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1982 Vol. 2, No. 1
Published: 1982-02-20

 
1 THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND THE THORAX OF THE GIANT PANDA, AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA
YANG Anfeng1, FANG Lixiang2
Six complete skeletons of the giant panda were studied for the present paper. Among them, a juvenile specimen is involved.The vertebral column, taken as a whole, is in many respects remarkable among living Carnivora.The number of the thoraco-lumbars in Ailuropoda is seventeen or eighteen, while the trunk vertebrae in the rest of the living Carnivores are nearly always 20 in number. Another remarkable feature is the extraordinary instability of the thoraco-lumbar boundary and the lumbo -sacral boundary. Of six skeletons examined, the rib was asymmetrical on the two sides in three examples, and three different vertebral formulae are represented: T13L5S5; T13L4S6 and T14L4S5 .The number of thoracic vertebrae may be increasad by the formation of ribs on both sides of the first lumbar vertebra, and the number of the lumbar vertebrae may be reduced in this manner or by fusion of a fifth lumbar vertebra to the sacrum.All vertebrae are broadened and depressed. The proportions of the three main divisions of the column differ from other carnivores, as shown in table.There are six sternebrae in each of the six skeletons, all the sternebrae are short, but the xiphisternum is a quite long cartilaginous rod.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 1-7 [Abstract] ( 260 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3258 KB)  ( 41 )
8 IMMUNOCHEMICAL RESEARCH OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA AND VARIOUS ANIMALS
1
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 8-8 [Abstract] ( 132 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1133 KB)  ( 105 )
9 THE MYOLOGY OF THE BAIJI, LIPOTES VEXILLIFER (ODONTOCETI, LIPOTIDAE)——Ⅱ MASTICATORY MUSCLES, TONGUE AND HYOID MUSCLES, LARYNGEAL MUSCLES AND PHARYNGEAL MUSCLES
ZHOU Kaiya, QIAN Weijuan
5 masticatory muscles, 9 tongue and hyoideal muscles, 11 laryngeal muscles, 4 nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal muscles of the Baiji, Lipotes vexi-llifer, are described in the present paper.Partial fatty degeneration of the masseter and external pterygoid muscles forms the extra-and intra - mandibular fat bodies respectively. The strong temporalis partly compensate the function of the fatty degenerated masseter.The muscles of the tongue and hyoid are similar to other odontocetes with the exception of the occipitohyoideus. In most odontocete species the connection is with thyroihyal, while in Lipotes this muscle inserts upon inner side of the posterior end of the stylohyal.The larynx is pulled to the ventral surface of the skull by the occipito-thyroid. The tip of the epiglottid tube is close to but not inserted into the posterior nares. In addition to the cricothyreoideus, cricoarytaenoideus dorsalis, cricoarytaenoideus Iateralis,thyreoarytaenoideus and arytaenoideus transversus, there is a single constrictor laryngeus internus in Lipotes as well Delphinapterus.The palatopharyngeus, pterygopharyngeus and sphincter nasopharyngeus constitute a muscular tube connecting the posterior nares and entrance of the larynx.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 9-17 [Abstract] ( 273 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2486 KB)  ( 231 )
18 ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF long-tailed chinchilla
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 18-18 [Abstract] ( 254 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2108 KB)  ( 34 )
19 STUDIES ON THE MELON OIL OF THE BAIJI, LIPOTES VEXILLIFER——Ⅰ. FATTY ACID COMPONENT OF THE MELON OIL
ZHOU Yuzhen1, CAI Wanping1, GU Shengming2
The purpose of the present study is to analyze the fatty acid component of the melon of the Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer.The oil has beene xamined for lipid class composition by TLC and CC.Two major lipid classes, wax esters and triglycerides, are present.The wax esters of the oil has been isolated by preparative plates, and established by infrared spectroscopy technique. The pure wax esters was used as a reference standard.The fatty acid component of sample oil has been analyzed by GLC and GLC-MS. Twenty-six fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18 carbon atoms have been identified. The oil does not contain isovaleric acid but contains high levels of C12 and C14 fatty acids. Thus it seems likely that these fatty acids are essential to echolocation of the Lipotes vexillifer.The fatty acids of the melon oil of Plaianista gangetica and Inia geo-ffrensis have been compared.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 19-28 [Abstract] ( 192 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2734 KB)  ( 94 )
29 THE ENVIRONMENT PREFERENCE OF NESTING AND NEST DENSITY OF THE FEMALE WEASEIS (Mustela sibirica)
SHENG llelin, LU Houji
During late May to end of June 1978, an investigation was made to as -certain the environment preference of nesting and nest density of female weasel during reproductive season. The study areas included Chongming Island in Lower-Yangtse Plain, Xiu county of Huai River Basin,Hengshui co -unty in the Yellow River Basin,Taiyuan and Jiaochen county of the Loess PlateauHunting dogs were used to search out the nest sites and the nest were examined.Of all the nests investigated, the higest nest density was found in the abundant water source ( peddy areas ) environment.For example, on Chongming Island there were up to 1.7 nest per km2.In dry regions such as wheat farming areas of the Huanghai-Huaihe Plain the nest density was 0.6 nest per km2. In dry crop farming of the Loess plateau areas the density were only 0.2 nest per km2.Among various environments the weasels mainly selected hay for producing and rearing their young. An analysis of 40 nests. 85%were in haystacks and haymows, 7.5%were found among graves, 5% were found in stone piles and 2.5% were found in crevices in houses.The characteristics of nesting environment preference and rearing habits of the females suggests that it would be wise to pile haystack in the field to attract weasels in order to develop weasel resouree, in severe rodent infection areas the attraction could act as a biological control.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 29-34 [Abstract] ( 221 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2450 KB)  ( 65 )
35 EFFECTS OF SIMULATED HYPOXIC ACCLIMATION ON ORGANISM, ORGAN AND HEMATOLOGY IN OCHOTONA CURZONIAE AND RATS
DU Jizing, LI Qingfen
This investigation reveals with the physiological effects of hypoxia in native species,plateau pika. Ochotona curzoniae and the first filial generation of rats imported to Xining, when they were maintained in hypobaric pressure chambers (at elevation of 5,000m) over the course of 24 days. The changements of characters in organismic、organ and blood alterations were observed.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 35-42 [Abstract] ( 298 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2462 KB)  ( 46 )
43 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PLASMA TRANSFERRIN POLYMORPHISM IN SOME RODENTS
Zhou Yucan, Jing Zengchun
The eight species of wild rodents from Qinghai province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region were captured in this study. Their plasma proteins were analysed by polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis and the transferrin identification was made by utilizing specific staining of Nitroso R salt. Then the extent and feature of transferrin polymorphism were ascertained and the electrophoretic patterns of their plasma proteins were compared with each other. The results obtained are as follows:1.The transferrin polymorphism was observed only in the five species. The extent of polymorphism is up to 62.5%,There are 2 types of polymorphism in Ochofona curzoniae(Tongde population),Lagurus lagurus and Meriones crythrourus;3 types in Mus musculus and 4 types in Ochotona erythrotis.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 43-49 [Abstract] ( 198 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2586 KB)  ( 29 )
51 ON THE POPULATION DYNAMICS AND REGULATION OF MERIONES UNGUICULATUS IN AGRICULTURAL REGION NORTH TO YIN MOUNTAINS, INNER MONGOLIA
XIA Wuping1, LIAO Chonghui1, ZHONG Wenqin1, SUN Chonglu1, TIAN Yun2
The population dynamics of the gerbil, Meriortes unguiculatus Milne- Edwards was studied in the years 1964-69, at Siziwangqi,Inner Mongolia, where the agriculture has a representative characteristics in the region North to Yin Mountains.A strip area of 7-9 Km. in length was investigated annually in April, June and September and more than 1800 gerbils were captured. Their reproductive status and measurements were recorded, and their skulls were preserved for further studies.From the biological points of view, in studying the population dynamics of the gerbil, we have recognized the following 4 points:1) There were larger variations in age structure, body length, body weight etc. of the populations in different years.2) The percentage of the males with enlared seminal vesicle in the same season of different years had an inverse relation with the population densities.3)There was a positive correlation between the reproductive indices of the females and the density increments of next year. Besides, a positive correlation also existed between the spring reproductive indices and the summer density increments in multiples.4) Reproductive phenomenon existed in winter, but it changed greatly in different years. A non-reproductive period existed in August-September.The environmental factors influencing the population such as the climates and agricultural measures were also considered.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 51-71 [Abstract] ( 228 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3697 KB)  ( 86 )
73 THE QUANTITY DISPOSITION OF RODENTS IN ABONDANT FIELD AND ITS EFFECTS ON VEGETATION SUCCESSION IN ALPINE MEADOW
XIAO Yunfeng, LIANG Jicrong, SHA Qu
1. This work was carried out in the alpine meadow region, Menyuan, Qinghai, from August to September 1974.2. Series of vegetation succession in abondant field are:Secondary barela-nd stages→annual and biannual herbosa stages→rhizome and stobon herbosa stages→loose grass stages→crowded grass stages.3. The quantity of the plateau pika on all succession stages increases with the increase of the quantity of the grass; the quantity of the common chenesc zokor decreases with the decrease of rhizome and stolon herbosa.4. The degeneration of vegetation is not only related to rodents pest but also is caused by intensive pasturage.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 73-80 [Abstract] ( 171 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3307 KB)  ( 53 )
81 ON DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF YELLOW STEPPE LEMMING ( Lagurus luteus ) OF XINJIANG
MA Yong, WANG Fonggui, JIN Shanke, LT Sihua, SUN Chonglu, HAO Shoushen
The authors have carried out a faunal expedition on rodents in Dzungaria, Xinjiang during 1974-1976,and a 4-month's stationary observition on the ecology of Yellow steppe lemming at Dashitou, Mulei, in 1976. The scientific results are as followings.1. In Xinjiang the lemming in habits only in Dzungaria. In the time of overproduction it inhabits nearly all the open landscapes, except sandy and stony deeserts as well as eminences. However in the time of considerable lower density of its population, it is being only kept at a few places.2. The rodent always uses only 3-5 entrances of his tunnel system, though tnere are a lot of entrances there.3. The lemming is active in daytime. In summer its diet is mainly the vegetative parts of plants, and in autumn it eats also wheat and other seeds. From June up to the end of September in that year we have diged out 6 colonies, no winter food storage has ever been found.4. The colonies are very unevenly spreaded inside of its habitat, and the places of its colonies continually are changed seasonally with the changeable surrounding conditions.5. At Dashitou region, the reproductive seaaon of the lemming began from first ten-days period of April and approximately ended on the first half of September in 1976. Among the young animals only the females, born before June, had time to be sexnal mature and they could taken part actively in the July reproduction. And the young males are sexually mature much later than the young females. During the summer in that year most of the adult females had two litters, but the young females only one, litter size being 2-11.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 81-88 [Abstract] ( 361 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2530 KB)  ( 75 )
89 STUDY ON SPECIES DIVERSITY OF RODENT COMMUNITIES IN BAIYINXILE TYPICAL STEPPE, INNER MONGLIA
ZHOU Qingqiang, ZHONG Wenqin, SUN Chonglu
The structure and spatial pattern of rodent communities were studied, sampled from July to September in the year 1979 in Baiyinxile typical steppe, Inner Mongolia. In this paper, the rodent species diversities were calculated based on the data from the same communities.There is positive correlation between the species diversities (H') of the plants and of the rodents in these communities. the evenness (J') of the rodent is correlated positively with plant evenness. There is no linear correlation between the species number of the plants and of the rodents.The rodent species diversity is correlated negatively with the height of the herb layer, the percentage of vegetation cover and the soil moisture content, respectively, The plant species diversity is also correlated negatively to these three parameters.H', the Shannon-wiener index, integrately respones to the evenness and the species number. Using H' for the species diversity of rodent community is better than the species number.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 89-94 [Abstract] ( 211 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2496 KB)  ( 56 )
95 THE METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE AREA OF HOME RANGES IN RODENTS
ZHENG Shengwu1, SUN Ruyung2
There are several methods for estimating the area of home ranges and the same data analyzed by different methods yield appreciably different results. This paper described these methods and compared the results estimated by some main methods inclusive boundary strip method ( Stickel, 1954), methods of circular home range ( Calhoun and Casby, 1958 ) and of elliptical home range or principle component method ( Jennrich and Turner, 1969; Mazurkiewicz, 1971 ) and mean's method ( Murakami 1971 ) on the base of the same material collected by us for the root vole from May to October of 1980 in a brush community of Qinghai Plateau. The results estimated by mean's method are more comparable with that of inclusive boundary strip method. The complicated procedures of calculation of this method lead us to propose a simplified mean's method and the results are considered quite near to that of proper mean's method. The estimated values of circular and elliptical home range method arc in considerable degree higher than the results from boundary strip method, especially, of the circular method. The elliptical method is impossible to deal with the home ranges with a linear cap- ture points. Although the circular method can deal with, but the results are higher than that of boumdary strip method to an incredible degree. The elliptical method is more suitable to deal with slender home ranges and the ratio of axes calculated by this method is a good index for measuring the circularity of home range. Therfore, available methods for estimating home range are far to be perfected, perhaps the mean's method is the more prac-ticale.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 95-105 [Abstract] ( 232 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2836 KB)  ( 42 )
105 EFFECT OF GONADOTROPIC HORMONE TO THE MUSK-SECRETION OF MUSK-DEER
1
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 105-106 [Abstract] ( 180 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2200 KB)  ( 63 )
107 ON SUBSPECIFIC DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN RAT ( Rattus norvegicuss Berkenhout ) IN CHINA
WU Delin
This paper deals with subspecific differentiation of Rattus norvegicuss Ber-kenhout in China, not including that of Taiwan province.Amoog 473 specimens which were sampled at random, 49 specimens were collected from Guangdong, including Hainan Island; 135 specimens from Hebei, Liaoning, shandong and northern Jiangsu; 136 specimens from Heilongjiang and jilin; and 153 specimens from Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Monggol, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hubei, Zhejiang, southern Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Fujian. A comparison of the body measurements and the cranial measurements of the above four groups of the samples shows they belong to R. n. norvegicus, R. n. humiliatus, R. n. caraco and R.n. socer respectively. A key to these four subspecies is given in text.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 107-112 [Abstract] ( 230 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2416 KB)  ( 54 )
113 THE SUCCESSION OF HOUSE RODENTS AT XIAMEN
ZHENG Zhimin
Based on the historical records and the recent research, the author tries to give a brief account of the change of dominant species of house rats and mice.According to the investigations in 1966 and in 1978, there are three species of house rodents at Xiamen i.e. Rattus norvegieus, R.flavipectus and Mus musculus.The date collected including the years 1933, 1935, 1936, 1954-1962, 1964-1966, 1974 and 1978, show that the population of R.norvegieus had always been in a higher level for the last years of 50's. Since the middle of the 50's, the population of R. flavipectus had undergone a rise-fall procees, while the population of Mus musculus has been rising。and by the 70's it has become the dominant species. Therefore we may devide the change of the dominant species of house rats and mice into three stages.Through analysing and comparing the weather, the house structure, the population and the change in living conditions, the author believes that the changements are mainly connected with the improvement of the inhabitation conditions and the activities of human benigs.The author is of the opinion that Mus musculus and R.norvegieus are the principal species that should be prevented and controlled henceforth. To improve the sanitary condition of the people's living surroundings; to clean the cloaca; and to improve the technique in poisoning rats, are the main measures to prevent the attack of house mice. Autumn and winter are the best seasons to eliminate the mice.
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 113-118 [Abstract] ( 217 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2485 KB)  ( 40 )
119 A NEW DEVICE FOR SIMULTANEOUS RECORDING LOCOMOTORY ACTIVITY,DRINKING,FEEDING AND ENTERING THE NEST BOX OF SMALL RODENTS
1982 Vol. 2 (1): 119-124 [Abstract] ( 158 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2470 KB)  ( 63 )
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