ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 416-430.DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150532

• ORIGINAL PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of visual and olfactory density signals on social stress in Brandt's voles

HE Chen1,3, HUANG Shuli1,3, LIU Jing1,3, SONG Yiran1,3, LU Wei1,3, ZHANG Zhibin1,2   

  1. 1 State Key Lab of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodent, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
    2 CAS Center for Excellence in Biotic Interactions, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-02-09 Online:2021-07-30 Published:2021-08-02


赫晨1,3, 黄淑丽1,3, 刘景1,3, 宋怡然1,3, 鲁伟1,3, 张知彬1,2   

  1. 1 中国科学院动物研究所农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    2 中国科学院生物互作卓越研究中心, 北京 100049;
    3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 通讯作者: 张知彬,
  • 作者简介:赫晨(1996-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事动物行为学研究.
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: Rodents have the density-dependent behavior-endocrine regulation mechanism.When their population density increases, it will increase social stress, nervous anxiety, aggression behaviors, as well as alter neuroendocrine in the brain.Social stress caused by increased density may involve different senses such as visual, olfactory, touch, hearing, andtaste, however, their distinct effects on social stress have never been evaluated.Our previous study indicates that high population density decreases the expression of oxytocin(OT) in the brain of male Brandt's voles(Lasiopodomys brandtii), increases the expression of arginine-vasopressin(AVP), and increases serum corticosteroid(CORT), which are linked to the increase of aggressive behavior.However, the role of olfactory and visual signals in triggering social stress is unknown.Because the olfactory signal is involved in marking the territory or dominance of animals, while the visual signal is involved in collective cooperation for defending territory against intruders or predators, the social stress effects may be different.We used nest pads and mirrors to simulate olfactory and visual density.To test the distinct effects of olfactory and visual density signals on social stress of Brandt's voles, we analyzed the behavioral(open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and three-chamber sociability test), body weight, organs, serum physiological indicators, and brain neurotransmitter expression changes.We found that nest-pads treatment groups with high olfactory density decreased OT expression but increased AVP expression in specific brain regions of Brandt's voles, which is similar to the density effect(except for the OT increase in males).This result generally supported the hypothesis that high-density olfactory is the main signal path of density-dependent social stress.High visual density group treatment increased OT expression in males, but decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor(GR), serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), and anxiety behavior in females, supporting the hypothesis that high-density visual is the main signal path for reducing social stress.Our study suggests that visual and olfactory signals play a different, or even opposite role in the density-dependent behavioral or population regulation of social Brandt's voles, which may be beneficial in maintaining an optimal population density or group size.

Key words: Density-dependent, Social stress, Crowding effect, Olfactory density signals, Visual density signals

摘要: 鼠类具有密度依赖的行为-内分泌反馈调节机制:当其种群密度升高时,会产生社会应激,增加紧张焦虑、攻击等行为,同时其神经内分泌也产生相应变化。然而,密度升高引起的社会应激可能涉及到视觉、嗅觉、触觉、听觉、味觉等不同感官,而不同感官对社会应激反应产生的独特作用尚不清楚。我们以前的研究发现,高密度饲养可导致雄性布氏田鼠脑部催产素(OT)表达量降低、后加压素(AVP)表达量升高、血清皮质酮(CORT)含量升高,并与攻击行为增加一致,但其中嗅觉和视觉密度信号的作用尚不清楚。嗅觉信号通常用于个体领域标记和社会地位识别,而视觉信号常用于应对竞争者或天敌的群体防御,因此,二者的社会应激效应可能不同。本研究利用巢垫和镜子分别模拟嗅觉和视觉密度信号,对布氏田鼠的行为(旷场、高架十字迷宫和三箱社交测试)、体重、器官、血清生理指标、脑部神经递质表达等变化进行了分析,评估了嗅觉和视觉密度信号对布氏田鼠社会应激反应的影响。研究发现,在高密度嗅觉刺激下,布氏田鼠脑部OT表达量减少、AVP表达量增加,与密度拥挤效应的影响相同(除雄性OT增加外),说明高密度嗅觉信号是社会应激产生的主要信号通路。高密度视觉刺激下,雄性脑部OT表达量增加,雌性脑部糖皮质激素受体(GR)减少,且雌性血清促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)下降,焦虑性行为减少,说明高密度视觉信号是减少社会应激反应的主要信号通路。本研究揭示了视觉和嗅觉信号在社会性的布氏田鼠种群密度调节中发挥相反的调控作用,可能对于维持合适的种群密度或群体大小具有一定的生态适应意义。

关键词: 密度制约, 社会应激, 拥挤效应, 嗅觉密度信号, 视觉密度信号

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