ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 258-265.DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150218

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Den characteristics and their ecological significance in Himalayan marmots (Marmota himalayana)

ZHANG Long, GUO Cheng, XIAO Yanhong, XIANG Zuofu#br#   

  1. (1 College of Life Science and Technology,Central South University of Forestry &Technology,Changsha 410004,China )
    (2 Agriculture livestock and water supplies bureau in Zoige County, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, Aba 624500, China )
  • Online:2019-05-30 Published:2019-05-10


张龙1 郭程1 肖燕宏2 向左甫1   

  1. (1 中南林业科技大学生命科学与技术学院,长沙 410004)
    (2 四川省阿坝州若尔盖县农业畜牧和水务局,阿坝 624500)
  • 通讯作者: 向左甫

Abstract:  Dens play an important role in the survival of cavernicolous animals. To explore the characteristics and ecological significance of Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana) dens, we surveyed the dens of 30 breeding pairs of Himalayan marmots at Duoma Village, Zoige County, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province from May to September 2017 and April to May 2018. Ninety dens that were extensively used (sleeping dens and breeding dens) and temporarily used (temporary dens) were selected, and seven physical characteristics of each den were measured to analyze the differences between those types of dens. We found that the average outer diameter of the den long axis is 59.3 ± 21.9 (16-100) cm, and its mean minor axis is 45.8 ± 20.5 (18-100) cm; the average inner diameter of the den is 24.4 ± 4.0 (16-39) cm, and the average inner vertical diameter is 19.7 ± 3.5 (15-39) cm; the average length is 127.3 ± 43.3 (60-240) cm from the ground to the deepest point of the first tunnel; the average angle of the tunnel is 45.7°± 9.5° (20°-72°); the average entrance orientation is 195.8° ± 96.2° (3°-356°). There are no significant differences in physical parameters of different den types except for the inner vertical diameter between sleeping dens and temporary dens that breeding pairs utilized. The physical parameters of the dens used by the Himalayan marmot indicate that they help to avoid natural enemies, resist bad weather conditions, facilitate water drainage, and maintain the stability of microclimate. The physical characteristics of most of the caves are basically the same by combining behavioral observations, illustrate that Himalayan marmot will change their dens in different years.

Key words: Adaptability, Den characteristics, Den function, Marmota himalayana

摘要: 穴居性动物的洞穴对其生存有着重要的影响。为了解喜马拉雅旱獭(Marmota himalayana)利用洞穴特征及其生态意义,于2017年5月至10月以及2018年4月至5月在四川省阿坝州若尔盖县班佑乡多玛村对30对喜马拉雅旱獭繁殖对所利用的洞穴进行了定量研究。按照当年被频繁利用的洞穴(夜宿洞与繁殖洞)与临时利用的洞穴1∶2的比例取样,共测量了90个洞穴的7个物理特征参数,比较了不同类型洞穴的物理特征差异。结果表明:(1)当地喜马拉雅旱獭利用洞穴外径的长轴和短轴分别为59.3 ± 21.9 (16~100) 和45.8 ± 20.5 (18~100) cm,内径内横径和内竖径分别为24.4 ± 4.0 (16~39) 和19.7 ± 3.5 (15~39) cm;(2)洞道首段长为127.3 ± 43.3 (60~240) cm;(3)洞道首段倾斜角度为45.7° ± 9.5° (20°~72°);(4)洞口朝向角度为195.8° ± 96.2° (3°~356°)。除了夜宿洞与繁殖洞临时洞的内竖径有显著性差异,其它不同洞穴类型之间的物理特征基本一致。喜马拉雅旱獭利用洞穴物理特征参数表明其洞穴具有躲避天敌、抵御不良天气、良好的排水性能以及维持洞穴小气候稳定的功能。大部分洞穴之间的物理特征基本一致结合行为观察,说明喜马拉雅旱獭存在年际间的换洞行为。

关键词: 喜马拉雅旱獭, 洞穴特征, 洞穴功能, 适应性