Table of Content

    30 May 2021, Volume 41 Issue 3
    Analysis of host and vectors in the plague natural foci of Jianchuan County, Yunnan Province
    SU Chao, LI Yuqiong, WANG Qian, LI Shouqin, XU Lei, GAO Zihou
    2021, 41(3):  235-244.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150519
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    Understanding the host, vector community structure and population dynamics of the plague natural foci will provide evidence for proposing targeted plague prevention and control strategies and mechanisms. The Jianchuan County is located in the core area of the Apodemus chevrieri and Eothenomys miletus natural foci of plague. This area is rich in small mammal species and harbors two types of Yersinia pestis. This provides a very important field model for research on the evolution of the plague natural foci. This article collates and analyzes the plague surveillance data in Jianchuan County from 1976 to 2019. A total of 25 species of small mammals classified in 16 genera, 7 families and 4 orders were captured indoors in this natural focus of plague. Among them, the absolute dominant rodent species was Rattus norvegicus, while the other dominant rodents were Rattus tanezumi and Mus musculus. Outdoor surveys recorded 31 small mammal species classified in 21 genera, 8 families and 5 orders, among which the dominant species were Apodemus chevrieri and Eothenomys miletus. The indoor rodent density fluctuated around 3.75% before 2005, but decreased significantly from 2006 and remained at around 0.49%. The outdoor rodent density fluctuates at a high level of about 9.13% across the years. In this plague natural focus, the main parasitic fleas in the host animals were Ctenophthalmus quaadratus, Neopsylla specialis and Frontopsylla spadix, among which C. quaadratus was in an absolute dominant position. Yersinia pestis was detected in 72 samples and Plague F1 antibody was detected in 95 samples. The foci have existed for a long time, and the host animals and vectors are diverse and different. However, the structure is overall stable. Due to the existence of natural and geographical conditions for long-term preservation of Y. pestis, further research is needed to explore the relationships among population dynamics, epidemic occurrence and natural conditions.
    Survey on serotypes of Salmonella isolated from mink and its pathogenesis in mice
    ZHOU Guodong, ZHU Qian, SHI Wenjian, YUAN Peng, JIANG Shijin, XIE Zhijing
    2021, 41(3):  245-253.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150468
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    Thirty-five (66.04%) Salmonella strains were isolated from 53 farmed mink samples collected in Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China, which were identified using selective culture, biochemical assays, and serotyping assays. Thirty-four (97.14%) of the 35 isolates were identified as Salmonella enteritidis (Se), named as Se-SD-1-Se-SD-34, followed by S. typhimurium (St) (1/35), named as St-SD-1. The 10 virulence-associated genes of Salmonella were tested using PCR. The prevalence of invA and mgtC genes for the isolates were 100%(35/35), sopE and tolC genes 97.14%(34/35), stn gene 94.29%(33/35), avrA gene 88.57%(31/35), spiA gene 82.86%(29/35), hilC gene 68.57%(24/35), spvB gene 62.86%(22/35) and pefA genes 42.86%(15/35). It demonstrated that the virulence gene contents were different among the Salmonella isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 11 antimicrobials (amoxicillin etc.) for the isolates was performed using disk diffusion method. Thirty-four Se isolates exhibited multidrug resistance and cross resistance, and the highest level of resistance was found to kanamycin(15/34). The St isolate was only resistant to tetracycline. According to serotypes and virulence gene contents of the isolates, Se-SD-1 and St-SD-1 were selected for mouse experiments. As a result, Se-SD-1 and St-SD-1 caused the diseases in mice, and the inoculation doses could have influences on mouse mortality. This study enriches the research data of mink salmonellosis. It is necessary to further carry out the etiology and epidemiological surveillance of salmonella in mink for public health.
    Establishment and application of giant panda rotavirus PCR detection method
    SU Xiaoyan, LI Lin, YAN Xia, ZHANG Dongsheng, HOU Rong, LIU Songrui
    2021, 41(3):  254-260.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150454
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    Rotavirus is one of the main pathogenic microorganisms threatening the survival of giant pandas. In order to detect panda rotavirus antigens quickly, conveniently and accurately, it is necessary to develop a detection method suitable for ex-situ breeding centers and protection areas. In this study, the panda rotavirus Vp7 gene sequence was synthesized to construct the PUC-VP7 recombinant plasmid, and it was used as a positive control for PCR detection and analysis of panda rotavirus samples. The results showed that during the PCR amplification analysis, both the plasmid and the viral cDNA showed a specific band at 340 bp. In addition, when performing rotavirus antigen detection on forty-five panda rotavirus fecal samples, two samples showed a band at 340 bp, and the gene fragment was 99.89% homologous to the panda rotavirus CH-1 strain. The PUC-VP7 plasmid constructed in this study can not only be used as a positive quality control material in the PCR detection of giant panda rotavirus, but can also effectively improve the promotion and application of the PCR virus detection technology in ex-situ breeding centers and protected areas.
    Canine distemper and wildlife
    WU Qiaoxing, TANG Liubin, ZHU Qifeng, JIN Xuelin, JIN Yipeng
    2021, 41(3):  261-274.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150456
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    Canine distemper is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by canine distemper virus, outbreaks of this disease have occurred multiple times among domestic dogs and wildlife worldwide. Cross-species transmission of canine distemper has been threatening various wildlife populations severely such as Siberian tiger, African lion, snow leopard and giant panda. At the same time, the range of infectious hosts is still expanding. Recent studies showed that wildlife in China, especially populations in the wild, are facing serious threats from infection of canine distemper due to the constant variation of canine distemper virus and increase of stray dog population. In order to better cope with the hazard brought by canine distemper to wildlife, this study summarized the research progress on pathogenic characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of canine distemper in wildlife. Based on the above research, we proposed prevention and control measures aimed at canine distemper in wildlife from three aspects including source of infection, transmission route and susceptible animals. At present, due to the lack of scientific research and technology in nature reserves in China and the low awareness toward the risk of wildlife canine distemper transmission, little has been done in monitoring wildlife canine distemper, which undoubtedly increases the difficulty to its prevention and control. Therefore, in order to secure the existence of wildlife population in China, the research about wildlife canine distemper monitoring and epidemiology should be enhanced, establishing an effective monitoring and control system to protect wildlife population from canine distemper.
    Review on the systematic taxonomy of Dipodoidea in China
    CHENG Jilong, XIA Lin, WEN Zhixin, ZHANG Qian, GE Deyan, YANG Qisen
    2021, 41(3):  275-283.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150531
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    In recent years, with the development of molecular systematics and the further research on species diversity and taxonomy in desert areas, new cryptic species have been discovered continuously, and the taxonomic status of some taxa has also changed. China has the highest species diversity of Dipodoidea in the world. It has been confirmed that there are 3 families, 6 subfamilies, 12 genera and 22 species in China after taxonomic study of Dipodoidea. We proved that there is a fifth kind of brich mouse in China-Gray Brich Mouse, Sicista pseudonapaea. The previous genus Allactaga of the Allactaginae is a paraphyly; and it should be divided into three genera, Allactaga, Orientallactaga, and Scarturus. The genus names of Siberian Jerboa, Gobi Jerboa, and Balikun Jerboa were changed to Orientallactaga. The Small Five-toed Jerboa changed into the genus Scarturus, which was proved as a species group containing cryptic species. The distribution of Great Jerboa in China is doubtful. The previous subspecies deasyi of North Three-toed Jerboa was promoted to species status——Tarim Jerboa, D. deasyi. The results show that Dzungarian Three-toed Jerboa, Stylodipus sungorus is distributed in China. A new genus and species Chimaera Jerboa, Chimaerodipus auratus, was named in recent years in China.
    Research advances of the host DNA enrichment from noninvasively collected samples
    WANG Liling, HU Jingyang, KUANG Weimin, YU Li
    2021, 41(3):  284-295.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150485
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    Noninvasive sampling has been widely used in conservation genetics, molecular ecology and molecular evolution study of animals. With the development of genome sequencing and the advent of the genomics era, how to obtain high quality DNA used for genome sequencing from noninvasively collected samples is a challenge for researchers. In this review, we summarized and compared the methods and applications of enriching host DNA in fecal samples and archaeological materials or museum specimens, which were the most common used sample sources in the noninvasive sampling. We aimed to provide an important reference for the future research and application of noninvasive sampling in the genomic study of the animals.
    A preliminary study on the molecular mechanism of hypoxic tolerance in cetaceans: bioinformatic analysis based on HIF1α and TSC1 genes
    LIU Rui, CAO Yang, LIU Xing, TIAN Ran, XU Shixia
    2021, 41(3):  296-309.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150449
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    Cetaceans are distinguished by their excellent diving ability. However, hypoxia is recognized as one of the biggest challenges for prolonged diving in cetaceans. Although cetaceans have evolved a series of anatomical and physiological traits related to hypoxic tolerance, the molecular mechanism of these adaptations are still unclear. In this study, we investigated two genes:hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) involved in cell sensing and adaptation to changes of oxygen partial pressure and tuberous sclerosis complex 1(TSC1) related to inhibition of energy metabolism in hypoxic environment. Our results revealed six positively selected sites of TSC1 gene in cetaceans that were detected by at least two ML methods. Moreover, compared with the homologous sequences of terrestrial mammals, seven specific amino acid mutations were identified in cetaceans. Additionally, 30.77% of these positively selected sites and specific mutation sites possessed radical amino acid changes. These positively selected sites were located in or closed to functional domains. Notably, signals of positive selection for HIF1α and TSC1 were mainly concentrated in cetacean lineages, suggesting that these two genes might have experienced functional changes to protect cells from hypoxia damage during adapting to aquatic environment. Interestingly, 66 parallel or convergent amino acid changes were detected among different hypoxic-tolerant species, which provides molecular evidence for the convergent hypoxic adaptation in mammals.
    Future effects of climate change and human footprint on the geographical distribution of three snub-nosed monkeys in China
    LI Xinrui, ZHAO Xumao, LI Ming
    2021, 41(3):  310-320.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150513
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    Climate change and the human activities on the environment are important drivers of biodiversity loss. Based on MaxEnt models, we studied the impacts of climate change and the human footprint on predicted range shift in the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey(Rhinopithecus roxellana), the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey(R. bieti), and the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey(R. brelichi). All three species are endemic to China. We found that areas of suitable habitat for the three snub-nosed monkey are shrinked and the elevation of the distribution area was increased from 2000 to 2050, of which suitable habitat for Guizhou snub-nosed monkey was contracted the most. And habitats of snub-nosed monkeys that are most vulnerable to human disturbance and climate change were principally located in Northeast Sichuan Province, Southwest Shaanxi Province, Northwest Hubei Province, Fanjingshan in Guizhou Province, and the western part of Yunnan Province. Human footprint index was an important factor leading to the decrease of suitable habitat area of golden snub-nosed monkey. And mean temperature of warmest Quarter, Precipitation Seasonality and Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter were the most important climatic factors leading to the decrease of suitable habitat for Sichuan snub-nosed monkey, Yunnan snub-nosed monkey and the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey. In addition, the southwestern of habitat(Sichuan snub-nosed monkey) and the central part of habitat(Yunnan snub-nosed monkey) had high connectivity. We suggest that priority management policies should be directed to protecting vulnerable areas and building a biodiversity corridor between subpopulations in areas with high connectivity. This study provides a basis for predicting the location of vulnerable habitats that require protection in order to conserve endangered animals.
    Group composition and seasonal changes of Bharal(Pseudois nayaur) in Wanglang National Nature Reserve,China
    LIU Mingxing, CHEN Xing, HOU Xingyu, LI Yunxi, JIANG Wenlong, YANG Kong, LI Sheng, GUAN Tianpei
    2021, 41(3):  321-329.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150471
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    The Bharal(Pseudois nayaur) is a common herbivore across the Tibetan Plateau, but little is known about the population at the eastern edge of its distribution. From June 2018 to August 2019, we studied the composition and seasonal changes of bharal groups in Wanglang National Nature Reserve using passive infrared camera traps. We recorded a total of 6 623 individuals belonging to 1 921 groups, with a mean group size of 3.45±2.16. The largest group comprised 23 individuals, and the smallest groups were formed by solitary individuals(both female and male). We classified six group types based on sex and age:mixed age/sex groups, ewe-lamb groups, adult male groups, adult female groups, solitary adult males, and solitary adult females. Small herd sizes(2-5 individuals) are typical of the bharal population of Wanglang National Nature Reserve, and no significant differences in group size existed among seasons. We analyzed group composition and seasonal changes of bharal and found that mixed groups were the most frequently observed, comprising 45.3% of all observations, followed by ewe-lambs, adult male groups, adult solitary males, adult solitary females, and adult female groups. The proportion of each group type varied seasonally. In spring, the highest proportion of observations were of adult male groups(29.5%) and adult solitary males(22.6%), whereas in summer, autumn, and winter mixed(58.5%, 41.8%, and 36.7%, respectively) and ewe-lamb(21.4%, 24.7%, and 18.6%, respectively) groups predominated. Observations of the individual bharal group types varied between seasons, for example, mixed groups were most frequently observed during summer, but ewe-lamb groups showed no significant change among seasons. Changes in the local environmental conditions, as well as physiological phases and their associated resource requirements are likely the mechanisms driving these temporal changes in group types and sizes.
    Discrepancy of grooming sites of wild Tibetan macaques(Macaca thibetana) at Mt.Huangshan
    CHEN Shiwang, WU Mingyang, SUN Binghua, WANG Xi, XIA Dongpo, LI Jinhua
    2021, 41(3):  330-337.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150516
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    Grooming refers to the process by which an individual cleans its own body or the body of others using its hands or mouth. Grooming is widespread among primates. In this study, we investigated social grooming and auto-grooming behavior in a wild population of Tibetan macaques(Macaca thibetana), inhabiting Huangshan Mountain, Anhui Province, China. From July to December, 2019, behavioral data were collected using a focal sampling animal method. The results showed that the frequency and duration of social grooming were significantly higher than auto-grooming. Auto-grooming was generally accomplished using two-hands or one-hand, while social grooming principally involved the use of two-hands. Auto-grooming was directed to the legs, thighs and forearms, while social grooming focused on the back, face, arms and flanks. The selection of body parts during auto-grooming was strongly random, whereas there was a marked preferencein the body parts during social grooming. Tibetan macaques preferred initiating social grooming either on their partner's back or face, whereas the last part of the body allogroomed was the back. The results identified significant differences in behavior patterns, process, and site selection during auto-grooming and social grooming in wild Tibetan macaques. It appears that the process of social grooming reflects changing characteristics of the social relationship of the grooming partners, and offers critical insight into the social functions of grooming behavior.
    Seed-hoarding preferences of rodents for cork oak(Quercus variabilis) and Henry's chestnut(Castanea henryi): testing the high-tannin hypothesis
    LI Yuan, SHEN Youbi, WANG Minghui, YI Xianfeng, WANG Zhenyu
    2021, 41(3):  338-343.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150363
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    Tannin in seeds particularly affects the feeding and hoarding strategies of rodents. The high tannin hypothesis suggests that rodents prefer to eat more low-tannin food but hoard more high-tannin food for later consumption. However, the question of whether the hoarding and eating preferences of sympatric rodent species follow the high tannin hypothesis still remains poorly understood. In order to further test the high-tannin hypothesis, we investigated the feeding and hoarding preferences of sympatric rodent species (Leopoldamys edwardsi, Niveventer fulvescens, N. confucianus, Apodemus chevrieri, A. draco) on cork oak, Quercus variabilis and Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi under enclosure condition in the Banruosi Experimental Forest in Dujiangyan City of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. Seeds of cork oak and Henry's chestnut show similar traits but varying tannin levels (11.7% versus 0.6%). The result showed that(1) the five sympatric rodents preferred to eat acorns of C. henryi rather than those of Q. variabili;2) larder hoarding N. fulvescens and N. confucianus preferred to larder-hoard C. henryi nuts;whereas scatter hoarding L. edwardsi and A. chevrieri tended to hoard C. henryi nuts;3) scatter hoarding A. draco which larder-hoard and scatter-hoard food preferred to scatter-hoard Q. variabili nuts and larder-hoard C. henryi nuts. These results failed to support the high-tanning hypothesis, indicating that seed-hoarding and eating preferences of sympatric rodents for seeds show interspecific differentiation, and do not necessarily follow the high tannin hypothesis.
    The inhibitory effect of triptolide on reproductive capacity of male Brandt's voles(Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    WANG Lewen, YING Yaqi, LIU Xiaohui, SONG Ying, LI Ning, WANG Dawei
    2021, 41(3):  344-351.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150476
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    To investigate the antifertility effect of triptolide on male Brandt's voles(Lasiopodomys brandtii), intragastric administration was conducted in four groups of male voles with different concentrations of triptolide, i. e. 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg per kilogram body weight, for seven successive days. Each male was paired with one female at 1 and 3 weeks after withdrawal. Male voles autopsied one week later and body weight and reproductive parameters were measured and recorded, including the weight of gonadal glands, epididymal sperm density, pregnancy rate, and fetus number of the paired female. Our results showed that the three treatment groups displayed non-significantly lower relative weight of reproductive organs, sperm density, as well as pregnancy rate and fetus number of paired female voles in the 4-week withdrawal group. However, we found a significant decrease of 66.7% in the pregnancy rate and 72.3% of fetus number of paired female voles in the 0.1 mg per kilogram body weight 2-week withdrawal group compared with the control group. These results suggested that low triptolide concentration displayed stronger inhibitory effects on the reproductive activity of male Brandt's voles than these high concentration levels. The antifertility effects of triptolide are probably due to its toxicity on the function of the epididymis and the parameters of sperm motility. Further research should be focused on the mechanism of different doses of triptolide on rodents and provide theoretical evidence for its intelligent use.
    New records of Tibetan shrew(Sorex thibetanus Kastschenko,1905) and Gansu shrew(Sorex cansulus Thomas,1912) in Yunnan Province
    SONG Wenyu, WANG Hongjiao, LI Yixian, HE Shuiwang, JIANG Xuelong
    2021, 41(3):  352-360.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150520
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    Tibetan shrew(Sorex thibetanus) and Gansu shrew(Sorex cansulus) are two poorly known species of the genus Sorex. In 2017, 48 specimens of Sorex were collected in alpine areas of north-west Yunnan. The morphological characteristics and measurements of these specimens were compared with previous specimen records, and their phylogenetic relationships with other Sorex species were assessed based on Cyt b gene. Results show that 27 specimens from 4 sites are morphologically similar to S. thibetanus, while other 21 specimens from 2 sites are morphologically similar to S. cansulus, although with considerable differences. The intraspecific Kimura-2-parameter distance based on Cyt b was 0.46% for S. thibetanus and 0.42% for S. cansulus, while the distances between these two species to other Sorex species were 10.76%-17.04% and 6.59%-14.52%, respectively. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support the two species are monophyletic to S. thibetanus(BS=71%) and S. cansulus (BS=100%), which both are new mammal records in Yunnan Province.
    A new record of mammal from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region of North China—Mustela altaica
    HAN Sicheng, LU Daowei, MENG Hao, LEONG Chifong, LIU Yanlin, SONG Dazhao, LI Sheng, LUO Shujin
    2021, 41(3):  361-364.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150487
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    An adult weasel was photographed in September 2019 during a camera-trapping survey in the Haituo-Songshan mountain area of Beijing. This species was identified as the mountain weasel (Carnivora;Mustelidae;Mustela altaica), a small mustelid native to the mountains of East and Central Asia, found on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and in some high-altitude regions of northern and southwestern China. However, the documented localities of M. altaica nearest to Beijing are from Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, while none was reported from Beijing or its adjacent Tianjin and Hebei. This finding therefore added a new record of mammalian species to the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region and the Yanshan Mountains, and also expanded the known range of M. altaica in China. It revealed the likely underestimated species richness in suburban Beijing and highlighted the importance of systematic biodiversity monitoring and conservation in urban ecosystems.