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Research advances in Cetacean osmoregulation


  • Online:2012-05-24 Published:2012-05-20



  1. 中国科学院水生生物研究所

Abstract: As a unique clade of mammalia,Cetaceans complete all of their life activities in water. Cetaceans therefore have developed various strategies to adapt to their aquatic environments morphologically,physiologically and ecologically. Most of the Cetaceans inhabit the hyperosmotic marine environment,but a few species live in the hypoosmotic freshwater systems. However,despite the obvious differences of their living environment,both the freshwater and marine Cetaceans face the same challenge - to maintain the water balance and electrolyte homeostasis of their body. How do Cetaceans adapt to their aquatic environments?What kinds of strategies do they develop in morphology,physiology and ecology?We try to expound upon the osmoregulation process of the Cetaceans in the following aspects:source and metabolism of water/ electrolytes, morphology and histology of the kidney and skin,hormone regulation,and the molecules related to osmoregulation etc. by consulting and discussing the conclusions of previous research in the past century on this issue. Moreover,future research trends and important issues in this area are also discussed and proposed.

摘要: 鲸豚类作为哺乳动物长期演化中较为特殊的一支,它们所有的生命活动都在水中完成,所以它们在身体结构、生理机能以及生态习性等方面都发展形成了适用于水中生活的完善的适应策略。大部分鲸豚类动物生活在海洋中,只有少部分生活在淡水里,但不管是生活在高渗环境中的海洋鲸类还是生活在低渗环境中的淡水鲸类,维持水盐平衡以及渗透压的内稳态是它们所面临的一个共同问题。鲸豚类究竟是通过怎样的渗透调节机制来实现对不同渗透环境的适应呢?它们在身体结构、生理调节和分子机制上发展了哪些独特的适应策略?本文对近一个世纪以来有关鲸豚类渗透调节的研究成果进行了系统的归纳总结,并尝试从水盐来源、代谢途径、肾脏和皮肤的生理结构、水盐代谢的内分泌调节以及渗透调节的分子机制等几个方面对鲸类动物的渗透调节机制进行全面阐述,并就未来该领域的研究方向及亟需深入研究的科学问题进行了探讨。

关键词: 鲸类, 渗透调节, 适应性