( Stickel, 1954 ) , circular ( Calho-un and Casby,1958 ) and elliptical home range or principle component methods ( Jennrich and Turner, 1969; Mazurkiewicz, 1971) and mean's method ( 村上,1971 ) .The mean's method and principle component method are preferable. In order to simplify the procedures of calculation, we proposed a simplified mean's method and its results are considered quite near to that from the proper mean's method.Home ranges of male adults are larger than those of females. The male adults have their largest home ranges in May and June due to reproductive activity bur in September their area decreases to minimum. On the other hand, the females have their smallest home ranges when they are in pregnant or at nurse, and after reproductive period the home ranges increase to maximum in September. Home ranges of juveniles are smaller than those of adults, In most cases, the shapes of home range are elliptical and the mean ratio of axes of elliptical ranges calculated from principle component method is 2.48, but in the population there are about 15% of individuals with slender home ranges or with a linear capture points ( in this case the area of home ranges is not able to be estimated by principle component method)。Overlap of home ranges usually not occur in female adults in reproductive period, but they are often overlapped each other in the male adults in the same period.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 219-232 [Abstract] ( 256 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3036 KB)  ( 37 )
233 PROGRESS IN STUDIES OF KARYOTYPES OF ORDER CHIROPTERA
WANG Zongren
Based on the literatures published so far, karyotypes of 132 species of bats in the world havs been reported. Some types of variations of these karyotypes are reviewed and analysed initially as well as the distribution frequency of numbers of chromosomes is tabulated in this paper.The studies of karyotypes of bats show that in the process of evolution the X chromosome of bats are as conservative as those other mammals; and the Y chromosome of some species of bats are acrocentrics while those of others are submetacentrics or metacentrics. It seems t, be that, according to our preliminary view, interspecific changes of autosomes follow the non-Robertsonian fusion.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 233-244 [Abstract] ( 259 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2832 KB)  ( 29 )
245 THE STATUS OF THE RESEARCH ON THE CHINESE RIVER DOLPHIN ( Lipotes vexillifer ) IN CHINA
HAN Cunzhi
The present paper deals with the compendious st atuses of research on the Chinese river dolphin in China.After liberation, the scientists of our country have done many investigations and studies.The studies revealed differences exist in the skeleton system with Inia geoffrensis that it ( Lipotes ) separated from Inia ( Iniidae ) and a new family, Lipotidae was named.On the notes of the specimen of each region, We consider that Chinese river dolphin inhabit chiefly the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtse river. About forty years ago, it was captured near Lian Tuo and Huang Ling Miao in the upper reach of the Yangtse river.Some of the authors consider that it inhabit also the Dongting Hu, the Poyang Hu and the little rivers run into these lakes.The statuses of the research on the ecological characteristies, anatomy, histological studies, Iipid properties etc. are reviewed in the present paper. The studies on bioacoustics and acoustical behaviour of this dolphin is also introduced.The present writer suggest that studies on ethology. population ecology and it's environment is a necessary.The Chinese river dolphin is a endangered species. We suggest that it must be protected strictly.
1982 Vol. 2 (2): 245-252 [Abstract] ( 211 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2703 KB)  ( 111 )
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