Table of Content

    13 February 2016, Volume 36 Issue 1
    Mating behavior of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China
    Xia Fan, Zhu Pingfen, Li Ming, Ren Baoping
    2016, 36(1):  1-14.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601001
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    Mating behavior is a species-specific characteristic of the species’ social structure and mating system. Studying copulation systems can help understand cohesiveness and stability of a primate society. From November 2013 to October 2014, we observed mating behaviors of a semi-provisioned group of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve, Yunan, China. All-occurrence and focal animal sampling methods were used to collect data on duration and frequency of pre-copulatory, copulatory, and post-copulatory behaviors of subjects involved. We found that monkeys mated year round, with a reproductive peak during the mating season (roughly from July to September); mating was initiated mainly by the females (76%), females also showed an observable solicitation peak during the mating season. Male mounting frequency (yearly mean= 0.43 times/month, n=5) and rate of ejaculation/mounting (yearly mean 19%, n=5) showed no significant variability. Therefore, the relationship between seasonality and sexual response for mating differs between the sexes. Females ran or jumped into a male's range of vision to come into notice, then prostrated and glanced at the male to solicit being sexually mounted. The distance between a prostrating female and the resident male affected the success rate of the solicitation (<1 m, 68% vs. 2-5 m, 40%). If the first solicitation failed, females might prostrate other several times (max= 4 times) to sexually coax the resident male. Multiple sexual solicitations significantly increased the rate of the resident male’s mounting over that of a single solicitation (79% vs. 52%). After mating, females might groom the male, but this allogrooming was not significantly related with whether the male had ejaculated in this female.
    Impact of forest fragmentation on rodent-seed network
    ZHAO Qingjian, GU Haifeng, YAN Chuan, CAO Ke, ZHANG Zhibin
    2016, 36(1):  15-23.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601002
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    Forest fragmentation is threatening the health and survival of ecosystems though reducing species diversity and sustainability of the ecosystems. As an important plant-animal network, plant-rodent interaction plays a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and function of a forest, but their functional response to habitat patch size and succession stage is seldom investigated. Here, we monitored seed predation by small rodents in 15 forest patches with different sizes and at different stages of succession in a subtropical forest in Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province. Based on a new method integrating IR camera-monitoring with a seed tagging method, we measured species interaction strengths between seeds and rodents, and then illustrated the rodent-seed interaction networks of different patches, so as to analyze the influence of size of the forest patch and succession stage on parameters of the network. We found that rodent species richness was highest in medium patches (2-4ha.), and lowest in large patches (9-30ha.); Weighted-Interaction Nestedness Estimator (WINE) in secondary forests was significantly higher in the patches of late succession stage (20-40yrs) than that of early succession stage (10-20yrs); the total number and sum of diameter at breast height (DBH) of plants in the seed-rodent network was significantly higher in the primary forests than the secondary ones. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation showed some influences on WINE of seed-rodent network, but not on the other network parameters, which is probably due to the interaction generality of the seed-rodent network. This study provides a basis for further research on species interactions between trees and rodents, and the structure and function of the seed-rodent network.
    The effect of elevation on structure and nutrition of staple food bamboo and seasonal distribution of giant pandas
    LI Yajun, LIU Xuehua, Melissa Songer, WU Pengfeng, JIA Xiaodong, HE Xiangbo, CAI Qiong
    2016, 36(1):  24-35.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601003
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    Giant pandas depend on bamboos for food, making these plants vital for their sustenance and survival. This study was carried out in Foping Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province, China and analyzed the structure and nutritional value of two bamboo species present in the reserve at different elevations. In this region of the Qinling Mountains, the two staple food bamboos are Bashania fargesii and Fargesia qinlingensis. Our results indicate that: (1) elevation had a significant effect (p0.05) on both the height and basal diameter of bamboos, thus strongly influencing the mean value and variance (uniformity, evenness, skewness and kurtosis) of these two characteristics in bamboo forests at different elevations. (2) The significant effects on bamboo nutrition by elevation varied with seasons (p=0.02 for crude protein and total sugar in spring; p=0.01 for crude fiber in summer; p=0.04 for crude protein and crude fiber, and p0.01 for total sugar in autumn). The two bamboo species we studied also differed significantly with respect to how nutritional value is distributed among the leaf, branch, and culm parts of the plant (p0.05). (3) Because elevation and seasonal conditions both affect bamboo nutrition, pandas adapt their feeding strategies accordingly: in summer, they go to higher elevation areas, and in the other three seasons they prefer lower elevations. Our research sheds light on the relationships among elevation, nutrition, and bamboo structure, along with giant panda migration patterns. In addition, this study provides a theoretical foundation for decision-making with regard to food provision for captive giant pandas. It also provides scientific support for policies to protect wild pandas and the regulation of human activity inside conservation areas.
    Habitat selection and movement range of re-introduced Chinese water deer after release in Shanghai Binjiang Forest Park, China
    HE Xin, PEI Enle, YUAN Xiao, CAI Feng, SHEN Guoping, ZHANG Endi, XU Guilin, CHEN Min
    2016, 36(1):  36-45.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601004
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    Chinese water deer were re-introduced to Bingjiang Forest Park, Shanghai. We used radio-telemetry to track the released deer, and obtained valid movement fixes in 286 patches and movement range in the park. Vanderloeg coefficients and Scavia indices were used to evaluate species habitat selection. The results show that by using MCP method, the movement area in the park ranged from 24.94 hm2 to 83.24 hm2, with an average of 58.74 hm2. While using FKE method, it ranged from 11.23 to 41.52 hm2, with an average of 26.93 hm2. We found that the deer showed a strong preference for patches with an area of 1-2 hm2 and a long distance to water. As to vegetation factors, the deer tend to choose areas with more wild herbs, proper density of arbors or shrubs, arbors at the height among 10-15 m and herbs at the height over 30 cm. Meanwhile, they showed negative selection for habitat without vegetation or with lower herb cover (<5cm) or short arbors (<5m). Therefore, we suggest creating habitats with appropriate vegetation cover and density, good hiding property, and moderate patch area, and supplementally plant high herbaceous species for future deer reintroduction in country park and other urban woodland.
    Geographic Variation in Diet Composition of François langurs
    LI Shengqiang, Li Dayong, HUANG Zhonghao, LI Youbang, HUANG Chengming, ZHOU Qihai
    2016, 36(1):  46-55.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601005
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    Comparative studies of nonhuman primate species that utilize different habitats are essential for understanding their behavioral and ecological plasticity. Furthermore, results from such studies can assist in formulating conservation strategies by evaluating a species’ capacity to cope with changes in habitat quality resulting from natural process or human disturbance. We compared dietary profiles for François’ langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Fusui Nature Reserve, and Mayanghe National Nature Reserve to evaluate inter-site variation in diet. Our results showed that a total of 259 plant species belonging 182 genera from 77 families were consumed by the langurs. Woody plants, including trees and shrubs, were the most important food resources. Langurs were highly folivorous, with leaves accounting for 52.7%, 63.9%, and 79.7% of their diets, respectively. However, we found that diet differed between study sites, with overlaps of 1.33% to 7.43% for total food species, and 0 to 13.51% for main food species. This variation could be related to differences in forest composition. Compared to congeners in Nonggang and Mayanghe, langurs in Fusui ate much more young leaves and shrubs. These differences reflected changes in forest structure resulting from human disturbance. Marked variations in the diets of T. francoisi at different sites suggest dietary flexibility, which could be important for their survival in different habitat conditions.
    Social structure of Asiatic ibex(Capra sibirica)in Middle Tien Shan, Xinjiang
    ZHU Xinsheng, WANG Muyang, YANG Weikang, David Blank
    2016, 36(1):  56-63.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601006
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    We studied group sizes and types of Asiatic ibex(Capra sibirica)in the middle Tien Shan from October 2013 to September 2014. Groups were classified as male, ewe-lamb, mixed groups, and solitary sheep. A total of 6327 individuals belonging to 497 groups were observed, with a mean group size of 12.93±0.65. The largest groups included 100 individuals and the smallest groups were solitary sheep. Mean group size was 14.83±1.35 in spring, 14.16±1.65 in summer, 15.17±1.69 in autumn, and 9.32±0.74 in winter. The average group size changed significantly between winter and the other three seasons. The maximum mean group size was mixed groups, followed by ewe-lamb and then male. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed significant differences in group size of each group type. Group with 2-7 individuals, 8-20 individuals and >20 individuals accounted for 41.05%, 32.80% and 17.71%, respectively. Ewe-lamb groups were the most frequently encountered,followed by mixed, male, and solitary sheep. The frequency with which we observed social groups varied by season. Research shows that Asiatic ibex composed of mixed groups in estrus and living in separate groups except for breeding season. Affected by the external environment and physiological characteristics, the group size, group type will change with the seasons.
    Effects of caecotrophy prevention on food digestion and growth in Microtus fortis
    LIU Haichun, YANG Dongmei, LONG Can, LIAO Peng, LUO Li, TAO Shuanglun, LI Junnian
    2016, 36(1):  64-71.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601007
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    Caecotrophy is an important adaptive strategy to meet the nutrition needs in small mammalian herbivores. In the vole Microtus fortis, caecotrophy prevention may result in various physiological responses, including lowered food digestibility and reduced growth. In the present study, we compared voles that were prevented from caecotrophy to those of the control group with normal caecotrophy using 1 month and 12 months old individuals with regard to digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber, body weight, and daily food intake. Compared to the control groups, the dry matter digestibility of the treated 1-month and 12-months individuals decreased by 27.64 % and 7.89 %, respectively, and crude protein digestibility decreased by 21.39% and 12.68 %, respectively. The body weight of the treated individuals was significantly lower than the control individuals while the daily food intake was significantly higher. In addition, the treated 1-month individuals suffered more weight loss than 12-month individuals. Our results showed that caecotrophy prevention could cause reduced food digestibility and restrain weight growth in Microtus fortis as in other small mammalian herbivores, and that caecotrophy might be especially important for the young voles.
    Effects of cache depth, cache size and soil moisture on cache discovery of Pinus koraiensis seeds by Tamias sibiricus
    LIU Changqu, WANG Zhenyu, YI Xianfeng, YANG Yueqin
    2016, 36(1):  72-76.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601008
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    Scatter-hoarders usually establish their caches containing one or several seeds across a wide area within their home range. Olfaction plays an important role in cache recovery by scatter-hoarding rodents. The depth and size of caches, and water content of cache substrates are believed to affect seed odor emission and thus olfactory cues to food hoarding animals. We conducted enclosure experiments to study the effects of cache depth, cache size and soil moisture on cache discovery of Pinus koraiensis seeds by Tamias sibiricus in Dongfanghong Forest Dailing District of Heilongjiang Province during August - October, 2012. We found that: (1) The proportions of seed cache discoveries were reduced with the increase of burial depth; seeds buried at 1cm and 2cm deep were more likely to be discovered by T. sibiricus than were those at 4cm and 6 cm. (2) Seed cache recovery rates were also significantly affected by cache sizes; large-sized caches were more likely to be discovered by T. sibiricus than were small ones. (3) High substrate water content facilitated small rodents discovery of the artificial caches. Our results suggest that T. sibiricus rely on olfaction to discover buried seeds under the artificial enclosures and olfaction might play an important role in finding their natural caches. Future work should consider seed odor emission under different substrate conditions.
    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Gazella subgutturosa at the Mountain Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang
    DONG Tancheng, CHU Hongjun, CHEN Yong, WU Hongpan, HE Lei, GE Yan
    2016, 36(1):  77-86.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601009
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    Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) is an important desert ungulate species and mainly lives in the desert and semi-desert of Eurasian areas. It was listed as a class II protected species in China. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources listed it as vulnerable (VU). In the spring 2010, many goitered gazelles were frozen, hungry and sick to death because of a snow disaster unlike any that happened in past 60 years at the Mt. Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve. We sampled muscle tissue of 130 dead goitered gazelles when we participated in disaster relief in the field. The 102 cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequences of goitered gazelles were sequenced and analyzed. The results indicated a high haplotypic (H=0.855) and relatively low nucleotide diversity (π=0.00224) of Gazella subgutturosa at Mt. Kalamaili. Both haplotype network and phylogenetic tree based on the neighbour-joining and Maximum Likelihood methods showed two clades, suggesting a high degree of genetic differentiation. These two branches had undergone population expansion and sustainable growth. Combined with other 12 Gazella Cyt b entire sequences cited in GenBank , the phylogenetic trees of Gazella were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum-likelihood (ML) methods, using Procapra przewalskii and Saiga tatarica as outgroups. The phylogenetic trees constructed by multiple methods (NJ and ML) proved that Gazella bennettii is the nearest species to Gazella subgutturosa. In addition, the divergence times between Gazella and Gazella subgutturosa were estimated as 1.08~2.5 million years ago(Mya) according to the Cyt b molecular clock.
    The effect of tannic acid on the serum lipid levels of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae)
    DAI Xin, CHEN Chunyu, YANG Fei, JIANG Wei, WANG Aiqin, YIN Baofa, WEI Wanhong, YANG Shengmei
    2016, 36(1):  87-94.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601010
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    This research was carried out from May to August 2011 at the Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Science, Qinghai Province. Wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) were captured from May to August in order to observe monthly changes in total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in serum. The serum lipid levels were also examined after the pikas were given various doses of tannic acid for different periods by intragastric administration in July. The results showed that the serum lipids responded differently to tannic acid. The total cholesterol level did not change significantly after administration of tannic acid. The serum triglyceride level decreased sharply after administration of middle and high doses of tannic acid for one day and four days; similarly, the levels of serum phospholipid were lower in both the middle-dose and high-dose groups compared with those in the control group. However, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group after tannic acid administration for one day and four days. In the wild plateau pikas, the serum triglyceride and phospholipid levels increased from May to July, but decreased in August. In contrast, the levels of serum total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from May to July, but increased in August. A negative correlation was observed between triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our results indicate that intragastric administration of some dosages of tannic acid can reduce the triglyceride and phospholipid levels and increase the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in the serum of plateau pikas in a short period. The variation in serum lipids observed among the different months may have been related to the nutritional and reproductive conditions of the wild plateau pikas.
    Anti-fertility effect of levonorgestrel-quinestrol on the reproductive organs of male Apodemus draco and male Apodemus agrarius
    CHEN Xiaoning, CHEN Yajuan, ZHANG Bo, HOU Xiang, WANG Jing, HAN Ning, JIN Tiezhi, CHANG Gang
    2016, 36(1):  95-103.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601011
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    In order to explore the effect of levonorgestrel-quinestrol (EP-1) on the reproductive systems of male Apodemus draco and Apodemus agrarius, individuals of the two species of mice were divided into three groups: 30mg/kg single-dose group, 30mg/kg multiple-dose group and control group. These mice were dissected 15 days or 45 days after the initial treatment and changes of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm density, testosterone and testicular tissue morphology were assessed. The results show that, 15 days after treatments, the weights of testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle were significantly lower than those of the control group; the sperm density and testosterone levels decreased significantly; and the structure of seminiferous tubule was damaged. At 45 days after treatment, physiological indicators of each treated group continued to decline. However, compared with the physiological indicators at the 15th day, the differences were not significant at the day 45. The differences between the single-dose group and multiple-dose group were not significant. The results of this study showed that EP-1 has significant anti-fertility effect on the reproductive systems of male Apodemus draco and Apodemus agrarius, but there were no significant differences between single-dose groups and multiple-dose groups.
    A comparative study on the histological structure of the myocardium between the Newborn and the Adult Yak
    SUN Juan, DUAN De-yong, HE Jun-feng, ZHANG Qian, HE Yan-yu,HUANG Yu-feng, CUI Yan
    2016, 36(1):  104-111.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601012
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    In order to explore the histological features of yak myocardium during development, we used histological and immunochemical methods to observe the histological characteristics of newborn and adult yaks. The results showed: in newborn yaks, the number of myocardium was less than in adult yaks, the shape was thin and short, the intercalated discs were straight or V-shaped, the type Ⅲ collagen fibers dominated, and type Ⅰ collagen fibers were scarce between myocardium. In adult yaks, the number of myocardium was twice as many as in newborns. The shape was thick and long, the intercalated discs were bamboo-like or ladder-like and distributed between adjacent myocardium, the type Ⅰ collagen fibers dominated between myocardium. ANP was only expressed in atria myocardium, with expression quantity greater in the right atrium than in the left atrium, and in newborns more than in the adult yak. Less ANP was expressed in Pukinje fibers and the expression of ANP was negative in the left and right ventricular muscle. The expression of Cx43 in myocardial membrane and cytoplasm in newborns were greater than in the adult yaks, but at the intercalated discs, the adult was greater than the newborn yaks. Cx43 was positive in membranes of Pukinje fibers in newborn and adult yaks. These results indicated that the shape of the myocardium became thicker and longer, the number was increased, ANP expression in atrial muscle was decreased, and Cx43 expression in intercalated discs was more remarkable, the compensatory capacity of adaptation cycle change was progressively reduced; and the intercellular junction was strengthened, that could increase the speed of the impulse conduction among myocardium in the adult yaks compared with newborn yaks,
    The Impact of Melatonin on the Ultrastructure of Anestrus Vulpes fulva Preantral Follicle Oocytes
    SI Zhiwen, ZHAO Ying, MA Zefang,CUI Kai,SHI Xueping
    2016, 36(1):  112-117.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601013
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    This study aimed to explore the impact of melatonin (MLT) on the ultrastructure of oocytes in preantral follicles of Vulpes fulva during the anestrus stage. Five left side ovaries for each group were collected from seven month old healthy MLT implanted or non-MLT implanted Vulpes fulva, respectively. The ultrastructures of 1-5 follicles from different stages in each ovary were examined by transmission electron microscope. A few mitochondria and golgi apparatus in primordial follicles were detected in both MLT implanted and non- MLT implanted Vulpes fulva. A small amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum was found only in the primordial follicles of non- MLT implanted Vulpes fulva. Zona pellucida started to form in primary follicles with a few of cortical granules along the zona pellucida. And the number of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum increased in primary follicles in both groups. The number of zona microvilli in secondary follicle oocytes of non- MLT implanted Vulpes fulva was greater than that of MLT implanted Vulpes fulva. The results suggest that MLT only impacts the development of endoplasmic reticulum in Vulpes fulva primary follicles at anestrus stage.
    Discovery of Murina shuipuensis outside of its type locality – new record from Guangdong and Jiangxi Provinces, China
    WANG Xiaoyun, ZHANG Qiuping, GUO Weijian, LI Feng, CHEN Bocheng, XU Zhongxian, WANG Yingyong, WU Yi, YU Wenhua, LI Yuchun
    2016, 36(1):  118-122.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601014
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    In 2012 and 2013, three and nine bat specimens were collected respectively from Nanling National Nature Reserve in Guangdong Province and Jinggangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province. All specimens were small sized with forearm length of 30.51 to 34.62 mm and orange-yellow ventral fur. Based on their external and skull characteristics, they were identified as Murina shuipuensis; a newly named species reported by Eger and Lim (2011) from Guizhou. These are the first recorded in the Guangdong and Jiangxi provinces outside of its type locality (Shuipu Village, Libo County, Guizhou, China). All specimens were deposited in the Key Laboratory of Conservation and Application in Biodiversity of South China in Guangzhou University.
    Isolation and identification of a capsular serotype-A Pasteurella multocida that caused suppuration in Macropus rufus
    ZHOU Wei,LI Mu,WANG Haijun,ZHU Lingwei,SUN Yang,GUO Xuejun
    2016, 36(1):  123-128.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601015
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    To find out the etiological cause of pyogenic infection of two Macropus rufus, three samples from the pus of the infected sites were collected and subject to microbiological examinations. A strain of gram-negative bacteria was isolated. Based on the results of the morphological and biochemical tests, multiple genes sequence analysis and ERIC-PCR fingerprints,the isolate was identified as a capsular serotype-A Pasteurella multocida and was then named as PM-1.PM-1 was lethal to mice with an median lethal dose (LD50) at 1.99×102 cfu/mice. It was found to be sensitive to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.Treatment with levofloxacin hydrochloride ointment therefore cured the infected sites in the animals and the spread of the disease was then under the control.