ACTA Theriologica Sinica

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Influence of environmental and social factors on activity rhythm and time budget of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Karst Habitat

TANG Chuangbin,JIANG Jianbo,HUANG Chengming,LU Changhu,ZHOU Qihai   

  1. College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University
  • Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-04-20

环境和社会因素对喀斯特石山猕猴日活动节律和活动时间分配的影响

唐创斌 蒋建波 黄乘明 鲁长虎 周岐海   

  1. 南京林业大学生物与环境学院

Abstract:

We collected data on diet activity rhythm and time budget from one large group of wild rhesus macaques(Macaca mulatta)in Nonggang National Nature Reserve between September 2007 and August 2008. Instantaneous scan sampling was used for data collection. We examined the influences of environmental and social factors on the activity rhythm and time budgets, and assessed behavioral strategies in karst habitat. Our results indicate that macaques showed morning and afternoon feeding peaks, with a midday resting peak, possibly as an adaptation to temperature and sunlight. During the study period, macaques spent an average of 15.1% of their daytime feeding, 42.1% resting, 34.5% moving, 2.0% playing, 5.2% grooming, and 1.3% other behaviors. Additional, macaques adjusted their activity budgets in response to the changes in diet composition, spending more time moving when they increased fruit consumption. The percentage of time devoted to different activities differed significantly among different sex-age classes. Adult males spent more time resting, whereas adult females spent more time feeding and grooming. Immature individuals spent more time playing. Compared to a sympatric small macaque group, our study group spent more time resting, and less time feeding, which could be related to crop-raiding by our study group.
 

Key words: Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), Activity rhythm, Time budget, Environment and social factors

摘要: 2007年9月至2008年8月,以广西弄岗国家级自然保护区内的一大群野生猕猴为研究对象进行连续的跟踪观察,采用瞬时扫描取样法收集其食物组成、活动节律和活动时间分配的数据,旨在探讨影响石山猕猴活动节律及活动时间分配的环境和社会因素。结果表明:研究猴群的日活动节律表现为上午和下午的觅食高峰以及中午的休息高峰,这与白天温度和日照强度的变化有关。日活动时间分配中,休息42.1%,移动34.5%,觅食15.1%,玩耍2.0%,理毛5.2%,其他行为1.3%。猴群依据食物的变化调整活动时间分配,其中用于移动的时间与食物中果实的比例成显著的正相关性。不同性别年龄组个体的活动时间分配表现出显著差异,主要表现为成年雄性花费更多的时间休息,而成年雌性花费更多的时间觅食和社会性理毛,未成年个体则花费更多的时间玩耍。与同域分布的小群猕猴相比,本研究群花费更多的时间休息,较少的时间觅食。这些差异可能与盗食农作物有关。

关键词: 猕猴, 活动节律, 活动时间分配, 环境和社会因素