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野猪危害防控措施时间延续性及空间推广性研究

崔爽 刘丙万   

  1. (东北林业大学野生动物与自然保护地学院,哈尔滨 150040
  • 出版日期:2020-07-30 发布日期:2020-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 刘丙万 E-mail: liubw1@sina.com

The research on the time continuity and space popularization of the control measures of wild boar

CUI Shuang,LIU Bingwan   

  1. (College of Wildlife and Protected Area, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China)
  • Online:2020-07-30 Published:2020-07-24

摘要: 近年来,由于野猪(Sus scrofa)数量增长和土地利用方式的变化,导致人与野猪之间的冲突不断增加。2018年8—10月在吉林省珲春地区利用东北虎声音、野猪惨叫声、狼叫声,太阳能警示灯、防兽彩带等视觉设施,东北虎粪便,综合使用东北虎声音和东北虎粪便以及电子围栏等防控措施在已使用过和未使用过防控措施的样地开展了野猪危害防控效果及空间特征研究。我们以2018年野猪危害防控研究的数据,结合2011—2017年已发表数据进一步研究了野猪危害防控措施的时空特征。防控有效期为实验开始到野猪首次进入样地发生危害的时间间隔。研究结果表明:(1)2018年实验组与对照组相比,防控有效期均存在显著差异(P< 0.001),对照组防控有效期为(1.33±0.58)d,实验组中已使用过和未使用过防控措施样地的防控有效期分别为(16.25±9.00)d和(20.58±9.61)d,防控有效期差异不显著(P=0.127);(2)2018年与2011年、2013年、2016年、2017年相比同一种防控措施的防控效果随着使用年份的增加,播放东北虎声音1min加空白5min、放置避雨装置的粪便、综合使用东北虎声音加粪便、放置红黄绿色太阳能警示灯等防控措施的防控有效期没有显著变化(P=0.200;P=0.295;P= 0.221;P=0.080;P=0.090;P=0.050);播放狼声音1min加空白5min防控效果有显著下降趋势(P=0.003);按顺序播放东北虎声音加野猪惨叫1min加空白5min组防控效果呈显著上升趋势(P=0.001),但防控有效期较短为(13.67±2.62)d,不具推广意义。因此,野猪危害防控措施中播放东北虎声音、综合使用东北虎声音和东北虎粪便、太阳能警示灯等均具有空间推广性和时间延续性。

关键词: 野猪, 东北虎, 太阳能警示灯, 危害防控

Abstract: In recent years, the conflict between human beings and wild boar (Sus scrofa) has increased due to the growth of wild boar population and the change of land use. From August to October 2018, in the Hunchun area of Jilin Province, the effect and spatial characteristics of wild boar damage control were studied in the sample plots where the prevention and control measures had been used and not used. Techniques applied include playing the voice of the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), playing the scream of wild boar, playing the voice of wolf (Canis lupus), using vision equipment including solar blinkers, as well as deploying of anti-animal ribbons, electronic fences, and feces the Amur tiger’s, especially comprehensively using the sounds and feces of Amur tiger’s. Based on the data of wild boar damage control in 2018, combined with the published data from 2011 to 2017, we further analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of wild boar control measures. The validity period is the interval between the beginning of the experiment and the beginning of the damage when the wild boar enters the sample plots. The results are as follows: (1) There is a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group (P<0.001). The validity period of the control group is (1.33±0.58)d. For the experimental group, the validity period of wild boar control measures between the used and unused groups are (16.25±9.00)d and (20.58±9.61)d. There is no significant difference (P=0.127);(2) The study on the effect of the same wild boar damage control measure in 2011, 2013, 2016, 2017 and 2018 showed that there is no significant change (P=0.200; P=0.295; P=0.221; P=0.080; P=0.090; P=0.050) among the validity period of control measures, such as playing Amur tiger sounds for 1 min plus blank for 5 min, placing feces in rain proof devices, using of Amur tiger’s voice plus feces, and placing red, yellow and green solar blinkers. And there was a significant downward trend with the adult wolf sounds group (P=0.003). There was an upward trend with the Amur tiger sounds and wild boar scream group (P=0.001), but the short validity period is (13.67±2.62) d, which had no significance of popularization. Therefore, playing the sounds of Amur tiger, comprehensively applying the sounds and feces of the Amur tiger, solar blinkers in the control measures of wild boar damage has space popularization and time continuity.

Key words: Wild boar (Sus scrofa), Amur tiger, Solar blinker, Damage Control