兽类学报

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两种同域分布蹄蝠在开阔度不同的环境中回声定位声波的可塑性

彭乐1,2 叶建平2 朱光剑2 刘志霄1 张礼标2   

  1. (1 吉首大学生物资源与环境科学学院,吉首 416000)
    (2 广东省生物资源应用研究所,广东省动物保护与资源利用重点实验室,广东省野生动物保护与利用公共实验室,广州 510260)
  • 出版日期:2019-05-30 发布日期:2019-05-10
  • 通讯作者: 刘志霄E-mail: zxliu1965@163.com;张礼标 E-mail:zhanglb@gdei.gd.cn

Vocal plasticity of two sympatric hipposiderid bats in different space openness

PENG Le, YE Jianping, ZHU Guangjian, LIU Zhixiao, ZHANG Libiao   

  1. (1 College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, China)
    (2 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260, China)
  • Online:2019-05-30 Published:2019-05-10

摘要: 在广西桂林研究了同域分布的大蹄蝠(Hipposideros armiger)和中蹄蝠(H. larvatus)在不同开阔度环境中回声定位声波信号的变化。用超声波仪录制自由悬挂和分别释放于人工“大棚”和“小棚”内飞行的蝙蝠的回声定位声波,使用超声分析软件分析声脉冲时程、主频率及声脉冲间隔,通过重复测量方差分析比较不同状态下的声波参数。结果表明:中蹄蝠声波的主频在悬挂状态下最高,小棚内飞行时次之,大棚内飞行最低;两种蹄蝠声波的脉冲时程和脉冲间隔在悬挂状态下最长,大棚内飞行次之,小棚内飞行最低。总之,这两种蹄蝠的回声定位声波能够随所处状态的变化而变化,可根据生境的复杂度调节声讯号,具有明显的声波可塑性。

关键词: 大蹄蝠, 中蹄蝠, 回声定位, 环境开阔度, 声音可塑性

Abstract: Two sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros armiger and H. larvatus were studied to investigate the variation of echolocation calls in different space openness. The echolocation calls were recorded using UltraSound Detector when the bats were in the following three situations: hanging freely, flying in a large cage, and flying in a small cage. The pulse duration (PD), dominant frequency (DF), and inter-pulse interval (PI) were analyzed using BatSound Pro-Sound Analysis software. We used GLM ANOVA to analyze the call differences among different situations. H. larvatus emitted echolocation calls with the highest DF when hanging freely and with the lowest DF when flying in the large cage. The highest PD and PI of calls of both hipposiderid bats were found when they were hanging freely and the lowest values were found in the small cage. Our results indicated that the echolocation calls of bats would change according to the situations and habitats and confirmed the plasticity of echolocation calls in bats.

Key words: Hipposideros armiger, Hipposideros larvatus, Echolocation call, Space openness, Vocal plasticity