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间颅鼠兔的种群遗传结构和历史演化动态

常勇斌 杨奇森 温知新 夏 霖 吕 雪 程继龙 Andrey A. Lissovsky 侯建华 葛德燕   

  1. 河北大学生命科学学院
  • 出版日期:2016-11-13 发布日期:2016-11-16
  • 通讯作者: 葛德燕 E-mail:gedy@ioz.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:常勇斌(1989-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事动物地理学研究.
  • 基金资助:
     
    科技部科技基础性工作专项(2014FY210200),国家自然科学基金(J1210002),俄罗斯基础研究基金(14-04-00163

Population genetic structure and demographic history of Ochotona cansus (Lagomorpha, Ochotonidae)

CHANG Yongbin, YANG Qisen, WEN Zhixin, XIA Lin, LV Xue, CHENG Jilong, Andrey A. Lissovsky, HOU Jianhua, GE Deyan   

  1.  College of Life Sciences, Hebei University
  • Online:2016-11-13 Published:2016-11-16
  • Contact: GE Deyan E-mail:gedy@ioz.ac.cn

摘要:

本研究基于多个线粒体基因(包括COI、Cyt b、tRNA-Thr、tRNA-Pro、D-loop控制区部分序列共计2417bp)对间颅鼠兔(Ochotona cansus)的种群遗传结构和历史演化动态进行了研究。基于线粒体基因联合数据构建的贝叶斯树显示,间颅鼠兔分为两大支系:来自岷山山系东部的甘肃白水江和四川唐家河的种群组成了支系一;其余采样点的种群组成了支系二。基于以上基因所构建的单倍型网络图显示的遗传结构与贝叶斯树一致。贝叶斯聚类分析(BAPS)将间颅鼠兔分为4个地理种群。A种群包括甘肃白水江(BSJ)和四川唐家河(TJH)的样本;B种群仅包括四川卧龙(WL)的样本;C种群包括青海北部种群(GC、MY、QL)、青海南部-四川北部种群(JW、JZ、ZK、RE)、四川康定(KD)和陕西太白山(TB)的样本;D种群包括山西娄烦(LF)以及陕西吴起(WQ)的样本。基于线粒体基因构建的物种树进行支系分化时间的推测,结果显示4个地理种群的分化时间约为0.72 Ma、0.32 Ma、0.12 Ma, 这与造成青藏高原剧烈隆起的昆黄运动(1.10-0.60Ma)和共和运动(0.15Ma)发生时间基本吻合。采用中性检验、错配分布、扩展贝叶斯天际线(EBSPs)3种方法对间颅鼠兔的种群历史动态进行预测,分析结果显示间颅鼠兔在历史上并没有经历过显著的种群扩张,而且在末次盛冰期后开始衰减。生态位模型(ENM)预测结果表明:末次盛冰期时间颅鼠兔的潜在分布区比其现今分布区小,末次盛冰期比末次间冰期潜在分布区略大,表明间颅鼠兔受末次盛冰期影响较大。气候因子分析显示降水比温度对间颅鼠兔种群影响更大,推测降水对植被的演化影响显著,从而影响间颅鼠兔的食物来源和栖息环境。

关键词: 间颅鼠兔, 种群遗传结构, 分化时间, 青藏高原隆起, 历史演化动态, 生态位模型, 末次盛冰期

Abstract: In the present study, we studied the population genetic structure and demographic history of Gansu pika (O. cansus) by using multiple mitochondrial loci (COI, Cyt b, tRNA-Thr, tRNA-Pro, control region, totally 2417 base pairs). Bayesian analysis of the concatenated genes revealed two major lineages: Lineage 1 included samples from Baishuijiang and Tangjiahe; Lineage 2 contained samples from the other 12 locations. The phylogenetic structure of haplotype network built based on the same genes was almost the same as that of the Bayesian tree. Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) divided O. cansus into four geographic populations. Population A contained samples from Baishuijiang and Tangjiahe; B included WL (Wolong, Sichuan) only; C included North Qinghai population(GC,MY,QL),South Qinghai-North Sichuan population(JW,JZ,RE,ZK),KD (Kangding, Sichuan), TB (Taibai Mountain, Shaanxi); and D included LF (Loufan, Shanxi) and WQ (Wuqi, Shaanxi). Species tree constructed on mtDNA showed that the major divergence time for the four geographic populations were: 0.72 Ma, 0.32Ma, 0.12Ma, which generally coincided with the Kunhuang Movement (1.10-0.60Ma) and Gonghe Movement (0.15Ma), the two dramatic geological events during the uplift of Qinghai-Plateau. Moreover, we estimated the demographic history of O. cansus by using three methods: neutrality tests, mismatch distributions and extended Bayesian skyline plots. The results indicated that O. cansus might have not experienced population expansion, but it was significantly decreased since the Last Glacial Maximum. The Ecological Niche Modeling indicated that the potential distribution of O. cansus in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is smaller than Current and LIG, and the precipitation played a more important role than did temperature in the population dynamics of Gansu pika. This is possibly because precipitation strongly influences the food resources and habitats of Gansu Pika by affecting the vegetation succession.

Key words: Ochotona cansus, population genetic structure, divergence time, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift, demographic history, Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)