兽类学报

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贵州黔灵山公园半野生的猕猴的种群动态

朱源1,2 卢志远3 李达3 王琦3 粟海军1,2   

  1. (1贵州大学林学院,贵阳 550025)(2 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心,贵阳 550025)(3 贵阳市黔灵山公园管理处,贵阳 550001)
  • 出版日期:2019-11-30 发布日期:2019-11-27
  • 通讯作者: 粟海军 E-mail: hjsu@gzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31860610);贵州省科技联合基金项目(黔科合LH号[2015]7665号)

Population dynamics of semi-free-ranging rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) in Qianlingshan Park, Guizhou, China

ZHU Yuan 1,2,  LU Zhiyuan 3, LI Da 3,  WANG Qi 3, SU Haijun 1,2   

  1. (1 College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China)
    (2 Research Center for Biodiversity and Conservation of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China)
    (3 Administration Office of Qianlingshan Park, Guiyang 550001, China)
  • Online:2019-11-30 Published:2019-11-27

摘要: 科学分析动物种群增长动态,合理确定环境容量是管控城市半野生动物种群激增危害的根本途径。本文对贵州贵阳黔灵山公园半野生猕猴种群特征、种群增长、环境容纳量以及猴群对公园的危害进行了研究分析。结果表明:(1)较之野生种群,园内栖息种群密度高、猴群大。现有8个稳定猴群共计1067只[最小群:47只;最大群:226只,平均:(133±67)只],总体雌雄性比为1.33;全区种群密度约达251只/km2,但猴群主要栖息于游道及其周边,导致主分布区密度高达 2134只/km2;(2)种群增长迅速、繁殖力旺盛。自1992年以来,种群呈指数型增长(年均增长率为8.08%,增长函数为y=30.6789*exp[(x-1987)/8.7894+ 64.0193),当前种群总体年龄结构为成年猴>青年猴>幼年猴,虽青幼个体数量较成年个体少,但成年雌雄性比达到1.50,性成熟个体较多,有效种群数大,仍保持旺盛的繁殖力;(3)种群Logistic增长曲线(y=792/(1+2.8495E+183*exp-0.2104x)表明园内环境容量(K值)为792只,与该区猕猴伤人事件频率曲线进入高位平台期所对应的种群数量接近。文中还对猴群栖息对当地植物多样性造成的影响进行了调查。调查监测表明,种群过大且集中栖息导致公园内生物多样性破坏、人猴冲突、公共健康隐患等一系列问题产生,建议应通过节育、分流等相关措施,将种群数量控制在K/2即400只左右为宜。本文可为黔灵山公园猕猴保护管理及其他城市野生动物管理提供参考。

关键词: 猕猴, 半野生种群, 环境容纳量, 城市动物, 黔灵山公园

Abstract:

Scientifically analyzing the population growth dynamics and determining its environmental carrying capacity for controlling the population?explosion?caused hazards, and it is very important for management of urban semi-free-ranging animals.In this article, the present population characteristics, population growth, environmental capacity, and the threat or hazards with respect to the semi-free-ranging rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) in Qianlingshan Park, Guiyang, Guizhou province, China, were all collected as follows.1) comparing the wild population, there are an over-crowed macaque population inhabited in a narrow area in this park with over-sized groups.Totally 1067 individuals belongs to 8 stable groups (group size:Min:47; Max:226,Mean±SD:133±67)
with 1.33 sex radio (♀/♂).The population density of whole park was 251 individuals per Km2, but it can reach to 2134 individuals per Km2 within the tourist routes and surrounding areas where the macaque inhabit.2) the population is grown rapidly with high reproductive potential.An exponential curve (annual growth rate is 8.08%; formula of exponential curve is ( y=30.6789*exp[(x-1987)/8.7894+ 64.0193) illustrated the population growth since 1992.The age structure of present population showed as Adults>Juveniles>Infants, but among them, there is a large amount of sexual maturity individuals, namely large effective population size, with 1.50 sex radio (♀/♂), so which means high reproduction potentiality of the entire population.3) The environmental capacity of population is 792 individuals according to the K-value calculated from Logistic curve of population growth  ( y=792/(1+2.8495E+183*exp-0.2104x), which is approximately approaching to a specific range of population size that will lead the frequency curve of injury accident caused by macaques into a stable duration at a high level.Additionally, the influence on floristic diversity caused by macaque was investigated. The field survey and monitoring of population showed that, the bio?diversity loss, conflicts between human and macaques, and public health risk could emerge frequently due to the over?sized population and its inhabitation at narrow areas. According to results, we can suggest that the population sized should be control under the value of K/2, namely 400, by the ways of birth control or macaques deliver in to other places, which would be reasonable for minimizing the relative hazards. This paper could be helpful for the macaque’s conservation management of Qianlingshan Park, as well as a useful reference for urban wildlife-human conflict management in other cities.

Key words: Rhesus macaque, Semi-free-ranging, Environmental carrying capacity, Urban animals, Qianlingshan Park