ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 235-244.DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150519


Analysis of host and vectors in the plague natural foci of Jianchuan County, Yunnan Province

SU Chao1, LI Yuqiong1, WANG Qian2, LI Shouqin3, XU Lei2, GAO Zihou1   

  1. 1 Yunnan Institute of Endemic Diseases, Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Natural Infectious Diseases of Yunnan Province, Yunnan Plague Prevention and Control Research Center, Dali 671000, China;
    2 Vanke School of Public Health, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
    3 The Station of Endemic Disease Prevention and Control, Jianchuan County, Jianchuan 671300, China
  • Received:2020-12-20 Online:2021-05-30 Published:2021-05-27


苏超1, 李玉琼1, 王倩2, 李寿芹3, 许磊2, 高子厚1   

  1. 1 云南省地方病防治所, 云南省自然疫源性疾病防控重点实验室, 云南鼠疫防治研究中心, 大理 671000;
    2 清华大学万科公共卫生学院, 北京 100084;
    3 云南省剑川县地方病防治站, 大理 671300
  • 通讯作者: 高子厚,
  • 作者简介:苏超(1990-)男,硕士,主管医师,主要从事鼠疫等自然疫源性疾病防控研究.
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: Understanding the host, vector community structure and population dynamics of the plague natural foci will provide evidence for proposing targeted plague prevention and control strategies and mechanisms. The Jianchuan County is located in the core area of the Apodemus chevrieri and Eothenomys miletus natural foci of plague. This area is rich in small mammal species and harbors two types of Yersinia pestis. This provides a very important field model for research on the evolution of the plague natural foci. This article collates and analyzes the plague surveillance data in Jianchuan County from 1976 to 2019. A total of 25 species of small mammals classified in 16 genera, 7 families and 4 orders were captured indoors in this natural focus of plague. Among them, the absolute dominant rodent species was Rattus norvegicus, while the other dominant rodents were Rattus tanezumi and Mus musculus. Outdoor surveys recorded 31 small mammal species classified in 21 genera, 8 families and 5 orders, among which the dominant species were Apodemus chevrieri and Eothenomys miletus. The indoor rodent density fluctuated around 3.75% before 2005, but decreased significantly from 2006 and remained at around 0.49%. The outdoor rodent density fluctuates at a high level of about 9.13% across the years. In this plague natural focus, the main parasitic fleas in the host animals were Ctenophthalmus quaadratus, Neopsylla specialis and Frontopsylla spadix, among which C. quaadratus was in an absolute dominant position. Yersinia pestis was detected in 72 samples and Plague F1 antibody was detected in 95 samples. The foci have existed for a long time, and the host animals and vectors are diverse and different. However, the structure is overall stable. Due to the existence of natural and geographical conditions for long-term preservation of Y. pestis, further research is needed to explore the relationships among population dynamics, epidemic occurrence and natural conditions.

Key words: Plague, Host, Vector, Community structure, Natural foci

摘要: 了解鼠疫自然疫源地的宿主、媒介群落结构及其种群动态,为提出针对性的鼠疫防控策略与机制提供依据。云南省剑川县属于齐氏姬鼠和大绒鼠鼠疫自然疫源地的核心区,该区域小型兽类种类丰富,存在2种类型鼠疫菌,为进一步研究疫源地的演变提供了重要的现场模型。本文对剑川县1976-2019年鼠疫监测资料进行整理和分析,发现该疫源地室内共捕获小型兽类4目7科16属25种,绝对优势鼠种为褐家鼠,其他优势鼠种为黄胸鼠和小家鼠;室外捕获小型兽类5目8科21属31种,其中优势鼠种为齐氏姬鼠和大绒鼠。室内鼠密度在2005年以前基本在3.75%左右波动,2006年开始显著下降维持在0.49%左右波动;室外鼠密度常年在9.13%左右这一较高水平波动。该疫源地鼠体主要优势蚤种为方叶栉眼蚤、特新蚤和棕形额蚤,其中方叶栉眼蚤处于绝对优势地位。共检出细菌学阳性样本72份,检出F1抗体阳性样本95份。该疫源地存在时间长,宿主动物及媒介种类多差异大,但总体结构稳定。由于存在着鼠疫菌长期保存的自然和地理条件,有待于进一步的研究探讨其种群动态、疫情发生与自然条件等的关系模型。

关键词: 鼠疫, 宿主, 媒介, 群落结构, 自然疫源地

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