ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 321-329.DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150471

• ORIGINAL PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Group composition and seasonal changes of Bharal(Pseudois nayaur) in Wanglang National Nature Reserve,China

LIU Mingxing1,2, CHEN Xing1,2, HOU Xingyu2, LI Yunxi3, JIANG Wenlong3, YANG Kong1, LI Sheng4, GUAN Tianpei1   

  1. 1 Institute of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu 610225, China;
    2 Ecological Security and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Mianyang Teachers' College, Mianyang 621000, China;
    3 Wanglang National Nature Reserve, Pingwu 622550, China;
    4 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2020-09-03 Online:2021-05-30 Published:2021-05-27


刘明星1,2, 陈星1,2, 侯星羽2, 黎运喜3, 蒋文龙3, 杨孔1, 李晟4, 官天培1   

  1. 1 西南民族大学, 青藏高原研究院, 成都 610225;
    2 绵阳师范学院生态安全与保护四川省重点实验室, 绵阳 621000;
    3 四川王朗国家级自然保护区, 平武 622550;
    4 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
  • 通讯作者: 官天培,;李晟,
  • 作者简介:刘明星(1995-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事动物生态学研究.
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: The Bharal(Pseudois nayaur) is a common herbivore across the Tibetan Plateau, but little is known about the population at the eastern edge of its distribution. From June 2018 to August 2019, we studied the composition and seasonal changes of bharal groups in Wanglang National Nature Reserve using passive infrared camera traps. We recorded a total of 6 623 individuals belonging to 1 921 groups, with a mean group size of 3.45±2.16. The largest group comprised 23 individuals, and the smallest groups were formed by solitary individuals(both female and male). We classified six group types based on sex and age:mixed age/sex groups, ewe-lamb groups, adult male groups, adult female groups, solitary adult males, and solitary adult females. Small herd sizes(2-5 individuals) are typical of the bharal population of Wanglang National Nature Reserve, and no significant differences in group size existed among seasons. We analyzed group composition and seasonal changes of bharal and found that mixed groups were the most frequently observed, comprising 45.3% of all observations, followed by ewe-lambs, adult male groups, adult solitary males, adult solitary females, and adult female groups. The proportion of each group type varied seasonally. In spring, the highest proportion of observations were of adult male groups(29.5%) and adult solitary males(22.6%), whereas in summer, autumn, and winter mixed(58.5%, 41.8%, and 36.7%, respectively) and ewe-lamb(21.4%, 24.7%, and 18.6%, respectively) groups predominated. Observations of the individual bharal group types varied between seasons, for example, mixed groups were most frequently observed during summer, but ewe-lamb groups showed no significant change among seasons. Changes in the local environmental conditions, as well as physiological phases and their associated resource requirements are likely the mechanisms driving these temporal changes in group types and sizes.

Key words: Group type, Group size, Ungulate, Distribution range, Camera-trapping

摘要: 岩羊(Pseudois nayaur)是青藏高原常见的食草动物,但对边缘分布区的种群了解较少。2018年6月到2019年8月,我们利用红外相机在四川王朗国家级自然保护区对岩羊的集群结构、特征及其季节变化进行了描述与分析。结果显示:调查共记录到岩羊1 921群次,共计6 623只次。按照性别和年龄组,可将岩羊集群划分为混合群、母仔群、雄性群、独雄、独雌、雌性群。研究观察到的最大岩羊集群为23只,最小为独羊(独雄或独雌),集群的平均个体数量为(3.45 ± 2.16)只,以小群为主,种群大小的季节间差异不显著。岩羊集群结构和季节波动特征主要有:(1)混合群最常见,占45.3%,其次依次为母仔群、雄性群、独雄、独雌和雌性群;(2)岩羊集群结构季节波动显著,春季以雄性群(29.5%)和独雄(22.6%)为主,夏季、秋季和冬季主要为混合群(58.5%,41.8%,36.7%)和母仔群(21.4%,24.7%,18.6%);(3)各集群类型在季节间的相对优势存在差异,例如混合群在夏季的优势显著,但母仔群在各季节的优势则无显著差异。依据全年数据,我们认为王朗国家级自然保护区的栖息地特征以及岩羊自身生命周期可能是影响岩羊集群大小、集群类型季节波动的主要因素。

关键词: 集群类型, 集群大小, 有蹄类, 分布区, 红外相机技术

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