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    Research advances in conservation and management of endangered mammals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Tongzuo ZHANG, Feng JIANG, Bo XU, Bin LI, Chengbo LIANG, Haifeng GU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 490-507.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150696
    Abstract1559)   HTML52)    PDF (1607KB)(1611)       Save

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is a global biodiversity hotspot and a priority area for conservation.It hosts a variety of key protected and endemic wildlife species, contributing to a high level of species richness and a large proportion of endangered species. We reviewed the research advances in the conservation and management of 7 fauna groups on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (ungulates, felids, ursids, canids, mustelids, chiropterans, and other small mammals) from the perspectives of the endangered status, threatening causes, strategies and effects of conservation and management. The proportion of endemic species of ungulates was much higher than that of the other 6 groups. 81% ? 100% of ungulate, felid, ursid, and canid species were listed as the national key protected wildlife. 45% to 100% of ungulate, felid, and ursid species were listed as threatened by the Red List of China’s Vertebrates or Red List of IUCN, which is far higher than the global average. Habitat fragmentation, global warming, overgrazing, poaching and illegal trade, and environmental pollution were the major threats to the survival of endangered mammals on the QTP. The implementation of relevant laws and policies, the construction of nature reserves, as well as the carrying out of a large number of investigations, monitoring, and researches have provided legal guarantees and scientific basis for the conservation and management of endangered mammals on the QTP. In view of the limitations of current conservation and management, we suggest building a comprehensive and systematic big data platform, so as to conduct rapid assessment of conservation effectiveness on the QTP and research on spatial optimization of protected areas. We also suggest combining internationally advanced interdisciplinary theoretical methods and practical innovation to provide guidance and suggestions for the protection and management of endangered mammals, so as to provide important scientific and technical support for the biodiversity conservation and ecological civilization construction of China.

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    Research advances in conservation genetics and genomics of snow leopard ( Panthera uncia)
    Yubo HAO, Hong JIN, Lin YANG, Kexin LI, Yibo HU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 508-518.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150687
    Abstract1675)      PDF (1521KB)(1561)       Save

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) (Carnivora, Felidae, Panthera) is a flagship species distributed in the Qinghai?Tibet Plateau and surrounding regions. With the development of molecular biology and high-throughput sequencing technology, snow leopard conservation genetics and conservation genomics have developed rapidly. Noninvasive genetic sampling has provided genetic samples and facilitated the conservation genetics research of snow leopards. In this review, we summarize the application of noninvasive genetic sampling in species identification, individual identification and sex determination of snow leopards, the phylogenetic status, phylogeographic pattern, population genetic structure, and subspecies controversies in snow leopards. Furthermore, the evolutionary history, adaptive evolution, and genome characteristics of snow leopards are reviewed. Finally, we discuss the future development trends of snow leopard conservation genetics and genomics, aiming to better promote snow leopard conservation biology research and science-based conservation decisions.

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    Viewpoints of the wildlife conservation biology research on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Fuwen WEI
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 475-476.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150734
    Abstract1327)   HTML45)    PDF (1188KB)(1525)       Save

    The Qinghai?Tibet Plateau, as an important ecological barrier in China, is a natural laboratory for wildlife conservation biology research due to the uniqueness and richness in animal resources. Although the wildlife conservation researches have made great achievements in this area, we could further strengthen the following three aspects benefited from the development of science and technology. First, the long-term monitoring of wildlife populations and habitats on the plateau should be maintained; Second, multi and crossing disciplines and macro and micro points of view should be combined to conduct integrative biology researches; Third, the training of youth scientists for the wildlife conservation on the plateau should be further strengthened.

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    Population size and distribution of western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor) in Ailao Mountain, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan Province
    LI Genhui, QIN Zhongyi, LU Lixiong, GAO Wenjun, LUO Wenfu, LI Han, LI Yuwu, YIN Cunquan, XU Ping, YIN Guanghua, LI Fabao, NIU Xiaowei, JIANG Xuelong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (5): 513-522.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150749
    Abstract701)   HTML19)    PDF (5140KB)(1447)       Save
    From November to December 2020, we conducted the second field survey on the population and distribution of the western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor) in Ailao Mountain, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan by interviews and loud morning calls counting method. The survey recorded 61 groups and 14 individuals of western black crested gibbon, a total of about 270 individuals in the National Nature Reserve and its surrounding state forest areas. The gibbon population was mainly found (59 groups and 13 individuals) from the central part of Chuxiong City to the south part of Shuangbai County, while from the central to the north part of Nanhua County it was represented by a small isolated population (two groups and one individual). Compared with the previous survey in 2005, the population of the western black crested gibbon in Ailao Mountains, Chuxiong Prefecture increased significantly but still facing threats from population isolation and human disturbance such as grazing by cattle and goats. According to the current population and distribution pattern, we propose to conduct long-term population dynamic monitoring for concentrated populations, regular and irregular patrolling for isolated and marginal distributed groups, habitat assessment and restoration, and assign the groups in state forests managed by national nature reserve management and protection bureau for protection and conservation of western black crested gibbons in Ailao Mountains, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan.
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    Habitat suitability evaluation of snow leopard ( Panthera uncia ) in the Qilian Mountain National Park ( Qinghai area) , China
    Zhanlei RONG, Yayue GAO, Shengyun CHEN, Tongzuo ZHANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 553-562.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150545
    Abstract1429)   HTML47)    PDF (1919KB)(1441)       Save

    Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is a flagship species for global biodiversity conservation. Accurate assessment of snow leopard habitat quality can provide scientific reference for population conservation. In this study, we assess the habitat suitability of snow leopards in the Qilian Mountain National Park (Qinghai area) using landscape connectivity analyses and MaxEnt model. The main environmental factors such as topography, climate, landcover type, and human disturbance were selected. The results showed that highly suitable habitat was mainly distributed in the west and middle of the study area, which comprisesand 71.8% ? 77.5% of the Qinghai area. The overlap area of the suitable habitat predicted by the two methods was 8 979.1 km2, representing 56.7% of the Qinghai area. The suitable habitat accounts for 39.8% ? 43.3% of the general control area and 56.7% ? 60.2% of the core reserve. The maximum area of suitable habitat is distributed in the Shule River Basin and the minimal area is distributed in the Shiyang River Basin. The highest proportion of suitable habitat is located in the Heihe River Basin, which was about 77.1% ? 91.8%. The suitable habitat showed an increasing trend from east to west and we detected a large area of snow leopard habitat in the general control area. Human activities will be a potential threat to the snow leopard habitat in the general control area. This study provides a scientific reference for optimizing in situ protection measures for snow leopards.

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    Physiological Ecology of Small Mammals in Qinghai‒Tibetan Plateau: from individual to ecosystem
    Dehua WANG, Zuwang WANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 482-489.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150722
    Abstract1357)   HTML33)    PDF (1404KB)(1435)       Save

    We reviewed the development and advances in physiological ecology of small mammals on the Qinghai?Tibetan Plateau, including the characteristics of energy metabolism and physiological adaptation the environment, adaptive thermogenesis and thermoregulation, energy balance and body weight regulation, physiological limits, populations energy flow, and recent advances in some new areas, such as using double-labeled water method to measure energy expenditure in free?living animals, geographic physiology, physiological function of gut microbiota, plant secondary metabolites and their physiological functions, and population physiology. Several works such as ecological energetics, adaptive thermogenesis, and physiological adaptation have been leading the development of animal physiological ecology in China. We also proposed some possible directions and areas for development and enhancement in physiological ecology for alpine small mammals in the future in order to establish and enrich the discipline of Physiological Ecology of Small Mammals on the Qinghai?Tibetan Plateau.

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    Effects of captivity on the assembly process of microbiota communities of plateau pikas
    Liangzhi ZHANG, Xianjiang TANG, Shien Ren, Yaqi ZHAO, Yanming ZHANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 519-530.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150721
    Abstract1205)   HTML30)    PDF (3659KB)(1409)       Save

    Revealing the community assembly process is helpful to better understand the mechanism of biodiversity generation and maintenance, which has been an emerging topic in microbial community ecology in recent years. Studies have shown that captivity can cause drastic changes in the composition and diversity of intestinal microbiotas, however, whether captivity can alter the assembly processes of gut bacterial communities in plateau pikas is still unknown. Here, we employed 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling to explore the effect of captivity and breeding status on the gut microbial composition, diversity, functions, and assembly processes in plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae). The results showed that the community richness and community coverage index of captivity animals were significantly lower than those of wild groups. For the wild groups, the indexes were significantly higher in non-breeding groups than those of breeding groups. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was significantly higher in the captivity group than that of the wild groups, while the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Planctomycetes were significantly higher in wild groups than those of the captivity group. For the wild groups, the richness of Epsilonbacteraeota and Tenericutes were higher in the breeding period group than those of the non-breeding group. The results of functional prediction revealed that the abundance of genes involved in cardiovascular disease and cell communication were significantly different between captivity and wild breeding groups. The abundance of genes involved in the pathway of amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and lipid metabolism enriched in non-breeding groups compared with breeding groups. The results of neutral model revealed that captivity reduced the importance of stochastic processes in governing the bacterial community assembly, while breeding status increased the importance of stochastic processes in structuring the community assembly. Our results provided new insights on the effects of captivity on the microbial composition, diversity, function, and assembly processes and the interactions between microbiotas and physiological state of plateau pika, which provided a new theoretical basis to promote the possibility of successful reproduction in laboratory.

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    Research advance and perspective on mammalogy in Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Jianghui BIAN, Dehua WANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 477-481.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150718
    Abstract1246)   HTML29)    PDF (1327KB)(1372)       Save

    The year 2022 marks the 60th anniversary (1962?2022) of the establishment of Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology (NWIPB), Chinese Academy of Sciences. The mammalogy research of NWIPB has also gone through the course of 60 years, which has experienced the continuous development and expansion process from nothing to nothing. Over the past 60 years, the research in mammalogy at NWIPB has always been based on the Qinghai?Tibet Plateau, based on basic research and basic application research. To meet the needs of the state, serve for the regional economy and ecological protection, a large number of corresponding work has been carried out on mammalogy, a large number of scientific and technological talents have been cultivated, several academic publictions have been published by NWIPB,which has made a significant contribution to the development of mammalogy and mammalogy ecology.

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    The utilization of wildlife passages by migratory Tibetan antelope in Sanjiangyuan National Park: a case study of Wubei Bridge of Qinghai‒Tibet Railway
    gaowa Saiqing, Hongqi LI, Dong WANG, Zihan WANG, Xinming LIAN
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 601-608.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150670
    Abstract1392)   HTML20)    PDF (2583KB)(1297)       Save

    The Qinghai?Tibet Railway (QTR) crosses the migration routes of the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) in the Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) and the female antelopes have to cross the QTR by wildlife passages to continue their migrations. In this study, a remote monitoring camera was set up near the Wubei Bridge to record the utilization of the bridge by migratory antelopes. Based on the monitoring data of the returning migration period from July to September 2019 and the calving migration period from April to June 2020, the results showed that: Tibetan antelopes crossed the Wubei Bridge mainly in the daytime and mostly in the morning. The peaks during the calving migration and the returning migration were in 09: 00?12: 59 and 11: 00?11: 59 respectively. Compared with the returning migration period, female antelopes gathered into smaller groups during the calving migration period, which was related to the sequence of roads to be crossed and the lower predation risk of calves in larger groups. We found individuals in larger groups spent less time crossing the Wubei Bridge. Larger groups could accelerate crossing speed and then reduce the average crossing time of individuals. However, there was no significant difference in the average crossing time of individuals between the two migratory periods, indicating that the presence of calves had little effect on the speed and time of antelope groups. In conclusion, there was a significant difference in the group size of Tibetan antelope between the returning and calving migration periods and the group size affected the average crossing time of individuals. We also detected a temporal pattern in the use of wildlife passage by Tibetan antelope.

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    Effects of hypoxia stress on liver function and gene expression in mice
    Haiping TAO, Shuang LI, Gongxue JIA, Luyao ZHANG, Yougui FANG, Yongwei CHEN, Qien YANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 590-600.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150697
    Abstract1326)   HTML19)    PDF (4711KB)(1290)       Save

    As one of the most characteristic environmental factors on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, hypoxia has a profound impact on the adaptive evolution of plateau animals. Continued exposure to a hypoxic environment causes metabolic dysfunction of the body. In non-acclimated animals, long-term hypoxia exposure affects liver function, but there is still a lack of knowledge regarding its effect on offspring liver. In this study, adult mice were transferred to a high altitude hypoxic environment (altitude 3 220 m) for breeding. Mice reared under normoxic conditions were used as a control and the growth and live function of hypoxic-treated mice (hypoxic generation 0) and their offspring (hypoxic generation 1 ? generation 5) were evaluated.The results showed that long-term hypoxia exposure led to morphological and functional changes in the liver. Hepatocytes of hypoxia-exposed animals were swollen, caused by red blood cells infiltrating between hepatic cords. Specifically, the fatty degeneration appeared in the liver lobules of hypoxic generation 1 mice. Blood biochemical analyses showed that compared with the normoxia generation 0, the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in hypoxia generation 0 and hypoxia generation 1 increased significantly (P < 0.05).Albumin, globulin, total bilirubin and total cholesterol levels decreased in hypoxia generation 0 and increase in hypoxia generation 1 (P < 0.05). After fasting injection of glucose and insulin, the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of mice in the hypoxic group were greatly reduced (P < 0.05). RNA-seq analysis of liver tissue from normoxic generation 0, hypoxic generation 0, and hypoxic generation 1 identified 459 differential expression genes (DEGs) in livers of hypoxia-exposed animals. These genes were significantly enriched in the MAPK signaling pathway, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum pathway. This study demonstrated that hypoxic exposure has important effects on the liver in mice and the outcomes of these findings provide information to further elucidate the physiological and pathological changes induced by hypoxia at high altitudes.

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    Association between personality and SERT gene polymorphisms in plateau pikas ( Ochotona curzoniae) at different altitudes
    Hongjuan ZHU, Jing LI, Suqin WANG, Qi TANG, Xianyong LAN, Jiapeng QU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 540-552.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150702
    Abstract1086)   HTML27)    PDF (3665KB)(1268)       Save

    Given the stable and heritable individual differences in animal behaviors, personality is associated with the polymorphisms of related genes and reflects the adaptation patterns of animals to variable environments. Exploring the variations in personality-related genes will contribute to the improved understanding of the evolutionary and adaptation mechanisms of animals’ response to environments. In this study, we used plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) inhabiting five altitudinal regions of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau as study objects to determine their personality variations, explore the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of serotonin transporter (SERT) and personality, and obtain the expression level of the SERT gene. Results showed that the exploration and boldness of pikas at high altitudes were significantly higher than those at low altitudes, whereas the expression level of SERT at high altitudes was significantly lower than that at low altitudes, suggesting that the personality of pikas in different altitudes might be correlated with the mRNA expression of the SERT gene. Furthermore, SERT gene polymorphisms and their distribution differences among different altitudes were detected. Six SNP mutations were detected in the SERT gene (5 and 1 SNP mutations were located in exons 3 and 5, respectively). Significant correlations between c.A1063C synonymous mutation in exon 5 and altitudes were observed, suggesting that the distribution frequencies of the CC genotype of c.A1063C at high altitudes were significantly higher than those at low altitudes. No significant correlation between c.A1063C genotypes and exploration or boldness was observed, whereas significant correlations between c.A1063C genotypes and docility were detected. Our results suggested that with increasing altitude, the exploration and boldness of plateau pikas increased for food resource and survival opportunities to adapt to environments at different altitudes and that the difference in docility might be related to the synonymous mutation of exon 5 of the SERT gene c.A1063C. This study attempted to elaborate on the differences in personality of plateau pikas adapted to different altitudes from the perspective of gene expression and mutation, providing the potential molecular mechanism of plateau pika’s behavioral strategies at different altitudes.

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    Risk of transmission and infection of gastrointestinal parasites in the Tibetan antelope ( Pantholops hodgsonii) aggregation
    Yifan CAO, Guozhen SHANG, Wenjing LI, Yuangang YANG, Tong WU, Yahui ZHU, Jianghui BIAN, Ruiqiang ZHANG, Tongzuo ZHANG, Xinquan ZHAO
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 563-571.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150556
    Abstract1248)   HTML39)    PDF (1633KB)(1266)       Save

    Herbivores aggregation is beneficial to reduce the predation risk but it can also increase the transmission and infection risk of parasites. Zhuonai Lake, located in Hoh Xil, Qinghai Province, an important calving ground of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii). The aggregating time of Tibetan antelope in Zhuonai Lake area is mainly concentrated from early June to July (less than 30 days).Climate factors such as temperature and humidity in this region might have an important impact on the development of parasite eggs/oocysts in the host’s feces. In this study, a microclimate observer was constructed in the calving ground of Zhuonai Lake to collect local meteorological data on June 9th, 2018. In this area, fresh feces of Tibetan antelope were collected and placed outdoors for 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 days, and nearly one year (300 days). We used the flotation technique to detect the development status of eggs/oocysts in different periods within 35 days and the species of surviving larvae in the feces placed outdoors for nearly one year. Our aim was to preliminarily test the development, hatching, and overwintering survival of the dominant parasite eggs/oocysts in the feces of aggregated Tibetan antelope in the Zhuonai Lake area and evaluate whether the calving ground increases the risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission and infection in Tibetan antelope. The results showed that: (1) between June 9 and July 16, the 35 days average temperature was 5℃ and the average relative humidity was 81%. (2) During the aggregating period of Tibetan antelope in Zhuonai Lake area (less than 30 days), the dominant parasite eggs/oocysts in the feces did not develop to the infective stage (Third larvae stage). For example, dominant nematode eggs, including Trichostrongylus sp., Marshallagia sp., and Nematodirus sp., only developed to the first larvae stage within 30 days. Additionally, the sporulation rates of dominant coccidian species Eimeria pantholopensis and E. wudaoliangensis were 0, 18.9 %, 54.0 % and 0, 13.5 %, 30.4 % on the 25th days, 30th days, and 35th days, respectively. (3) Few parasite eggs survived over the winter until the next year. Only a few larvae of the Marshallagia sp. and Nematodirus sp. were found in feces which were placed for nearly one year to survive over the winter in the calving ground of Zhuonai Lake. This study suggests that the risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission and infection was low during the aggregating period of Tibetan antelope in Zhuonai Lake area. Short-term utilization of calving ground and rapid back-migration were important behavioral strategies for Tibetan antelope to avoid increasing the risk of gastrointestinal parasitic infection. Furthermore, the climate environment such as low temperature was beneficial to the natural purification of parasites.

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    Expression analysis of gap junction protein 40 in lung of plateau pika exposed to hypoxia
    Xuze ZHANG, Lin FU, Xiaoyan ZOU, Yurong DU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 572-578.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150686
    Abstract1207)   HTML23)    PDF (2816KB)(1228)       Save

    Blunted hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction response is a major adaptation to hypoxia in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). However, the genes involved in this physiological compensation remained unclear. In the present study, plateau pikas and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were challenged with a hypoxia condition simulating an altitude of 5 000 m for 28 days. Morphological structure analysis by immunohistochemistry was carried out for the pulmonary in both species and the expression levels of Connexin40 (Cx40), a member of the Connexon family expressed in pulmonary vascular endothelia in mammals, were determined by both qPCR and Western blot. The results showed that upon hypoxia challenge the alveoli of plateau pika appeared to be vacuolated sacs. Cx40 expression was detected in both bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels in both species. In plateau pikas, mRNA level of Cx40 increased after hypoxia challenge, while its protein level decreased. In contrast, protein levels of Cx40 had no significant change with prolonged hypoxia exposure in pulmonary blood vessels of SD rats. No significant change in the Cx40 protein in the lung bronchi was observed in both species. Our results indicate that with hypoxia exposure, pulmonary vasoconstriction response in plateau pikas could be suppressed by down-regulation of Cx40, contributing to their adaptation to a hypoxic environment on the plateau. Our results can provide a reference for the expression analysis of gap junction proteins in the lungs of indigenous animals living on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    Effects of hypobaric hypoxia on spermatogenesis and the expression of small RNA in mice
    Shuang LI, Gongxue JIA, Haiping TAO, Yujun WANG, Binye LI, Qien YANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 579-589.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150649
    Abstract1291)   HTML19)    PDF (4698KB)(1220)       Save

    As the most crucial environmental factors, low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content have adverse effects on the reproductive system of non-adapted animals living in the Qinghai?Tibet Plateau. Compelling evidence has shown that hypoxia exposure caused increased germ cell apoptosis and lower sperm quality, leading to defects in fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. Currently, how hypoxia affects testicular gene expression and sperm function is not well-understood. small RNA regulates gene expression at the post-transcriptional and translational level and participates in spermatogenesis by inducing gene silencing or transcription. In this study, a hypoxia mouse model was established by simulating the environment at an altitude of 5 000 m in a hypobaric oxygen chamber for 4 weeks. The results showed that the germ cells within seminiferous tubules of hypoxic mice were arranged disorderly. Although the total number of sperm did not change significantly, the proportion of abnormal sperm had a 17.5 fold increase in Hypo-4W animals (P < 0.001). small RNA sequencing revealed that the number of small RNAs with a length of 21 nt in hypoxic mouse sperm was reduced by 4.4% (P < 0.05), and the first base had a strong preference for Uracil (U). There were no significant differences in piRNA and tsRNA in sperm of control and hypoxia exposed animals, however, 21 miRNAs were up-regulated and 58 were down-regulated. Furthermore, we analyzed the target genes of these miRNAs and differentially expressed genes in the hypoxia-treated testicular tissues of mice. The results showed that 429 target genes of up-regulated miRNAs and 813 target genes of down-regulated miRNAs were differentially expressed. Finally, enrichment analysis revealed that the target genes of up-regulated miRNAs were enriched in FoxO signaling pathway, thyroid hormone signaling pathway, steroid biosynthesis and HIF-1 signaling pathway, while the targets of down-regulated miRNAs were enriched in fatty acid metabolism. In summary, the miRNA expression dynamics of hypoxic mouse sperm obtained in the present study provides an important reference value for further dissecting changes in sperm epigenome in humans and other animals under hypoxic environment.

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    Grassland degradation affects serum total IgG level, intestinal parasitic infection and liver and kidney indices of plateau pika
    Xueqin WU, Huiqing CHEN, Lu ZHANG, Guozhen SHANG, Yan WU, Jianghui BIAN
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 531-539.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150715
    Abstract1118)   HTML23)    PDF (1797KB)(1218)       Save

    As a key species in the alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai?Tibet Plateau, the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) population increased rapidly with grassland degradation. Understanding the changes in innate immune function and organ index of liver and kidney indices of plateau pika is of great significance for further revealing the physiological mechanism of plateau pika population outbreak caused by grassland degradation on the Qinghai?Tibet Plateau. In this study, we investigated the number of burrow entrances, measured serum total IgG levels, intestinal parasitic infection, and liver and kidney indices of adult plateau pikas inhabiting lightly, moderately, and heavily degraded grassland (LD, MD and HD) at Qinghai Haibei National Field Research Station of Alpine Grassland Ecosystem. Our results showed that with grassland degradation, the number of burrow entrances and serum total IgG levels increased significantly, while the prevalence and intensity of infection of cestodes and nematodes as well as liver and kidney indices decreased markedly. The prevalence of infection of cestodes and liver index in males were significantly lower than those in females, and the prevalence and intensity of infection of cestodes and nematodes in females in HD were significantly lower than those in LD. These results indicate that grassland degradation induced by overgrazing enhances the innate immune of plateau pika and alleviate the damage of toxins to liver and kidney, which may promote population outbreaks.

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    Genetic diversity of male specific region of Y chromosome in Tibetan antelope
    Ruotong CHENG, Yibo CHEN, Xiangqiong MENG, Jiarui CHEN, Qing WEI
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 609-614.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150688
    Abstract1137)   HTML20)    PDF (1794KB)(1204)       Save

    Genetic diversity is an important indicator of population health, especially for assessing population recovery of endangered species. To characterize the genetic diversity of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) populations, we used muscle and placental tissues from accidentally killed Tibetan antelopes in Qinghai and Xinjiang and screened 11 Tibetan antelope Y-SNP-specific loci from 30 published polymorphic Y-SNP loci in bovids, of which AMELY3 (g.723 C > T) and SRYOY1 (g.167 G > A) 2 pairs of primers were polymorphic. Based on the AMELY3 locus, the haplotype diversity of Tibetan antelope Y chromosome was 0.048 ± 0.045 and the nucleotide polymorphism was 0.00006 ± 0.00005. According to the SRYOY1 locus, Tibetan antelope was divided into two haplotypes, of which H1 (g.167 G) was the dominant haplotype. Maximum likelihood tree suggests that Tibetan antelope might have two paternal origins. The haplotype diversity of Tibetan antelope Y chromosome was 0.439 ± 0.050 and the nucleotide polymorphism was 0.0008 ± 0.0004. The genetic differentiation index showed that the FST value between the male population of Tibetan antelope in Qinghai and Xinjiang was 0.6846 ± 0.0389, suggesting a strong population genetic differentiation. Therefore, integrated conservation across regions and research on sex chromosomes need more attention in the future conservation of Tibetan antelope.

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    An overview of population survey methods of non-human primates
    Xier CHEN, Lijie YIN, Dagong QIN, Jinxian YAO, Xiaoyu LI, Wenshi PAN
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 716-727.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150656
    Abstract1086)   HTML31)    PDF (903KB)(1183)       Save

    Monitoring and estimating wildlife population size is essential to conservation. Affected by global climate change and human activities, wildlife populations could be relatively unstable. Primates are a group of highly evolved taxa in the animal kingdom and are among the most social of animals. As many as 701 species or subspecies of primates are recognized globally, forming a rich diversity. They could be found in various types of habitats, including rain forests, swamp forests, mangroves, secondary forests, deciduous forests, monsoon forests and montane forests, as well as in grasslands (savannah and steppe) including forest outliers, gallery forests, wooded steppes, thorn forests, Mediterranean scrubs and montane meadows, and even in deserts, dry uplands or permanent snow. Most primate species are endangered from different causes, and therefore effective long-term monitoring is of significant value to primate conservation. Species and habitat diversity have contributed to the numerous methods of censusing primate populations. This article offers a summary of widely-used non-human primate population censusing methods, including the classifications, the fundamentals, the various scenarios for application, and their limitations. The methods are analyzed with case studies and research. Furthermore, we introduce the latest applications of drones, thermal imaging and computer deep learning in primate population surveys, hoping to offer some insights into future non-human primate censusing and population monitoring.

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    Temporal and spatial niche differentiation of sympatric black muntjac and Reeves’ muntjac
    Juan HU, Peigen XIE, Tingting LI, Rui GUO, Lijuan XU, Xiao SONG, Aichun XU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 641-651.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150638
    Abstract1017)   HTML34)    PDF (4862KB)(1164)       Save

    Niche differentiation is an important ecological theory in explaining the coexistence of species. Schonenr believes that the spatial dimension has the highest influence on the formation of niche differences, followed by the nutritional dimension, and the time dimension is the last to be activated. To verify this hypothesis, we used the kilometer grid method to place 52 infrared cameras in the Longtangshan area of the Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang from December 2018 to November 2019. We monitored the populations of sympatric black muntjac and Reeves’ muntjac that have similar feeding habits. The average capture rate was calculated to analyze the differences in the species’ selection of vegetation type, altitude, slope position, and distance from water sources in different seasons. The nuclear density estimation method was used to analyze the daily activity rhythm and the degree of overlap in the activities of the two species. The results indicate that black muntjac and Reeves’ muntjac have different choices in spatial niche: black muntjac prefers mixed broadleaf-conifer forest, primarily inhabiting areas with high altitude between 1 301 - 1 500 m and avoiding areas with low altitudes and valleys. Activities of the black muntjac are frequent in areas closer to water sources. The Reeves’ muntjac prefers deciduous broadleaved forests, mainly inhabits areas with an elevation of 901 - 1 100 m, prefers mid-slope positions, avoids valleys, and has no obvious tendency towards choosing water sources. The black muntjac and the Reeves’ muntjac are both diurnal animals with morning and twilight activities, and the overlap of their daily activity rhythms throughout the year is relatively high (Δ4 = 0.86), and only lower in winter (Δ1 = 0.65). The above results support the hypothesis of Schonenr. First, spatial dimension has a greater impact on species niche differentiation than the temporal dimension. The black muntjac and Reeves’ muntjac in the Longtang Mountain area mainly choose different habitats to avoid overlapping territories and reduce the competition between both species. Secondly, there are seasonal differences in this model. In winter, due to the reduction of available resources, competition intensifies. Both species adjust their rhythm of daily activities to increase the degree of temporal niche differentiation in order to achieve coexistence in the same region.

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    A review of wildlife conservation and management strategies of Sanjiangyuan National Park
    Tongzuo ZHANG, Feng JIANG, Jingjie ZHANG, Zhenyuan CAI, Hongmei GAO, Haifeng GU, Pengfei SONG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (2): 193-205.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150698
    Abstract1077)   HTML44)    PDF (1493KB)(1092)       Save

    Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) is one of the first and largest national parks in China and the first national park on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It has landmark significance for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and even for China's accelerated construction of national parks as a natural areas protection system. The diversity of wildlife in SNP is high and the proportion of endangered species is large, among which the proportion of mammals and birds under threat is 32.26% and 19.90%, respectively. SNP also harbors abundant national key protected species and rare species endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, including 46.77% of mammals endemic to China or the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and 7.65% of birds endemic to China. Its rich biodiversity has conservation value of national and even global significance. We briefly reviewed the progress and achievements of global wildlife conservation research, analyzed the causes of wildlife endangerment in SNP, and proposed several wildlife conservation and management strategies, such as strengthening the monitoring of wildlife dynamics in SNP, innovating habitat protection techniques, establishing wildlife migration corridors and refuges, conducting research on the balanced management of grass and livestock, disease control, human-animal conflict, and establishing wildlife gene resource bank. There strategies will provide useful guarantees for the achievement of strict protection of ecological environment, harmonious coexistence between human and nature, as well as regional sustainable development strategic needs in SNP.

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    Comparative analysis of gut microbial composition and functions of forest musk deer in different breeding centres
    Feng JIANG, Pengfei SONG, Jingjie ZHANG, Hongmei GAO, Haijing WANG, Zhenyuan CAI, Daoxin LIU, Tongzuo ZHANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (2): 129-140.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150701
    Abstract1288)   HTML83)    PDF (4706KB)(1060)       Save

    Intestinal diseases are common in the breeding of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii, FMD). Gut microbiota has evolved with the host and formed a complex microecosystem with the gastrointestinal tract of animals. To compare the effects of different breeding environments on gut microbial composition and functions of captive FMD, a total of 215 fresh feces samples were collected from 5 different breeding centres in China, and a 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing was performed. The differences in gut microbial composition, diversity, and functions of FMD from different breeding centres were analyzed. The results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroides were the absolute dominant bacteria phyla in the gut microbiota of FMD fed without compound probiotics from Qilian County, while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the absolute dominant bacteria in the gut microbiota of FMD fed with compound probiotics from Liangdang County and Feng County. The composition, dominant bacteria phyla, dominant bacteria genera, potential pathogenic bacteria, metabolism-related, and disease-related functions of gut microbiota in FMD from different breeding centres were significantly different. The α diversity and disease-related function enrichment of gut microbiota in FMD from Qilian were significantly lower than those from other breeding centres, and enterotype 2 was dominant, with Firmicutes, UCG-005, and Bacteroides as the marker bacteria. The relative abundance of potential pathogenic bacteria of gut microbiota in FMD from Liangdang and Feng Counties was low. We speculated that the difference in food composition might be the main factor leading to the difference in the gut microbiota of FMD from different breeding centres, and the use of compound probiotics might be an important factor leading to the decrease of α diversity and potential pathogenic bacteria. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the artificial breeding management of FMD, and also have certain significance for the assessment of the artificial breeding environment and the plan of reintroduction in the future.

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    Advances and prospects of the gut microbiome in non-human primate
    Qiuyan GUO, Xiao WEI, Meijing LU, Penglai FAN, Qihai ZHOU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (1): 69-81.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150669
    Abstract1103)   HTML4)    PDF (1408KB)(1050)       Save

    The gut microbiome is the second set of animal genomes and interacts with hosts in development, nutrition metabolism, physiological function, and immunity. Non-human primates (NHPs) are close to humans in terms of ecological niche, social structure, geographical distribution and evolution. The research of NHPs gut microbiome not only contributes to understanding primate ecology, conservation, and evolution but has also important reference value for in-depth understanding of the role of the gut microbiome in human evolution. This paper summarizes the factors influencing the composition of the gut microbiome in NHPs, including host species and phylogeny, diet, habitat fragmentation, age/sex, captivity, and community life. We also explore the application of gut microbiome research in NHPs ecology, behavior, conservation, and adaptive evolution. Future studies of the gut microbiome of NHPs will offer new insight into primate ecology and evolution as well as human health. They will also provide a new theoretical basis and means for primate conservation.

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    Characteristics of food plants consumed by Hainan gibbon ( Nomascus hainanus) in fragmented habitat
    Huaiqing DENG, Baoping REN, Yun LIU, Jiang ZHOU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 615-623.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150658
    Abstract1011)   HTML27)    PDF (3372KB)(1033)       Save

    Quantity, availability, and diameter structure of feeding plant species of Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) were investigated in Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park of Bawangling Bureau from January 2013 to July 2014. Sixty-four food species with 1 484 plant samples of tree diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm were recorded in the habitat of Group C of Hainan gibbon. The gibbons highly preferred large and tall trees to feed on. Fifteen tagged plant species have a fructiferous rate of more than 50.0%. The maximum is 76.7% by Monoon laui and the minimum is 9.6% by Heptapleurum heptaphyllum. Among 18 main food plants, 15 species showed a growing structure and only Pouteria annamensis showed the recession structure. Food plants consisted of young individuals and only 37 species (71.2%) can fruit every year for the gibbons. Fruit rate of feeding tree species was not affected by altitude and was significantly associated with tree height and diameter at breast height. Hainan gibbons ate tender leaves (15.6%) when fruits were scarce in the dry season. High fluctuations in fruit availability yearly might limit the population growth of Hainan gibbons in a long run.

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    Advances and prospects in germplasm preservation of non-human primates
    Mingwen LI
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 728-740.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150626
    Abstract832)   HTML17)    PDF (912KB)(970)       Save

    Non-human primates are an important part of the biodiversity and valuable laboratory animals for biomedical research, however, wild populations of many non-human primate species have declined alarmingly, even on the brink of extinction, due to human activities, habitat destruction, hunting, and genetic isolation. Germplasm preservation is of great significance to the rescue of non-human primates and preservation of genetic materials. This article reviews research progresses in cryopreservation of sperm, oocytes, embryos, and gonadal tissues in the groups of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and great apes, and introduces the main methods of germplasm preservation in marmosets, squirrel monkeys, rhesus monkey, cynomolgus monkeys, and chimpanzees. The future research directions of non-human primate germplasm preservation are also discussed.

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    Diet conversions of pre-released giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs
    Shiqiang ZHOU, Shengshan HE, Yuanyuan QU, Yong LUO, Daifu WU, Yan HUANG, Desheng LI, Hemin ZHANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 652-664.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150655
    Abstract1076)   HTML18)    PDF (3446KB)(968)       Save

    This paper takes 15 giant panda cubs undergoing pre-release training, including female animals with cubs, monitored from 2010 to 2020 as the research object. Based on the behavior data observed and interpreted by infrared video monitoring system and audio collar, and the fecal sample data collected by GPS collar tracking and positioning, this paper analyzes the behavior development process and food conversion characteristics of giant pandas undergoing pre-release training. The results show that with the growth and development of giant pandas undergoing pre-release training, the behaviors related to foraging and vigilance are fully developed, and have a strong temporal correlation,including feeding, crawling, walking, playing with objects, climbing trees, biting and playing with bamboo, drinking water and eating bamboo. Generally, at the age of 8 ? 10 months, giant panda cubs begin to eat bamboo organs, and the process of developmental dietary transition is clearly divided into three stages: ready?to?eat milk period (1 ? 7 months old), breast milk bamboo conversion period (8 ? 28 months old) and bamboo eating period (29 ? 39 months old). The conversion period can be divided into critical period (8 ? 18 months old) and transition period (19 ? 28 months old). According to the statistical test, there are significant differences between different feeding stages, and the giant panda in the transition period can leave the mother animal and live independently in the study area. The proportions of food components in the transition period are not significantly different from that in the bamboo feeding stage. The seasonal dietary shift pattern of the wild training giant panda is similar to the mother animal with offspring and the wild giant panda in that is the main food is bamboo shoots in spring, young bamboo stems and leaves in summer and autumn, and bamboo leaves and stems in winter. The results of this study not only verify the scientific basis and feasibility of the pre-release training method of female animals with cubs, but also provide a reference for the pre-release training and reintroduction of captive giant pandas in the future.

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    Use of an artificial water source by wild camels in the Gansu Annanba Wild Camel National Nature Reserve
    Yongxiang ZHOU, Jianquan LIU, Duoliang ZHOU, Hao WU, Xiaomei YANG, Tianhui WANG, Yadong XUE
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 634-640.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150663
    Abstract901)   HTML23)    PDF (3147KB)(963)       Save

    Artificial water sources are an important conservation tool for endangered species living in desert landscapes because they increase water availability and survival likelihood. To determine the degree to which artificial water sources are used by wild animals, video surveillance data collected from August 2020 to August 2021 of an artificial water source in the Gansu Annanba Wild Camel National Nature Reserve were analyzed. During the monitoring period, a total of 533 video records were obtained, including 299 independent records. Our results showed that a variety of wild animals used the artificial water source, including 7 mammalian species and 7 avian species. Wild camel (Camelus ferus), the main target of species protection in the reserve, had the highest number of records (205), accounting for 67% of total independent records. The average time wild camels spent at the artificial water source was (15.66 ± 15.35) min and the average number of camels present was 6.82 ± 7.01. Time spent at the artificial water source by wild camels was significantly correlated with the number of camels present (P < 0.001), and the number of wild camels was significantly different among seasons (P < 0.005). The use of the artificial water source was the highest in summer and the lowest in spring. Daily activity patterns revealed a unimodal pattern, with the highest peak of activity occurring at 12: 00. This study revealed that artificial water sources are used by animals of conservation concern, such as wild camels. These results provide a useful reference for further revealing the behavior and ecological habits of wild camels and for promoting the conservation and management of imperiled wildlife by artificial measures.

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    Distinct patterns of microsatellite and functional analysis of forest musk deer and its closely related species
    Qi ZHAO, Qi ZHANG, Haoling LI, Yue LAN, Xingan YAN, Guijun ZHAO, Wenhua QI
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 705-715.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150645
    Abstract922)   HTML11)    PDF (1019KB)(927)       Save

    Muscidae and Cervidae belong to artiodactyl ruminants and have important economic value. There is still a lack of relevant studies on using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to reveal the phylogenetic relationship among species at the genomic level and to explore the gene functions of SSRs and their enriched signaling pathways. With the completion of the genome sequence of the forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus), the red deer (Cervus elaphus), the Reeves’ muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), and the red muntjac (Muntiacus vaginalis), we extracted the coding sequences (CDS) of these species by bioinformatics method and analyzed the distribution patterns of coding SSR and their biological functions. The containing-SSR genes were enriched in the signal pathways and their association with disease were explored. The results prove that the proportion of their coding SSRs were 6.96% (1 696), 7.18% (2 359), 7.29% (3 005), 7.36% (1 916), and 7.48% (1 924), respectively. In addition, the distribution pattern of coding SSRs of the five species was similar, triplet repeats SSR (Tri- and Hexa-SSRs) of the five species were the most similar, which were 96.85%, 94.87%, 65.44%, 64.23%, and 88.04%, respectively. The GO functional enrichment showed that the SSR sequences in the CDS of the five species had many same enriched functions in three aspects: molecular function, cellular component, and biological process, including DNA binding, chromatin, growth, and development. The result of the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that there are 7 KEGG pathways that were significantly co?enriched in forest musk deer and other species.These include protein families: genetic information processing, transcription factors, chromosome and associated proteins, spliceosome, transcription machinery, Notch signaling pathway, and maturity?onset diabetes of the young. By analyzing the SSR-containing key immune genes and their associated KEGG pathways in the CDS region of forset musk deer, 10 SSR-containing key immune genes corresponding to the KEGG pathway were found to be closely associated with the disease.

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    Analysis of the Père David’s deer population mortality in Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve
    Yijun REN, Daming SUN, Junai ZHEN, Libo WANG, Yumeng ZHAO, Hua SHEN, Bin LIU, Yuqing CHEN
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 741-748.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150631
    Abstract903)   HTML17)    PDF (2350KB)(915)       Save

    From 2009 to 2020, we systematically investigated the population, mortality, and death factors of Père David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in the Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve, Jiangsu, China. The result showed the annual growth rate of the population was 13.09% ± 5.96%, which continuously increased in the 12 years. The annual mortality rate was 3.53% ± 2.27%, with an obvious fluctuation every 2 years. There was no significant difference in mortality of adults and sub-adults in different seasons, but significant in juveniles.Significant differences in mortality among different age groups were observed. The adults died most in summer and autumn, while the juveniles died most in winter and spring. 48.77% of subjects tend to choose the underbrush for dying. The death factors among different age groups were significantly different. The elders and the juveniles mainly died of epidemic diseases, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic. While the sub-adults died in accidents. We suggested that it is necessary to strengthen the daily monitoring and epidemic disease prevention in wildlife management. Our data provided important information for the protection of Père David’s deer in Dafeng Reserve.

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    Wild camel space use as determined by different home range estimators
    Yongxiang ZHOU, Yadong XUE, Shaochuang LIU, Jianquan LIU, Duoliang ZHOU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (1): 102-108.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150672
    Abstract969)   HTML2)    PDF (5421KB)(915)       Save

    Satellite tracking and positioning technology has been widely used to estimate species home ranges, habitat selection, and migration behavior, which can provide the scientific basis necessary for endangered species conservation and management. In this study, the home ranges of two wild camels (Camelus ferus) were determined using minimum convex polygons, Kernel density estimators, and dynamic Brownian Bridge Movement Models (dBBMM).The advantages, disadvantages, and applicable scenarios of these methods were discussed and key habitats and conservation priority areas of wild camels were identified. The dBBMM home range was the most accurate in relation to the distribution of the camels studied. The average home range (95% dBBMM) and the average core home range (50% dBBMM) were 300.11 km2 and 7.02 km2, respectively. The average monthly home range (95% dBBMM) of the two wild camels was 164.98 km2 and 39.67 km2, respectively, and the average monthly core home range (50% dBBMM) was 4.69 km2 and 2.71 km2, respectively. The northern and western regions of the nature reserve harbored key habitats for wild camels, and should be regarded as conservation priority areas. We propose the use of a multi-method estimation to comprehensively and holistically identify key habitats. The dBBMM home range calculations of wild camels at different life history stages can identify their stopover sites and corridors, which is helpful for the development of management measures and fine-scale conservation actions.

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    Effects of food resources seasonality on home range utilization of wild Tibetan macaque ( Macaca thibetana)
    Yadong LI, Bowen LI, Xi WANG, Penghui LI, Jinhua LI
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 624-633.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150647
    Abstract932)   HTML21)    PDF (8947KB)(909)       Save

    Distribution and availability of food sources dramatically influence home range dynamics. Studies on home range utilization are critical for revealing the ecological adaptations and behavioral complexity in wild animals. From September 2020 to August 2021, we studied one group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana, Tianhu group, TH) in Huangshan, Anhui province, China. We directly observed and recorded spatial positions of the study group and monitored habitat conditions, vegetation distribution and food availability. 4 307 GPS positions were obtained and the kernel density estimation of GPS sites revealed that the Tibetan macaque’s home range area decreased from spring to winter, with areas of 7.16 km2, 5.09 km2, 3.85 km2, and 0.35 km2, respectively. The average daily ranging distance (d = 1735.67 m ± 288.35 m, n = 12) of the monkeys was positively correlated with food availability, with the longest average daily ranging distance in July and the shortest one in January. Monkeys preferred to stay in the mixed coniferous and mixed evergreen deciduous broadleaf forests. The monkeys used bamboo forests more in spring, mixed coniferous and broad forests in summer and winter, and mixed evergreen deciduous broadleaf forests in autumn. Tibetan macaques use their home ranges to adapt to low altitudes based on food resource distribution, food availability, and other factors.

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    Vkorc1 polymorphism of two rodent species in different habitats
    Xingen YANG, Yanlong WANG, Bo ZOU, Wenying CHANG, Yu HOU, Youyou ZHAO, Tinglin WANG, Jianxu ZHANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (6): 687-697.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150692
    Abstract874)   HTML11)    PDF (1682KB)(908)       Save

    To explore the polymorphism of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 gene (Vkorc1), which is closely related to the resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in the long-tailed hamster (Cricetulus longicaudatus) and the Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi), the mutation sites of Vkorc1 and their distribution were detected. In present study, samples were collected using the trapping methods from farms at 14 sites and agricultural fields at 13 sites. The exons of Vkorc1 were amplified and sequenced. The sequences were aligned using MEGA X to visually detect the mutation sites in exons and their distribution. The results showed that C. longicaudatus samples were captured in all the 13 sampling sites and accounted for 23.29% of wild rodents. R.tanezumi were distributed in 8 sampling sites, accounting for 68.63% of commensal rodents. Six silent mutation sites and 5 missense mutation sites in Vkorc1 were detected in C. longicaudatus samples (n = 105). Among them, silent mutation C438T (His146His) had the highest mutation rate of 67.62%. A total of 17 C. longicaudatus samples existed missense mutation sites. We found 6 silent mutation sites and 1 missense mutation site in R. tanezumi samples (n = 70). The mutation rates of the most common silent mutation sites A321C (Ile107Ile) and T411C (Thr137Thr) was up 18.57%. The missense mutation A416G (Tyr139Cys) associated with drug resistance was found in 8 R. tanezumi samples, of which 7 were captured from Xiaodian, Taiyuan, with a mutation rate of 35.00%. In conclusion, Vkorc1 mutations were detected both in anthropogenic habitats and natural ecosystems. We should strengthen the monitoring of R. tanezumi in Xiaodian, Taiyuan, since the formation of the resistant population.

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