ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA ›› 2018, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 260-266.DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150122

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To disperse or not to disperse: male reproductive success in free-ranging Taihangshan macaques

TIAN Jundong, GUO Weijie, WANG Shuai, DUAN Hongyu, WANG Baishi, WANG Zhenlong,LU Jiqi   

  1. School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University
  • Online:2018-05-30 Published:2018-05-08


田军东 郭伟杰 王帅 段鸿玉 王白石 王振龙 路纪琪   

  1. 郑州大学生命科学学院
  • 通讯作者: 路纪琪 E-mail:

Abstract: A typical social group of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is composed of multi-males and multi-females. Females are philopatric, forming kin-bonded subgroups (i.e., matrilines). Males often disperse into non-natal groups during puberty or elder age, while adult males in the social group are mainly immigrants. This is suggested to reduce inbreeding and/or the enhancement of male reproductive success. However, adult males are frequently observed to stay in their natal group after puberty for one or few years. Although complex factors (e.g., social relationship, inbreeding avoidance, reproductive success) could respond to the dispersal, difference in reproductive success could be the main driver. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the reproductive success of the natal males would be lower than that of those immigrant males. From March 2010 to January 2014, non-invasive sampling (i.e., fecal DNA) was adopted to test the parentage of the macaques born during 2009 and 2013 in a free-ranging group of Taihangshan macaques (M. m. tcheliensis). This group inhabits Mt. Wangwu area within the Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve, Jiyuan, China. Fecal DNA samples were collected from 76 macaques, including 19 adult females and their offspring, and 6 adult males (4 immigrants and 2 natal males). The results showed that: 1) 36 out of 51 offspring could be assigned to their genetic fathers; 2) the 4 immigrants sired 34 offspring in contrast to 2 offspring sired by a natal male (ZM), and none of the genotyped offspring was assigned to BB; and 3) the average offspring for each immigrant adult males (1.97, 95% CI: [1.02, 2.91]) were higher than that of the natal adult (0.5). The findings demonstrate that the reproductive success of immigrant male rhesus macaques is higher than that of the natal rhesus males, supporting our prediction.

Key words: Dispersal, Mt. Taihangshan, Paternity;Reproduction success, Rhesus macaque

摘要: 典型的猕猴(Macaca multta)社群为多雄多雌型,雌性留群并形成母系单元,雄性多在亚成年或成年期离开出生群,而群内成年雄性多为外部迁入个体。雄性的迁出被认为可降低近亲繁殖或提升繁殖成功。然而,诸多野外数据显示,少数本群出生雄性个体会居留于出生群一年或数年。尽管驱动雄性离群的因素较复杂(如社会关系、近亲回避、繁殖成功),但繁殖成功的差异可能是驱动雄性离群的主导因素。为探讨居留于出生群是否影响雄性的繁殖成功,于2010年3月至2014年1月,在太行山猕猴国家级自然保护区王屋山地区,以一群野生太行山猕猴为研究对象,采用非损伤取样法并结合分子生物学方法,分析了群内出生和迁入成年雄性个体的繁殖成功(以子代数量评估)。研究发现:(1)群内51只子代个体中有36只个体可以匹配到其遗传学父亲;(2)4个迁入雄性繁衍了34个子代,仅1只群内出生雄性ZM繁衍了2只子代,但群内出生的雄性BB未匹配到子代。本研究提示,迁入雄性较本群出生雄性的繁殖成功较高,即迁移有助于繁殖成功的提升。

关键词: 繁殖成功, 迁移, 父权, 猕猴, 太行山