兽类学报

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水鹿的舔盐活动模式呈现性别和季节差异

王盼1 刘明冲2 罗欢1 王鹏彦2 洪明生1 唐卓2 周材权1,3 张晋东1 白文科1,3   

  1. (1西南野生动植物资源保护教育部重点实验室,西华师范大学珍稀动植物研究所,南充 637002)
    (2四川卧龙国家级自然保护区管理局,阿坝 623006)
    (3西华师范大学生态研究院,南充 637002)
  • 出版日期:2020-01-30 发布日期:2020-01-19
  • 通讯作者: 王鹏彦 E-mail: wlpengyan@163.com; 白文科 E-mail: baiwk2006@126.com

The activity patterns of salt-licking behavior differ with gender and seasons in free-ranging sambar deer

WANG Pan1, LIU Mingchong2, LUO Huan1, WANG Pengyan2, HONG Mingsheng1 , TANG Zhuo2, ZHOU Caiquan 1,3 , ZHANG Jindong1 , BAI Wenke 1,3   

  1. (1 Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation(Ministry of Education) ,Institute of Rare Animals & Plants, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002,China)
    (2 Administration Bureau of Wolong Nature Reserve, Aba 623006,China)
    (3 Institute of Ecology, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002, China)
  • Online:2020-01-30 Published:2020-01-19

摘要:

舔盐是部分植食性动物通过舔舐盐土或盐井补充体内盐分和矿物质的特殊行为,舔盐行为节律特征分析是有蹄类动物活动模式研究的重要组成内容,深入分析野生动物的特殊行为及活动模式,有利于了解其资源利用特征及生存规律。本研究利用远程视频监控系统对卧龙自然保护区天然盐井(臭水沟)进行24h监测,分析了水鹿的舔盐活动模式。结果表明:(1)在天然盐井区域的出现率,雌性水鹿高于雄性,成体高于亚成体(幼体);(2)水鹿的舔盐频率在秋季最高,冬季最低,且水鹿的舔盐活动主要在夜晚进行,秋季到达盐井的时间(18:00)早于春夏季节(20:00);(3)雌性水鹿在秋季具有明显的舔盐频率高峰,而雄性水鹿春、夏、秋季的舔盐频率都较高;(4)成体水鹿的舔盐高峰出现在秋季,而亚成体(幼体)的舔盐频率从春季到冬季呈现逐步递减的趋势,且舔
盐高峰时间先于成体水鹿。盐井是水鹿活动频繁的区域,在对具有舔盐习性的物种开展保护的同时应考虑对盐井等必需生境的保护。

关键词: 水鹿, 舔盐行为, 活动模式, 远程视频监控系统

Abstract:

Salt-licking is a unique behavior of many herbivorous mammals to replenish salt and minerals by licking salt soil or salt well. The salt-licking behavior is an important component of the activity budget of herbivorous mammals. An in-depth analysis of the behavior and activity budget of wild animals is conducive to understanding the characteristics of resource selection and prey aversion strategies. It can also provide a scientific basis for the formulation of policies for the conservation of rare wildlife populations and habitats. Using a remote video surveillance system, we monitored salt-licking activity of sambar deer in Wolong Nature Reserve. The results show that: (1) The visitation frequency of female sambar deer to natural salt well areas is higher than males, and frequency of adult is significantly higher than that of the sub-adult (fawn); (2) The salt-licking frequency of sambar deer is the highest in autumn and the lowest in winter among all deer. The salt-licking activity of sambar deer mainly takes place at nighttime. Sambar arrive at salt well areas earliest during autumn (18: 00), and latest during spring and summer (20: 00). (3) The frequency of salt-licking is different among different genders, females have the highest frequency of salt licking in autumn, while males have similarly high frequency of salt-licking in spring, summer and autumn. (4) Adults have the highest frequency of salt-licking in autumn, while the licking frequency of sub-adults (fawn) decreases from its peak in spring gradually to winter. The peak time of salt-licking among sub-adults (fawn) is earlier than that among adults. Salt well is an area of frequent sambar activity. Protection of special habitats such as salt wells should be considered in conservation planning and practices.

Key words: Sambar deer, Salt-licking behavior, Activity pattern, Remote video surveillance system