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    Research advances in Cetacean osmoregulation
      
    Abstract5610)      PDF (336KB)(24860)       Save
    As a unique clade of mammalia,Cetaceans complete all of their life activities in water. Cetaceans therefore have developed various strategies to adapt to their aquatic environments morphologically,physiologically and ecologically. Most of the Cetaceans inhabit the hyperosmotic marine environment,but a few species live in the hypoosmotic freshwater systems. However,despite the obvious differences of their living environment,both the freshwater and marine Cetaceans face the same challenge - to maintain the water balance and electrolyte homeostasis of their body. How do Cetaceans adapt to their aquatic environments?What kinds of strategies do they develop in morphology,physiology and ecology?We try to expound upon the osmoregulation process of the Cetaceans in the following aspects:source and metabolism of water/ electrolytes, morphology and histology of the kidney and skin,hormone regulation,and the molecules related to osmoregulation etc. by consulting and discussing the conclusions of previous research in the past century on this issue. Moreover,future research trends and important issues in this area are also discussed and proposed.
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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract13294)      PDF (1771KB)(6935)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    Marine mammal researches in China
    HAO Yujiang,WANG Kexiong,HAN Jiabo,ZHENG Jingsong,XIAN Yijie,YAO Zhiping,LU Zhichuang,LI Haiyan,ZHANG Xianfeng
      
    Abstract7901)      PDF (441KB)(5255)       Save
    Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica’s
    30 year anniversary,we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience,summarized its progress,and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups:whales,pinnipeds,and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology,conservation genetic,acoustics,and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First,Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology,c onservation biology,and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point,unfortunately,is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.
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    History,current situation and prospects on nature reserves for giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China
    HU Jinchu,ZHANG Zejun ,WEI Fuwen
      
    Abstract9327)      PDF (190KB)(5021)       Save
    The giant panda,a tribute to emperors in ancient China,is an endemic species and regarded as a modern national
    treasure. Contributing to extensive illegal hunting,it has become endangered before liberation. During 1950s,Chinese
    government initiated the establishment of nature reserves to conserve wildlife and their habitats,and in 1960s,five reserves,
    including Wolong,Wanglang,Baihe,Labahe and Taibaishan,were established for the giant panda. Seven more
    reserves were established in 1970s,based on the first national ground survey for the giant panda,and the reserves for the
    species summed up to thirteen. The second national ground survey (1985 - 1988)indicated that the population of wild giant
    pandas was decreased as much as 54% . In 1990s,the total of panda reserves was increased to 36,and by now,there
    have been 63 reserves established to protect giant pandas and their habitats,covering about 85% of the remaining habitats
    and 50% of individuals. The extant population was estimated about 2000,sparsely distributed in remote western mountane
    ranges in China. Chinese government has developed many in-situ and ex-site conservation strategies to conserve the animal
    by now. Giant pandas should deserve a promising future.
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    Distribution pattern and zoogeographical division of mammals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    HUANG Wei,XIA Lin,YANG Qisen,FENG Zuojian
      
    Abstract6344)      PDF (513KB)(4937)       Save
    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is located in southwestern China. 250 species of mammals belonging to 10 orders and
    30 families have been recorded by the authors on the plateau. On the basis of comprehensive physical factors,the whole plateau was divided into 24 basic units identified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) for clustering. The information on mammals in each was used to compute composition similarity for the 24 OTU using Ward’s methods. Our study indicated that Palaearctic species were mainly distributed in Qiangtang and the northern plateau while the Oriental species were mainly distributed in southern Tibet and the Hengduan Mountains. The Palaearctic species in Qiangtang and the northern plateau comprised 88.6% of those on the whole plateau while the Oriental species in southern Tibet and the Hengduan Mountains comprised 97.7% . Based on clustering analysis and the landform on the plateau etc. , the zoogeographic distributions can be classified into fourth-level divisions. First,the zoogeographic distribution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau can be divided into two first-level divisions with the linkage distance between 0.6219 and 1.0738. Second,the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into four second-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.5034 and 0.6219.
    Third, the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into seven third-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.2236 and 0.2684. Fourth,the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into sixteen fourth-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.0930 and 0.1245. Finally,according to the mammalian distribution and the evolution of the plateau,we discussed how the distribution pattern of the mammals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. It is suggested that the formation of the distribution pattern is closely related to the uplift of the plateau.
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    Research progress in conservation biology of endangered mammals in China
    Wei Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 255-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603001
    Abstract4567)      PDF (1562KB)(4923)       Save
    Research progress achieved by Chinese scientists in conservation biology of endangered mammals (e.g. Carnivores, primates, ungulates and cetaceans) from 2010-2015 was reviewed. These researches are mainly related to different branches of the conservation biology, such as evolutionary biology, ecology, behavior, physiology, genetics, genomics and meta-genomics, as well as policy and practices. The remarkable research achievements have been made in Conservation Biology of endangered mammals in China, especially for giant pandas and golden monkeys. Evidence from multidisciplinary researches indicated that the giant panda is not an evolutionary cul-de-sac, remaining evolutionary potential. Although the panda is facing environmental problems such as habitat fragmentations, its population is growing and available habitat is expanding. It turned out that its Red List Category could be downlisted from
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    Research advances and perspectives on the ecology of wild giant pandas
    WEI Fuwen,ZHANG Zejun,HU Jinchu
      
    Abstract6521)      PDF (325KB)(4729)       Save

    Among the order Carnivora, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most attractive animals, possessing high value for scientific research and being a symbol of worldwide nature conservation. In early 1980s, the Chinese government, cooperating with the WWF in initiated a research project on wild giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve. Since then, extensive research activities have been conducted in different mountain ranges inhabited by the animal. The application of new techniques such as 3S (GIS, RS, GPS)and molecular markers in the ecological study of the giant panda has greatly improved our understanding of its ecology. To date,a huge body of knowledge and information has been accumulated, potentially helpful for developing adaptive conservation strategies. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in understanding the ecology of wild giant pandas during the past 30 years on various aspects, including habitat ecology, feeding ecology, reproductive ecology, behavioral ecology, molecular ecology, population ecology and community ecology. Meanwhile, given the demands of research and management, future research directions are suggested.

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    Blood physiological parameters of captive Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica)
    HAN Zhiqiang, WANG Haijun, Liu Cunfa, WANG Xiaoxu, ZHAO Quanmin, XU Chao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (5): 590-594.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150241
    Abstract2801)      PDF (985KB)(4564)       Save
    In this study, the blood physiological parameters of 26 captive Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica) were measured by a blood cell analyser, and the differences in the physiological parameters, vital statistics, and platelet-related parameters and their effects between male and female individuals were compared. The results indicate that the differences in physiological parameters between male and female individuals is not noticeable(P>0.05). And list some platelet-related parameters, PLT (211.15±59.77)×109/L, PCT(0.26±0.09)%, MPV (12.65±0.88) fL, PDW (22.28±1.68) fL, P-LCR (44.56±8.03) %。The measurement of blood physiological parameters appears to be of great help in the diagnosis, and subsequent treatment, of diseases in Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica), and the measurement of platelet-related parameters is important in standardizing the blood physiological parameters of this species.
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    Discovery of Murina shuipuensis outside of its type locality – new record from Guangdong and Jiangxi Provinces, China
    WANG Xiaoyun, ZHANG Qiuping, GUO Weijian, LI Feng, CHEN Bocheng, XU Zhongxian, WANG Yingyong, WU Yi, YU Wenhua, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (1): 118-122.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601014
    Abstract2826)      PDF (18522KB)(4554)       Save
    In 2012 and 2013, three and nine bat specimens were collected respectively from Nanling National Nature Reserve in Guangdong Province and Jinggangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province. All specimens were small sized with forearm length of 30.51 to 34.62 mm and orange-yellow ventral fur. Based on their external and skull characteristics, they were identified as Murina shuipuensis; a newly named species reported by Eger and Lim (2011) from Guizhou. These are the first recorded in the Guangdong and Jiangxi provinces outside of its type locality (Shuipu Village, Libo County, Guizhou, China). All specimens were deposited in the Key Laboratory of Conservation and Application in Biodiversity of South China in Guangzhou University.
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    Taxonomy and conservation status of gibbons in China
      
    Abstract6675)      PDF (774KB)(4535)       Save
    This paper reviews the taxonomy and conservation status of gibbons (Hylobatidae)and provides basic and comprehensive data for future conservation and research of gibbons in China. Based on the latest taxonomy of gibbons,4 genera and 17 species are recognized. Of these,6 species in 3 genera ( Nomascus concolor, N. nasutus, N. hainanus,
    N. leucogenys,Hoolock leuconedys,Hylobates lar
    )are distributed in China. Gibbons once were widely distributed in China, but are now restricted in Yunnan,Guangxi and Hainan because of habitat loss and degradation,and hunting. Conservation of gibbons in China is an urgent problem. H. lar and N. leucogenys might have disappeared from China;the populations of N. nasutus, N. hainanus are less than 30 individuals;the populations of H.leuconedys is less than 200 individuals; and as for the largest population, N. concolor has 1 000 -1 300 individuals. Law enforcement,conservation awareness education,promotion of popular science,and long-term conservation oriented research will help to conserve China’s last surviving gibbons.
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    Cold experience during lactation inhibits adult neurogenesis in Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    ZHAO Yuanchun, ZHANG Xueying, WANG Dehua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (5): 485-495.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150311
    Abstract2669)      PDF (9764KB)(4288)       Save
    Evidence has shown that environmental experiences during perinatal period play important roles in determining the behavior and metabolic physiology in adult mammals, especially the ambient temperature. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the cold experience during lactation can have long-term effects on the metabolic physiology, behavioral performance and adult neurogenesis. The mother Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) together with their pups, on the day of parturition, were transferred to a warm room (23°C±1°C) or a cold room (4°C±1°C) until weaning (21 days), and then all animals were back to the warm room till 2 months old. Body mass, food intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), cognitive ability, and neurogenesis in adulthood were measured. Our results showed that food intake, cell proliferation and cell survival of the brain decreased in the adult voles with cold experience during lactation compared to those with warm experience. When they were exposed to cold in adulthood, the voles with cold experience during lactation showed lower food intake, and lower frequency and duration of stay in the novel arm of Y-maze, but higher cell proliferation in the hippocampus and parts of hypothalamic areas, and higher cell survival in CA of hippocampus compared to those with warm experience during lactation. These data indicate that the cold experience during lactation has a long-lasting harmful effect on the energy metabolism, behavior and adult neurogenesis in Brandt's voles, but the voles with early cold experience will have better performance in metabolic capacity and neural plasticity in the brain regions related to metabolism and learning and memory when cold temperature comes again in later life.
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    Mammalian fauna and its vertical changes in Mt. Qomolangma National Nature Reserve,Tibet,China
    HU Yiming,YAO Zhijun,HUANG Zhiwen2 ,TIAN Yuan,LI Haibin,PU Qiong,YANG Daode,HU Huijian
      
    Abstract5219)      PDF (1347KB)(4279)       Save
    The Mt. Qomolangma Natural Reserve,Tibet (QNR)conserves the extreme-highly mountainous ecosystem of Mt. Qomolangma and,thus,plays an important ecological role. However,its mammalian fauna is still a mystery,due to its harsh natural environments and difficult access. We carried out five field baseline surveys of mammalian diversity in the
    QNR by using a belt transect method,visits,an auto-trigger camera system,and traps,from September,2010 to October, 2012. A total of 81 species from 23 families and 10 orders were recorded,including 34 species which were listed on the State Key Protection List. Among them,regional species were common at 38. 3% of the total,with 14 Himalaya-Hengduan Mountainous species and 17 Highland species. With increasing attitude,species richness increased and reached its maximum at 2 500 -3 300 m where 48 species were found,followed by a rapid decrease in richness at higher elevations. The Fauna on the South Slope differed significantly from that on the North Slope. Among the 76 species on the South Slope,41 species belonged to the Orient Realm and 25 belonged to the Palearctic Realm. Among the 29 species on the North Slope,there were 2 Oriental species and 23 Palearctic species. On the South Slope,the Oriental species were dominant below an attitude of 3300m and the Palearctic were dominant above 4 000 m. Hence,we suggest that a division between the Oriental Realm and the Palearctic Realm exited in the South Slope in QNR with the dividing line between 3 300 m and 4 000 m.
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    A recent survey of bat diversity (Mammalia:Chiroptera)in Macau
    WONG Kai Chin,TAN Liangjing,YANG Jian,CHEN Yi,LIU Qi,SHEN Qiqi,CHOI Man
      
    Abstract4707)      PDF (2071KB)(4064)       Save
    Surveys to investigate bat species diversity were conducted in Macau from 2009 to 2012. Results indicated that at least 10 bat species belonging to eight genera from five families were identified. Of the 10 species, Hipposideros armiger (Hipposideridae)and Pipistrellus abramus (Vespertilionidae)were previously recorded in Macau,while eight species were
    newly recorded for Macau from the present study. The new bats were Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti (Pteropidae), Taphozous melanopogon(Emballonuridae), Rhinolophus pusillus (Rhinolophidae), Myotis ricketti, P. pipistrellus, Miniopterus schreibersi,and M. pusillus (Vespertilionidae). In addition,using ultrasound survey methods and comparing results with published data on echolocation calls,we also recorded and identified one Rhinolophus species and one Hipposideros species,the former possibly representing R. siamensis or R. affinis,and the latter H. pomona or Aselliscus stoliczkanus. The present work also reports data on distribution range,morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of all 10 captured bat species,as well as a discussion of population size and conservation status in these species. It is important to protect roost habitats (including caves,old buildings and Chinese fan-palm)in order to conserve bat species diversity in Macau.
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    Feeding activity of François langurs in Karst habitat
    ZHOU Qihai,CAI Xiangwen,HUANG Chengming,LI Youbang,LUO Yaping
      
    Abstract3832)      PDF (1396KB)(4010)       Save
    To explore the influence of habitat fragmentation on the ecology of the François langur ( Trachypithecus francoisi), data on habitat use were collected from a group of François langurs living in an isolated hill in the Fusui Rare Animal Nature Reserve,Guangxi Province,between August 2002 and July 2003. Our results indicated that there was significant variation in the distribution of feeding activity in different vertical hill zones They showed preference for feeding in the middle zone. The top zone,as well as the bottom zone were used less for feeding. Langurs' feeding activities were concentrated in six patches,with a total area of 7.94 ha,which occupied 18.9% of the habitat. The densities of langurs' preferred food plants in the feeding patches were higher than that in the non-feeding patches. Langurs' diet varied according to season, even though leaves contributed a large proportion of the diet. This diet shift corresponded to seasonal variations in the utilization of feeding patches.
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    Transcriptomatic determination of convergent evolution between plateau zokors ( Eospalax baileyi) and naked mole rats ( Heterocephalus glaber)
    DENG Xiaogong, WANG Kun, ZHANG Shoudong, SU Jianping, ZHANG Tongzuo, LIN Gonghua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2014, 34 (2): 129-137.  
    Abstract3102)      PDF (348KB)(3930)       Save
    Subterranean rodents have evolved convergent traits in many of their biological characteristics that allow them to adapt to a similar underground burrowing life style. However,no study has yet been published about this convergent evolution at the molecular level. Here,we use high-throughput next-generation sequencing data (transcriptomes)to identify both amino acid (AA)variations and gene expression levels in order to analyze the convergent evolution of two typical subterranean rodents,the plateau zokor ( Eospalax baileyi)and the naked mole rat ( Heterocephalus glaber). AA variation analysis detected 54 genes of which each had at least one convergent adaptation site;of these genes 13 were successfully annotated by their relatively obvious phenotypical functions. Within the 13 genes,four ( Ptpn6,Sco1,Dhcr 24,and Add2) were related with hypoxia tolerance or adaptation to oxidative stress,four ( Mbtps1,Atp1a1,Acsl3,and Ncoa2)were involved in nutrient transport or energy metabolism,fou( Smoc1,Kif1b, Tcap,and Cryab)were involved in limb development or muscle health,and the remaining gene ( Myo6)was involved in auditory function. Gene expression level analyses of the two subterranean rodents detected 103 genes that were significantly upregulated (> 3 fold)as compared to mouse ( Mus musculus)and guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus);20 of these genes could be successfully annotated by their phenotypical functions. Within these 20 genes,12 were related with hypoxia tolerance functions,such as oxygen transport( Dsg2, Tab2, Hp,Rock1,and F5),oxygen metabolism ( Tfb1m and Mrpl1),and DNA repair ( Tdp2,Rad50,Alkbh2,Hltf, and Plk1),3 were related with the functional integrity of muscle ( Sync and Taf3)and bone ( Acp5),and the other 5 were involved in immune ( Spon2 and Sh2d4a),biological rhythm ( Clock),starvation tolerance ( Pdk4 ),and reproduction ( Clgn). Our results show that the hypoxia tolerance-related genes were the most important adaptation genes found in the two subterranean rodents,followed by the digging apparatus-related genes (especially the skeletal muscle)in addition to the genes important in energy metabolism and energy balance. This paper provides evidence for convergence of subterranean rodents at the molecular level.
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    Comparison of the Tibetan fox ( Vulpes ferrilata) home range size using methods the fixed kernel estimation and the minimum convex polygon
    LIU Xiaoqing,WANG Xiaoming,WANG Zhenghuan,LIU Qunxiu,MA Bo
      
    Abstract4492)      PDF (861KB)(3915)       Save
    The minimum convex polygon (MCP)and the fixed kernel estimator (FKE)are the two methods most used for
    home range estimation. However,because of the problems like spatial data dependence and extreme data points,the usage of these two methods is limited. In this paper,we attempted to analyze and compare the results from these two methods, and discuss how to avoid the disadvantages of each method to make the home range estimation more accurate. We documented 352 locations of 7 adult Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) in Shiqu County,Sichuan Province and Dulan County,Qinghai Province during 2006 and 2007. Both MCP and FKE were used to calculate the home range. We found:(1)when the utility probability percentage was set ≤95% ,the difference of the home range size calculated by these two methods had no significant difference;(2)although FKE was more robust than MCP,extreme data points influenced the calculation of both the two methods in higher utilization probability percentage (i. e.,85% - 100% ); (3)home range size calculated by FKE was influenced significantly by the setting of smoothing parameter h which could be determined arbitrarily and the least squares cross validation did not always provide the best evaluation of h. We recommended that both of the FKE and 95% MCP should be used in the same home range study. FKE can be the better home range estimator when the autocorrelation of data spatial distribution is not significant. However,95% MCP can be the only choice especially when the comparison of the results from different telemetry studies is needed.
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    Preliminary studies on the home range and diurnal behaviour of Callosciurus erythraeus in an urban garden
    YUAN Yaohua, LIU Qunxiu, ZHANG Xin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (6): 639-650.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150298
    Abstract2549)      PDF (2422KB)(3908)       Save
    From Dec 2015 to May 2016, nine Pallas's squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus) were radio tracked at Shanghai Zoo. Home range sizes, spatial shapes and overlaps between individuals were inferred via minimum convex polygon (MCP) and 95% kernel-based estimators. Behaviour was also observed and recorded from line transect surveys. The average home range size was found to be 12376㎡ (MCP)-18146㎡ (95%Kernel). The home range size of male individuals was not significantly larger than females (Independent-sample t test, t=-0.101, P=0.922). There is no significant difference between the overall ranges in winter and those observed in spring (One way ANOVA,MCP: F=3.900, P=0.070;95%FK: F=3.566, P=0.081). There were overlaps between home ranges of different individuals with OI 0.36-0.63 in winter and 0.02-0.43 in spring. The diurnal behaviour of Callosciurus erythraeus was observed to comprise travelling (29.4%), feeding (25.1%) and resting (24.7%), though in winter, time spent feeding (33.3%) was significantly higher than that observed in summer (16.4%) (One way ANOVA, F=119.268, P<0.001). Territorial behaviour also varied significantly between different seasons (One way ANOVA, F=140.416, P<0.001). The diurnal activities of Callosciurus erythraeus showed a “U” pattern with active periods from 05:00-08:00 and 15:00-18:00, and a primary resting period from 12:00-13:00. 
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    New bat record from Guangdong Province in China — Arielulus circumdatus (Temminck,1840)
    ZHANG Libiao,LIU Qi,SHEN Qiqi,ZHU Guangjian,CHEN Yi,ZHAO Jiao,LIU Hui,SUN Yunxiao,GONG Yuening,LI Chaorong
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2014, 34 (3): 292-.  
    Abstract4275)      PDF (6424KB)(3872)       Save
    Three bats (2 males and 1 female)were collected in Babao Mountain (24°55'43.4″N,113° 0′57. 0″E,1 000 ma.s.l),Guangdong Nanling National Nature Reserve,Guangdong Province,China in July,2013. These bats are middle size,with 40. 4 - 41. 6 mm forearm length,and 16. 0 -16. 1 mm greatest length of skull. The pelage was characteristic.On the dorsum,the basal hairs are black,with distinctive yellow-ferruginous and shiny tips. On the abdomen,the basal hairs are black and brown,with paler tips,and differ among throat,chest and abdomen. The tragus is broad with lunar to kidney shape. The margins of the ears and tragus are palm and pale color. These bats were identified as Arielulus circumdatus (Temminck,1840),was and are the first records from Guangdong Province. Previous records suggested that this bat species was only found in Yunnan Province in China,and with very few specimens. The features of morphological structure and the skull of these specimens are given in this paper,and compared with specimens from Yunnan and SE Asia. We also recorded the echolocation calls of these bats,and discuss the taxonomy and distribution of this bat species in China. The specimens were kept in Guangdong Entomological Institute.
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    Homosexual and masturbating behaviors in a group of captive Yangtze finless porpoises ( Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)
    ZHANG Changqun, ZHENG Yang, PLATTO Sara, HAO Yujiang, WANG Ding
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2015, 35 (3): 241-252.  
    Abstract4970)      PDF (2063KB)(3824)       Save
    Similar to terrestrial mammals, male-female sexual behavior is significant for the survival and continuation of certain cetacean species. However, non-reproductive mating behaviors, i.e. homosexual behaviors and masturbation, are widespread in all mammals. Therefore, it would be interesting and helpful to better understand the reproduction of cetaceans by further investigating their non-reproductive behaviors. We investigated male and female non-reproductive behaviors in a captive population of Yangtze finless porpoise including three males and four females. Fourteen sexual behaviors were defined in our sexual behavioral ethogram, and the occurrence frequencies and dyads of each non-reproductive behavior were recorded. Over half of the sexual behaviors were non-reproductive behaviors (3887 times, 69.87%); homosexual behaviors occurred 3633 times (65.31%) and masturbation was recorded 254 times (4.57%). Most homosexual behaviors were performed between males (3438 times, 94.63%). The dyads AFU & TAO (1921 times, 55.88%) were the most active dyads involved in male-male sexual behaviors, and most of these behaviors (1543 times, 80.32%) were cooperative by counterpart. The male homosexual behaviors are thought to be related to the gang coalition or training. One female-female pair (F7 & F9; 117 times; 60.00%) performed the most frequent homosexual behaviors. None of the female-female sexual behaviors were rejected by the counterpart. Female homosexual behaviors, however, may have something to do with company or communication.
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    Investigation on the population of wild Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris) in Medog, Tibet
    WANG Yuan, LIU Wulin, LIU Feng, LI Sheng, ZHU Xuelin, JIANG Zhigang, FENG Limin, LI Bingzhang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (5): 504-513.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150265
    Abstract5014)      PDF (100104KB)(3823)       Save
    Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris) used to be commonly distributed in Medog County, southeast Tibet, whereas no occurrence record has been reported across this area since 2002. In 2013—2018, we conducted field surveys in nine potential distribution areas of Bengal tigers in Medog using integrative approaches including camera-trapping, information network collection method and footprint identification method. The results suggested that there are only 1~3 non-resident individuals of Bengal tiger existing in Medog, occurring only during the dry season (October to March) in the south bank of the Yalu Zangbo River in the town of Beibeng, the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in the Medog Town, and the south bank of the Jinzhu Zangbo in the Gedang Township. The prospects of the subsistence of wild Bengal tiger in Medog are not optimistic, subjected to various conditions and causes. Actions we proposed to conserve the wild tigers in this region include: (1) Conduct systematically designed basic monitoring on Bengal tigers and their prey;(2) Strengthen field patrolling and law enforcement against wildlife poaching; (3)Strengthen the protection of the intact forests; (4) Promote the livelihood and education of indigenous peoples to reduce their consumption of nature resources; (5) Develop landscape corridors for wild tigers to increase the habitat connectivity and facilitate their dispersal; (6) Strengthen cooperation on research and technical exchanges among different institutions and parties.
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    Mating behavior of captive wolves (Canis lupus) in Heilongjiang,China
    SHA Weilai,ZHANG Honghai,KONG Fanfan,CHEN Lei,ZHANG Chengde
      
    Abstract7099)      PDF (237KB)(3806)       Save
    In order to better understand mating patterns and processes of captive wolves ( Canis lupus), we observed 4 pairs in the Harbin North Forest Zoo for about 25 days (225 hours in total)from October 2005 to April 2006. We used focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording. Mating behaviors usually occurred during 8∶ 00 - 10∶00 am and 14∶00 -16∶ 00 pm. Among 741 mounts recorded,46 copulations were observed (6. 2% ). The mating period lasted for 5 - 14 days. We observed copulatory locks during copulations. After copulatory lock and several repeated twitches,male wolves would ejaculate. Female wolves displayed obvious sexual solicitations and acted in concert with male mounts by standing
    still with their tails to one side,and haunches bent forward. There were no differences in the twitching times ( P = 0. 827), but we did observe differences in the durations of copulatory locks (one-way ANOVA, F = 71.43, P < 0.001) among the four male wolves. The mean mating duration was 534 ±402 seconds,with the longest 1 588 seconds and the shortest 28 seconds.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract2931)      PDF (3119KB)(3780)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    Distribution pattern and zoogeographical discussion of mammals in Xin-jiang
    HUANG Wei,XIA Lin,FENG Zuojian,YANG Qisen
      
    Abstract3733)      PDF (882KB)(3751)       Save
    Xinjiang is located in the northwestern portion of China. Altogether,138 species of mammals belonging to 8 orders and 22 families have been recorded by the authors in Xinjiang. Among them,119 species (86.2% of the total number of the mammals) are considered to be Palaearctic and 9 species to be Oriental mammals,with the others considered to be widely spread mammals. On the basis of regions of investigation,we identified 85 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) for clustering. Then the information of mammals in each was used to compute composition similarity for the 85 OTU using
    Ward's methods of cluster analysis. According to the composition of clustering analysis and of the local landform in Xinjiang etc. , the zoogeographic distribution can be divided into three grades. First, the region of northern part and Hami Basin is separated from the others in Xinjiang. Second,the region of the Altay Mountains is separated from the others in the north,while the region of northern Karakorum-Kunlun Mountains and southern Tarim Basin is separated from the others in the south. Third,the deltaic region of Yily,the region of southern Junggar Basin,the region of Tarbagatai Mountains and
    the northwest of Junggar Basin and the region of Hami Basin and western Tianshan Mountains are all separated from each, while the region of southern Tianshan Mountains and Pamir Altiplano and the region of northern Tarim Basin are separated from each other. Obviously,the distribution of species is associated with the environments where they live,and some natural barriers can restrict dispersal of mammals.
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    Phylogenetic study of Ochotona based on mitochondrial Cytb and morphology with a description of one new subgenus and five new species
    LIU Shaoying, JIN Wei, LIAO Rui, SUN Zhiyu, ZENG Tao, FU Jianrong, LIU Yang, WANG Xin, LI Panfeng, TANG Mingkun, CHEN Liming, DONG Li, HAN Mingde, GOU Dan
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2017, 37 (1): 1-43.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701001
    Abstract3382)      PDF (31573KB)(3747)       Save
    of the new subgenus include yarlungensis sp. n. were identified in addition to the 3 assigned to Alienauroa. The identifying characteristics of O. huanglongnensis (collected at the Huanglong National Scenic Reserve; Sichuan) include: front part of incisive foramen parallel; skull flat, the height of skull (SH) only 33.5% of the greatest length of skull (GLS); ears large averaging over 20 mm; congenial tragus triangular and the distal part circular; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 20 mm; the ventral hairs gray white; the back of the palms gray white; the ventral palm gray black; finger and digital pads large and orange, exposed out of hairs, and claws translucent. The identifying characteristics of O. flatcalvariam (collected from the Longmen mountains, Sichuan province) include: skull very flat, average SH 11 mm, SH only 31% of GLS; eye sockets very small, only 6.7 mm in length and 5.6 mm in breadth; body length less than 140 mm; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 22 mm; ears small averaging over 17 mm, congenial tragus triangular and small, the distal part of congenial tragus broad-round; dorsal pelage sandy yellow, ventral pelage yellow white. The identifying characteristics of O. dabashanensis (collected from Dabashan Mountains, Sichuan province) include: congenial tragus sickle-liked; ear small, less than 17 mm on average, which is similar to O. sacraria and O. flatcalvariam, but less than O. huanglongensis and O. xunhuaensis; SH relatively large and bulged, posing the largest SH and eye sockets in Alienauroa, average SH 12.45 mm; eye sockets 8.52 mm×7.13 mm. O. yarlungensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the middle of the Yarlung Zangbo River; Xizang) has its closest relationship with O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis. Its characteristics include: margin of lips lined with very narrow gray black hair, surrounding with gray white hair; soles and palms covered with dense black hairs, long hairs cover the claws, the digital pads and claws hidden in the hairs; head and body length average 150 mm, much less than that of O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis; skull flatter than that of O. curzoniae; dorsal pelage gray brown. O. qionglaiensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the Qionglai Mountains; Sichuan) has its closest genetic relationship with O. curzoniae, although its measurements and appearance are close to that of O. thibetana. Compared with O. thibetana, O. qionglaiensis has a very narrow interorbital width (4.05 mm on average; range: 3.64 - 4.19 mm), while that of O. thibetana is >4.2mm (4.45 mm on average). O. qionglaiensis is covered with sandy yellow, coarse and long hairs, while O. thibetana is covered with black brown and relatively short hairs. The backs of the palms and feet of O. qionglaiensis are a withered grass yellow, while those of O. thibetana are yellow white.
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    Mammalian skeleton specimen preparation using proteolytic enzyme (alcalase)detergent
    WU Yonghua,YANG Qisen
      
    Abstract4066)      PDF (799KB)(3742)       Save
    We report on an easy method to remove muscle tissue from the skeleton by alcalase detergent in mammalian skeleton specimen preparation. In the present paper,using hare skull specimen as an example,we describe the alcalase detergentmethod in details and compare it with other methods for mammalian skeleton specimen preparation. In this method,hare muscle tissues are removed from skeletons by alcalase detergent. With commercial proteinases,alcalase (2.4 L, 2.4 AU/ g, Novozymes Biotechnology Co. , Ltd. ), the process requires around 10 minutes’skeletal simmering in a 0.5% solution (V/V) of the alcalase and water under 60 ℃ condition. In total, about 101 rat skull and 487 hare skull specimens are made using this method. Compared to other traditional methods in mammalian skeleton specimen preparation,the alcalase detergent method is safer,more efficient and less costly,and it is also suitable for batch production of skeleton specimen.
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    Opportunities and challenges of fecal DNA technology in molecular ecology researches
    SHAN Lei, HU Yibo, WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (3): 235-246.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150194
    Abstract2232)      PDF (1829KB)(3729)       Save
    Advances in fecal DNA technology have expanded its usages in molecular ecology, especially in genetic assessment of wild animals. The technology allows researchers to understand ecological issues without contacting, disturbing, or even seeing animals, thus avoided invasions to the animal studied, and greatly promotes studies in molecular ecology of wild animals. Although this technology could yield poor DNA and relatively high genotyping errors in its early stages, these problems have been overcome gradually with the technological achievements being made in the past 25 years. Nowadays, fecal DNA technology yields good DNA and low genotyping errors, allowing researchers to address questions in reliability. Here, we share our knowledge about technological pitfalls on fecal sampling, preservation, DNA extraction, PCR, and genotyping in detail, and discuss opportunities and challenges of its applications, aiming to increase the power and role of the technology in molecular ecology of wild animals.
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    Advances in ecological research regarding rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) in China
    LU Jiqi, TIAN Jundong, ZHANG Peng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (1): 74-84.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150128
    Abstract2622)      PDF (1626KB)(3707)       Save
    Research on primates in China started in the middle of the 19th century, and thrived from the 1980s to date. As a widely distributed non-human primate species worldwide, rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) was listed Grade 2 within Key Protected Wildlife of China. Researchers have published a cluster of works on macaques, including geographical distribution, population dynamics, food habits, social ecology, conservation ecology etc. In this paper, we reviewed the research advances in rhesus macaques in China. (1) geographical distribution and habitats: rhesus macaques occurred in 17 Provinces in China, and their habitats range from about 250 m a.s.l. to about 4000 m a.s.l. (2) populations and population increase: the current total population of rhesus macaques in China is about 96000 individuals. We have limited knowledge for population parameters of rhesus macaques except the Hainan macaques. (3) food habits: rhesus macaques in China feed on variety of food items which is in line with wide-spread distribution in various habitats; (4) activity rhythms: the published works mainly focused on the rhythm of foraging behavior, and showed that rhesus macaques exhibited two daily activity peaks; (5) reproductive ecology: rhesus macaques showed a seasonal reproduction pattern, and differed significantly in birth period, and lengths of pregnancy and lactation period between northernmost and southernmost populations. (6) social ecology: the society of rhesus macaques comprised multi-male and multi-female, based on matrilineal relationships. There were strict lineal dominance ranks among adult males and adult females, respectively. (7) behavior and behavioral ecology: researchers observed behaviors of rhesus macaques including calling, facial expression, and fighting. Ethnograms based on PAE (posture, action, environment) coding system have been established, which include 14 postures, 93 acts, 22 environments, and 121 behaviors that were categorized into 13 behavioral types. (8) conservation biology: researchers analyzed the population genetic diversity of rhesus macaques in China and some local areas, and provided support for local population protection. (9) sleeping site selection: a few studies examined sleeping site selection of rhesus macaques, and the results indicated that sleeping site selection was influenced by forest density, sheltering classes, slope gradients and climate. We put forward suggestions and implications for related studies in the near future.
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    Camera-trapping survey on the mammal diversity in the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province
    LI Sheng, WANG Dajun, BU Hongliang, LIU Xiaogeng, JIN Tong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 282-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603004
    Abstract2481)      PDF (1610KB)(3694)       Save
    The biological inventory within the established protected areas is the fundamental of biodiversity research and monitoring at both regional and national levels, and camera-trapping has been considered one of the most efficient tools for inventory of mammal community. Laohegou Nature Reserve is located in northern Minshan Mountains, Sichuan Province, and within the core area across the distribution of the iconic conservation species, giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Prior to its establishment in 2012, little is known about the mammal fauna in this area. From 2011 to 2014, we conducted a camera-trapping survey to census the mammals of Laohegou by dividing the reserve into 1 km x 1 km survey blocks. With an extensive survey effort of 9,188 camera-days, we detected and identified 24 wild mammal species and 1 domestic mammal species belonging to 7 orders and 18 families. Other unidentified animals were primarily small-bodied mammals of Chiroptera, Insectivora and Rodentia. Carnivora (9 species) was the most diversity taxon, followed by Artiodactyla (7 species) and Rodentia (6 species). Artiodactyla was the order with the highest detections (43.97%), followed by Rodentia (25.61%) and Carnivora (22.44%), all three taxa summed up to 92.02% of all detections. Three mammal species are evaluated as Endangered by IUCN Red List, 3 species as Vulnerable and 3 species as Near Threatened. Four species are listed as Class I state key protected wild animals in China and 5 species as Class II. This study was the first systematic inventory on the large mammals of Laohegou Nature Reserve. The results provide us valuable information of the community structure, spatial distribution and relative abundance, which will serve as a baseline and foundation for future research and conservation management.
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    Using camera traps to survey wildlife at water sources on the northern slope of the Altun Mountains,China
    XUE Yadong, LIU Fang, GUO Tiezheng, YUAN Lei, LI Diqiang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2014, 34 (2): 164-171.  
    Abstract3096)      PDF (5267KB)(3687)       Save
    To examine the diversity and abundance of wildlife at water sources on the northern slope of the Altun Mountains,camera-trapping was conducted at seven sites from 2010 to 2012. A total of 26 species were captured in the survey. There were 11 species of mammal including Camelus ferus,Equus kiang,Uncia uncia,Lynx lynx,and 15 species of birds including Gypaetus barbatus,Aquila chrysaetos,and Gyps himalayensis in the photos. Wild camel ( Camelus ferus) was the only species captured at all observation sites and was present in almost 66% of the photographs. This suggests that wild camel is the dominant species of herbivore at water source areas. Wolf ( Canis lupus)and red fox ( Vulpes vulpes)were the dominant species of carnivores at water sources since they were captured in 123 and 268 photographs respectively. The research suggests that camera-trapping at water sources is a practical approach for animal investigation in arid regions. Moreover,using camera-trapping data of behavior and activity could be a feasible method to study community structures and interspecies competition,or to evaluate overlap or partition of niches. Cameral-trapping at water sources will be beneficial to assess the influence of environment change and human disturbance on how wildlife use water and develop recommendations on how water sources in arid area could be managed and conserved.
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    Geographic Variation in Diet Composition of François langurs
    LI Shengqiang, Li Dayong, HUANG Zhonghao, LI Youbang, HUANG Chengming, ZHOU Qihai
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (1): 46-55.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601005
    Abstract2296)      PDF (934KB)(3618)       Save
    Comparative studies of nonhuman primate species that utilize different habitats are essential for understanding their behavioral and ecological plasticity. Furthermore, results from such studies can assist in formulating conservation strategies by evaluating a species’ capacity to cope with changes in habitat quality resulting from natural process or human disturbance. We compared dietary profiles for François’ langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Fusui Nature Reserve, and Mayanghe National Nature Reserve to evaluate inter-site variation in diet. Our results showed that a total of 259 plant species belonging 182 genera from 77 families were consumed by the langurs. Woody plants, including trees and shrubs, were the most important food resources. Langurs were highly folivorous, with leaves accounting for 52.7%, 63.9%, and 79.7% of their diets, respectively. However, we found that diet differed between study sites, with overlaps of 1.33% to 7.43% for total food species, and 0 to 13.51% for main food species. This variation could be related to differences in forest composition. Compared to congeners in Nonggang and Mayanghe, langurs in Fusui ate much more young leaves and shrubs. These differences reflected changes in forest structure resulting from human disturbance. Marked variations in the diets of T. francoisi at different sites suggest dietary flexibility, which could be important for their survival in different habitat conditions.
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