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    Ontogeny and the influencing factors of bite force and feeding rate of giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
    SUN Mengmeng, YAN Xiao, LI Feng, TANG Yong, ZHANG Xinxing, DONG Chao, HUANG Shengjie, ZHENG Yuanming, LUO Yong, ZHOU Shiqiang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (2): 135-145.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150781
    Abstract226)   HTML24)    PDF (3796KB)(276)       Save
    The biting ability of giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) holds significant importance in terms of food acquisition and male-male competition. Their distinctive dietary preferences and masticatory system render them an ideal species for investigating bite forces. Nevertheless, current studies have predominantly relied on theoretical assessments derived from panda skull morphology, with no empirical animal experimentation conducted. The present study designed a force transducer specifically tailored for giant pandas, and measured body weight, bite forces, and feeding rate in a sample of 46 individuals from various age groups, with a particular focus on juvenile development. The results showed that bite forces at the tip of the incisor of juvenile giant pandas increased rapidly during the dental transitional period, as well as the feeding rate of bamboo shoots. At the end of the dental transitional phase, the bite forces exerted at the incisor point of juvenile giant pandas continued to display a growing trend, albeit at a decelerated rate. Concurrently, the feeding rate reached a state of equilibrium. The utilization of a logistic model revealed that age explains 87.56% of the variance observed in the feeding rate among juvenile pandas. As for the comparisons of age groups, the median bite force value exhibited an upward trajectory in tandem with increasing age. The bite force of 8-month to 12-month age group was significantly lower than the bite forces of all the other age groups; the bite force of 13-month to 18-month age group was significantly lower than those of sub-adult, adults and geriatric group; however, there was no significant difference between the latter three groups. The adult group has the highest feeding rate of bamboo shoots and carrots, followed successively by the sub-adult group, the geriatric groups and the juvenile group. In summary, our study confirmed for the first time the feasibility of measuring bite forces of giant pandas by using force transducer, recorded the developmental process of bite forces and feeding rate of juvenile giant pandas during the dental transitional period, and discussed the effect of age on bite forces and feeding rate, all of which laying a good foundation for future work of giant pandas’ feeding ecology.
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    Advances in reproductive isolation mechanisms during animal speciation
    ZHANG Yuxing, WU Hong, YU Li
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (6): 627-643.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150838
    Abstract448)   HTML14)    PDF (4322KB)(694)       Save
    The process of speciation and its mechanism is not only the‘mystery of mysteries’of Darwin, but also a key to understanding the biological diversity in nature, and it is also one of the scientific focuses in the field of evolutionary biology. Speciation refers to the evolutionary process in which a new species diverges from its ancestors, and it is also the process of reproductive isolation or barrier establishment among populations. The exploration and revelation of this process and its inherent genetic mechanism are the key to understanding the phenomenon of biodiversity. By focusing on animal groups, this review systematically describes the ways of reproductive isolation establishment and their molecular mechanisms, then discusses the bottlenecks, challenges and potential opportunities faced by current research on animal reproductive isolations, with a view to providing reference and inspiration for subsequent research on animal speciation.
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    Abstract719)      PDF (248KB)(1375)       Save
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    ON THE GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION TAXONOMIC STATUS OF SPECIES AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SIKA DEER IN CHINA
    QUO Yanshu , ZHENQ Huizhen
      
    Abstract2778)      PDF (506KB)(3409)       Save
    In early Pleistocene, sika deer was only found in north China region and Taiwan; in middle pleistocene to holocence it extended to northeast region the east of Mongolia-Xinkian region the central China region the south China region, the east of southwest region and Qinghai-Tibet region. There is only one species ( Cervus nippon) in the east Asia from early pleistocene to holocene. It is devided into nine subspecies in China (C. n. sintikuensis, C. n. taicxuanus, C. n.grayi,C. n .hortulorum,C. n .mandarinu, C. n. grassianus,C. n. sinchuanrinus, C. n . kopschi C. n . pseudxis). Sika deer whose home is on the edge of the forest has better adaptabililty. Its distribution regions are abruptly shrinking with the continuous rising of Qinghai-Tibet plateau and man’s action after ice age. Now, there are only 1500 wild sika deers in China. It is discussed evolutionary history of sika deer yet.
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    Estimating the population size of wild boar ( Sus scrofa) in Kaihua County, Zhejiang Province using camera-trapping data
    CHEN Xiaonan, TIAN Jia, LIU Mingzhang, SHEN Yunyi, YU Jianping, LIU Feng, SHEN Xiaoli, LI Sheng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (5): 523-532.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150785
    Abstract486)   HTML25)    PDF (5317KB)(369)       Save
    Wild boar ( Sus scrofa) has high fecundity and strong adaptability to various environments. In recent years, the populations of wild boar in China have been increasing dramatically, causing numerous human-wildlife conflicts primarily due to crop damages and people injuries by the boars. To provide a scientific basis for future planned hunting and population management, we took Kaihua County, Zhejiang Province as an example to estimate the population size of wild boar using camera-trapping data. The camera-trapping data, collected during September and October 2020, contained 964 independent records of wild boar from 429 camera stations with an extensive sampling effort of 23 690 camera days. We used the Royle-Nichols model, combining environmental factors including terrain, vegetation and human impacts and the species’home range parameter, to estimate the population and distribution of wild boars in Kaihua. The results showed that the population size of wild boar within the study area was estimated as 5548 ±2343 (mean ±95% C. I. ), with an average density of 2. 38 ±0. 61 (mean ±SD) ind. /km 2, which was negatively associated with altitude and resident density, and slightly positively associated with forest coverage. Based on the results, we suggest that wild boar hunting, as a management measure to control its population, in the study area should be conducted in farmland, plantations, and ecotone areas of forest and farmland, where the boar densities are high. In the future, local administrations and the Qianjiangyuan National Park shall integrate data from the systematically designed camera-trapping network, as well as those from hunting records and other sources, into this management framework, so that the population dynamics model of target species can be continuously updated and improved, and a long-term population dynamics monitoring system can be established.
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    MECHANISMS AND THE EVOLUTION OF FEMALE MULTIPLE MATING BEHAVIOR
    LIU Xiaoming LI Ming WEI Fuwen
      
    Abstract2076)      PDF (163KB)(2186)       Save
    Females cannot produce more offspring than the number of their eggs. herefore, from the theoretical perspective, one or a few matings are sufficient for females to fertilize all eggs and maximize their potential reproductive abilities for one estrus period. Contrary to the prediction, however, females of many animal species often mate multiply with a single male or more males. Because mating often carries relatively high cost, it is difficult to understand why females mate multiply. Adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses to explaining female multiple mating are reviewed in the paper. Adaptive hypotheses are separated into two parts: obtaining both direct benefits and 'indirect (genetic) benefits' from mating partners. Direct benefits may take the form of courtship feeding , nuptial gifts, fertilization assurance, paternal care, stimulation of reproduction and female of guarding of mating right with males. Specifically, this review emphasizes on discussing the three hypotheses on genetic benefits, i. e. 1 acquisition of good genes, increased genetic diversity within clutches, and genetic compatibility. Two non-adaptive hypotheses such as the genetic related and compliance with male behavior are also discussed.
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    Feeding activity of François langurs in Karst habitat
    ZHOU Qihai,CAI Xiangwen,HUANG Chengming,LI Youbang,LUO Yaping
      
    Abstract3835)      PDF (1396KB)(4108)       Save
    To explore the influence of habitat fragmentation on the ecology of the François langur ( Trachypithecus francoisi), data on habitat use were collected from a group of François langurs living in an isolated hill in the Fusui Rare Animal Nature Reserve,Guangxi Province,between August 2002 and July 2003. Our results indicated that there was significant variation in the distribution of feeding activity in different vertical hill zones They showed preference for feeding in the middle zone. The top zone,as well as the bottom zone were used less for feeding. Langurs' feeding activities were concentrated in six patches,with a total area of 7.94 ha,which occupied 18.9% of the habitat. The densities of langurs' preferred food plants in the feeding patches were higher than that in the non-feeding patches. Langurs' diet varied according to season, even though leaves contributed a large proportion of the diet. This diet shift corresponded to seasonal variations in the utilization of feeding patches.
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    Torpor in mammals:types,species and patterns
    YANG Ming,WANG Dehua
      
    Abstract3090)      PDF (280KB)(3101)       Save
    Torpor (including hibernation, estivation, and daily torpor)in mammals is one of the most attractive physiological phenomena in life science. Some mammal species use torpor to survive harsh environments such as cold, food shortage and drought. Physiological and/ or ecological research into torpor of mammals has potential implications in biomedicine in situations such as trauma treatment, organ transplantation and spaceflight. This review briefly introduces several aspects of torpor in mammals:1) Types of torpor in mammals according to the season and duration of mammalian torpor, the source and storage form of the fuel used in torpor, and the signals initiating torpor. 2) The systematic distribution of the mammal species utilized torpors. 3)The general properties in body temperature and metabolic rate which occurr in hibernation and hibernation bouts of mammals in temperate and arctic zone, and in the tropics where the diurnal hibernacula temperatures fluctuate acutely. We also introduce the patterns of other kinds of torpor, such as daily torpor.
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    Effects of fostering methods on the growth and development of giant panda cubs with different birth weight
    WU Kai, LAI Jiaying, WEI Ming, ZHANG Yahui, ZENG Xianyin, WEI Rongping, CAO Xiao-han, HU Zhengquan, ZENG Wen, WANG Chengdong, KONG Fanli
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (2): 217-223.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150705
    Abstract193)   HTML5)    PDF (2138KB)(132)       Save
    In this study, 80 giant panda cubs born between 2012 and 2019 were selected to systematically study the effects of birth weight ([50, 100) g, n = 7; [100, 150) g, n = 25; [150, 200) g, n = 37; [200, 250) g, n = 11), fostering method (female feeding, n = 12; artificial feeding, n = 10; artificial and female alternate feeding, n = 58) and fetal litter size (single, n = 14, and twins, n = 66) on the growth and development of the cubs. We collected the daily gain, milk feeding amount, and eye and ear development during the early development of the cubs (from 0 to 120 days). The results showed that the birth weight of singleton pups was significantly higher than that of twin pups ( P < 0. 05). We also found that the early growth and development of pups are closely related to their cub-fostering methods and birth weight ( R 2 > 0. 973 7). The greater the birth weight of the pups, the greater the growth rate. The lighter the birth weight of the cubs, the lower the shrinkage, but the higher ratio of shrinkage to its birth weight. In addition, the lighter the birth weight of pups, the lower the developmental status of their ears and eyes. In conclusion, our study provides a theoretical basis on the selection of and the improvement of cub-fostering methods for the giant panda.
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    Individual identification and genetic diversity of Eurasian otters based on microsatellite markers
    ZHENG Kaidan, WANG Qiaoyun, FAN Pengfei, HAN Xuesong, XIAO Mei, SHEN Limin, DONG Zhengyi, ZHANG Lu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (2): 146-158.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150814
    Abstract165)   HTML6)    PDF (4834KB)(176)       Save
    Population size and genetic diversity are important basic information for threatened species conservation. As a Class II protected animal, Eurasian otter ( Lutra lutra) was once widely distributed in China, but has experienced severe population decline and range shrinkage over the 20th century. However, only a few studies have been conducted on Eurasian otters in China. Basic research such as population surveys and genetic diversity studies are urgently needed. We collected 270 otter spraints for DNA extraction during 2019-2020 in Yushu City, Qinghai Province and Qingchuan County, Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province. We used 9 microsatellite loci and the SRY gene to genotype individuals and identify sex. Then we estimated the sizes of the two populations based on individual identification and noninvasive capturerecapture method (Capwire). We also assessed their genetic diversity based on the nine microsatellite markers. We successfully genotyped 67 spraints (24. 8%) with 7 - 9 microsatellites and identified 40 otter individuals. Among them, 10 were from Yushu and 30 were from Qingchuan, with a sex ratio of 4F/5M and 15F/14M respectively. Sex identification failed for two individuals. The estimated population of otters within our study area was 13 (95% CI: 7 - 21) in Yushu City and 75 (95% CI: 59-133) in Qingchuan County. The average observed heterozygosity ( H O) and expected heterozygosity ( H E) of the Yushu population were 0. 680 and 0. 611, while those of the Qingchuan population were 0. 664 and 0. 658, revealing a moderate genetic diversity. Otters in Yushu and Qingchuan have been differentiated significantly ( F ST = 0. 238) and no significant inbreeding was found in both populations ( F IS: Yushu -0. 121, Qingchuan -0. 010). As the first study estimating population size and genetic diversity of Eurasian otters based on fecal DNA in Chinese mainland, our work provides important basic information for otter conservation in China.
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    INFLUENCING FACTORS ON BASAL METABOLIC RATE IN MAMMALS
    SONG Zhigang WANG Dehua
      
    Abstract1882)      PDF (103KB)(1858)       Save
    The factors influencing basal metabolic rate (BMR) of mammals were reviewed. They include body size ,phylogeny , food habits , climate , season , habits and activities , and reproduction. They also include sub-organism characteristics such as hormone , active organs , mitochondrial density and proton leak. The possible mechanisms were analysed as well.
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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract13421)      PDF (1771KB)(7007)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    The circadian expression rhythms and adaptive evolution of the core circadian clock gene Per1 in bats
    WANG Hui, XU Ningning, LI Xintong, FENG Jiang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (3): 259-267.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150882
    Abstract84)   HTML8)    PDF (2885KB)(69)       Save
    For a long time, research on circadian clock has been a hot topic in the field of life science. Previous studies have shown that the core clock gene Per1 is widely involved in the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms. However, limited understanding of the adaptive sites evolved in the sequence of Per1 gene. And whether these adaptive alterations may promote the formation and stabilization of mammalian diurnal activity patterns remains to be investigated. In this study, we conducted in-depth molecular evolution analyses of the core clock gene Per1 through the real-time quantitative PCR, gene cloning sequencing and molecular evolution analysis. We have identified the circadian oscillation patterns of Per1 gene expressed in the brain of bats, from rest state to sleep state corresponding with the expression level of Per1 gene changed from high to low, and the sleep state showing the lowest expression level, while from wake state to active state, its expression level increased continuously, which was highly correlated with the maintenance of the central biological clock regulation function of Per1 gene. There were 15 potential and 2 significant positively selected sites were detected on the Per1 gene sequence, and one of the significant positively selected sites, 1118A amino acid site detected in nocturnal animals was found to be located on the functional domain of the gene encoded protein sequence. We also found that the evolution rate of Per1 gene in nocturnal mammals was generally higher than that in diurnal mammals, indicating that the core clock gene Per1 experienced strong selective pressures during the evolution of nocturnal mammals, further promoted the formation and stabilization of nocturnal activity patterns in mammals. This study provides a new understanding of the key molecular basis of mammalian homeostasis maintenance and adaptation to the periodically changing environmental conditions, and provides ideas and references for circadian clock related studies.
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    BEHAVIORAL INTERACTIONS AND MATING BEHAVIOR OF RATLIKE HAMSTERS (CRICETULUS TRITON) DURING THE BREEDING SEASON
    ZHANG Jianxu,ZHANG Zhibin,WANG Zuwang
      
    Abstract2427)      PDF (161KB)(1818)       Save
    In a Y-maze, the focal female ratlike hamsters ( Cricetuus triton) preferred body odor of males to females' or control (P<0.05) ; themale did not show a sexual preference for body odor ( P> 0.05), while preferred body odor of conspecific to control, these results indicated that body odor are attractive to the hamster, and the hamster’s response to the odor had sexual difference. The focal hamster spent more time in one of arms of Y-maze with hamster demonstrator than another control arm ( P< 0.05 or P < 0.01) ; males spent more time in one of arms with same-sex hamster demonstrator than another with the opposite-sex individual conspecific ( P< 0.01), and females did not spend different time ( P > 0.05). The results were mediatedby combination of agonistic behavior and mating patterns. The staged dyadic encounters were conducted in a neutral arena.Paired encounters between both same sexes contained frequent agonistic acts and few amiable acts, and the victors had more attack and flank gland marking ( P < 0.05 o r P < 0.01); although both male sand females exhibited less aggression when paired with opposite-sex conspecific, amiable acts were also fewer, and females received males' mounting only on the estrous day of estrous cycle and attacked males on other days of. The above results implied that the hamster was solitary and that f lank gland marking was positively related to agonistic behavior and dominant status. Ratlike hamsters had a typical mating behavior and exhibit multiple intromission followed by multiple ejaculations. Both males' Coolidge effectand females' multiple matings indicated that the hamster was polygynousor promiscuous mating.
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    Mating behavior of captive wolves (Canis lupus) in Heilongjiang,China
    SHA Weilai,ZHANG Honghai,KONG Fanfan,CHEN Lei,ZHANG Chengde
      
    Abstract7121)      PDF (237KB)(3870)       Save
    In order to better understand mating patterns and processes of captive wolves ( Canis lupus), we observed 4 pairs in the Harbin North Forest Zoo for about 25 days (225 hours in total)from October 2005 to April 2006. We used focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording. Mating behaviors usually occurred during 8∶ 00 - 10∶00 am and 14∶00 -16∶ 00 pm. Among 741 mounts recorded,46 copulations were observed (6. 2% ). The mating period lasted for 5 - 14 days. We observed copulatory locks during copulations. After copulatory lock and several repeated twitches,male wolves would ejaculate. Female wolves displayed obvious sexual solicitations and acted in concert with male mounts by standing
    still with their tails to one side,and haunches bent forward. There were no differences in the twitching times ( P = 0. 827), but we did observe differences in the durations of copulatory locks (one-way ANOVA, F = 71.43, P < 0.001) among the four male wolves. The mean mating duration was 534 ±402 seconds,with the longest 1 588 seconds and the shortest 28 seconds.
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    Comparative study on the spatial and temporal niche of the same domain distribution of Arctonyx collaris and Paguma larvata in Suichang, Zhejiang Province
    ZHAO Jiale, GONG Xiaofei, PAN Jiangyan, LI Yue, WEN Zuohao, YE Yi, GAO Jianming, ZHAO Ayong, LIN Zhihua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (3): 297-308.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150840
    Abstract62)   HTML8)    PDF (27190KB)(64)       Save
    The hog badger ( Arctonyx collaris) and the masked palm civet ( Paguma larvata) are dominant species among small carnivores in the mountainous areas of Suichang, Zhejiang, with similar feeding habits and environmental niches. In order to explore the mechanism by which hog badger and masked palm civet coexist in the same region, we conducted infrared camera monitoring in five sample areas (Baima Mountain, Qianfo Mountain, Jiulong Mountain, Niutou Mountain, and Hushan) of Suichang County, Zhejiang Province from June 2020 to June 2022. 71 camera deployment sites were selected and a total of 123 infrared cameras were used, resulting in a total of 19 654 effective working days and 2 184 independent effective events. We build species distribution models and daily activity rhythm models to analyze the spatiotemporal niches of hog badger and masked palm civet in the region. The results showed that both species were dominant among the local intermediate predators, but the relative abundance index (RAI) of hog badgers (9. 26) was higher than that of masked palm civets (3. 96). Both species exhibited high similarity in habitat selection, with an overlap coefficient of 0. 783 and an index of 0. 960 in spatial niche. There was a significant difference in diurnal activity between the two species ( P < 0. 01), with hog badgers being active both during the day and night, while masked palm civets were mainly active at night. There was a significant overlap in spatial niche between hog badgers and masked palm civets, but a considerable differentiation in temporal niche, indicating a tendency for coexistence through reactive strategies between the two species. This study provides preliminary insights into the spatio-temporal niche characteristics and coexistence mechanisms of hog badgers and masked palm civets and serves as an example and theoretical reference for understanding interspecific relationships and biodiversity conservation of coexisting intermediate predators in the same region.
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    Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Guizhou Dashahe National Nature Reserve
    LI Qiaoming, GOU Wei, JI Chengpeng, XIAO Wenhong, CHEN Sikan, XIAO Zhishu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 108-117.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150536
    Abstract1586)   HTML108)    PDF (2255KB)(2331)       Save
    From December 2016 to August 2019, we set up 85 grids (1 km×1 km) and 114 camera-trapping stations to investigate the wildlife resources of mammals and birds in the Dashahe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou province, China. Our survey included 19 950 trap days and 10 767 independent pictures. We identified a total of 86 species from 35 families and 12 orders, including 25 species of mammals belonging to 14 families and 5 orders and 61 species of birds belonging to 21 families and 7 orders. Among them, 4 species were listed as Class Ⅰ and 19 species were listed as Class Ⅱ National Protected Wildlife in China, and 24 species were recorded for the first time in the Dashahe reserve. The most abundant mammal species based on the relative abundance index and grid occupancy were Muntiacus reevesi, Paguma larvata, and Sus scrofa. In addition, the most abundant bird species were Chrysolophus pictus, Tragopan temminckii, and Leiothrix argentauris. Our results provide basic information on the relative abundance of terrestrial wild mammals and birds for protection management and long-term monitoring in this reserve.
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    Survey on the population and reproduction of free-ranging cats at the Xianlin Campus of Nanjing University
    SUN Taozhu, WU Qiong, ZHANG Zhenwei, LI Zhongqiu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (3): 333-343.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150821
    Abstract90)   HTML1)    PDF (22130KB)(60)       Save
    The free-ranging cat is a significant threat to global biodiversity, yet there is a dearth of research on the fundamental biology of these non-domesticated felines within China. Between 2018 and 2022, we undertook a comprehensive study focusing on the population dynamics and reproductive biology of free-ranging cats on the Xianlin Campus of Nanjing University, which covers approximately 195 hectares. Utilizing point sampling surveys conducted over a continuous 20-day period, we generated a population accumulation curve for the cat population. Despite having pre-existing knowledge of the cats’distribution, we found that a single day of sampling yielded a discovery rate of only 51. 22%, with a confidence interval of 44. 51% to 53. 66%. This rate improved to 84. 15% (confidence interval: 81. 10% to 86. 59%) following six days of repeated sampling efforts. From 2018 to 2022, the cat population on the Xianlin Campus of Nanjing University saw a swift increase, rising from 51 individuals in 2018 to 220 by 2022. To delve into the population’s dynamics and reproductive patterns, we conducted detailed monthly surveys six times between March 2021 and March 2022. Over this period, we documented a total of 273 cats, comprising 149 adults and 124 kittens, with a near-even sex ratio. The one-year retention rate for the cats was approximately 58. 71%, with a marked difference favoring neutered cats over their unneutered counterparts in terms of survival. Regarding reproduction, while cats are capable of breeding year-round, the peak breeding season is predominantly from March to June. Among the 65 recorded litters, 84 cats survived past the six-month mark. Assuming an average litter size of 3 to 4 kittens, the survival rate of these feral cats on the campus at six months was estimated to be around 36. 92%, with a range of 32. 31% to 43. 08%. Our findings suggest that sampling efforts of low intensity may have led to an underestimation of the free-ranging cat population. Furthermore, in an environment where human care is abundant, the survival and reproductive success rates of these cats remain high, unaffected by limitations in food, shelter, or disease. This presents considerable challenges for the control and management of free-ranging cat populations.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract2972)      PDF (3119KB)(3842)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    Research advances and perspectives on the ecology of wild giant pandas
    WEI Fuwen,ZHANG Zejun,HU Jinchu
      
    Abstract6548)      PDF (325KB)(4788)       Save

    Among the order Carnivora, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most attractive animals, possessing high value for scientific research and being a symbol of worldwide nature conservation. In early 1980s, the Chinese government, cooperating with the WWF in initiated a research project on wild giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve. Since then, extensive research activities have been conducted in different mountain ranges inhabited by the animal. The application of new techniques such as 3S (GIS, RS, GPS)and molecular markers in the ecological study of the giant panda has greatly improved our understanding of its ecology. To date,a huge body of knowledge and information has been accumulated, potentially helpful for developing adaptive conservation strategies. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in understanding the ecology of wild giant pandas during the past 30 years on various aspects, including habitat ecology, feeding ecology, reproductive ecology, behavioral ecology, molecular ecology, population ecology and community ecology. Meanwhile, given the demands of research and management, future research directions are suggested.

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    Vulnerability assessment of suitable habitats for Equus hemionus in the Kalamaili National Park under climate change
    GAO Shuaishuai, HU Yang, SHAO Changliang, JIANG Liwei, ZHANG Yuguang, SU Zhizhu, WU Bo, LI Jia
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (3): 287-296.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150846
    Abstract74)   HTML3)    PDF (37320KB)(56)       Save
    Assessing Mongolian wild ass ( Equus hemionus) vulnerability to climate change is a prerequisite for developing effective strategies to reduce emerging climate-related threats in the Kalamaili National Park. In this paper, a total of 207 Mongolian wild ass occurrence records and nine variables as model parameters were conducted on the BIOMOD2 platform to assess the vulnerability of suitable Mongolian wild ass habitat under current and future 2050s (2041-2071), 2080s (2071-2100) climatic scenario. The result revealed that out of the 10 BIOMOD2 platform models, the random forest (RF) simulation performed the best and the surface distribution differentiation chamber (SRE) model performed the worst. The true skill statistic (TSS) and the area under the subject working characteristic curve (AUC) of the combined model were 0. 939 and 0. 996, respectively, indicating that its simulation results for the current distribution of Mongolian wild ass were reliable. Annual mean temperature and mean temperature of coldest quarter are the dominant factors affecting the distribution of Mongolian wild ass. Suitable habitats for Mongolian wild ass were mainly distributed in the northern, central, and eastern parts of the Kalamaili National Park on both sides of National Highway 216. Under the background of future climate change, the suitable habitat area of Mongolian wild ass will be further reduced by 2080s (SSP370), suitable habitat will be mainly located in the eastern part of the national park and decreased by 68. 8% compared with the current period. In this study, we use simulation results from the combination model provided by the BIOMOD2 platform to analyze the dynamic changes in suitable habitats for Mongolian wild ass under different climatic conditions, to provide a benchmark for biodiversity conservation under climate change, and to assess further the effectiveness of climate change conservation in the Kalamaili National Park and propose an adaptive conservation plan.
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    Genetic diversity of sika deer based on microsatellite in Taohongling, Jiangxi
    ZHANG Yang, CHEN Luyao, HAN Weijie, ZHAN Jianwen, LIU Wuhua, HUANG Xiaofeng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (3): 268-276.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150803
    Abstract76)   HTML1)    PDF (3027KB)(56)       Save
    Sika deer ( Cervus nippon) is a ClassⅠkey protected wild animal in China. The Jiangxi Taohongling sika deer represents the largest population of South China sika deer ( C. n. kopschi). Studying the genetic diversity of Taohongling sika deer and understanding its genetic background is crucial for enhancing the genetic diversity of sika deer in South China and promoting the population’s rapid development. This study collected a total of 108 suspected sika deer fecal samples from the Taohongling Sika Deer National Nature Reserve. Mitochondrial Cyt b gene amplification sequencing was used for species identification, while microsatellite markers and SRY/ZFX sex markers were employed for individual identification, genetic diversity analysis, and sex determination. The results showed that 96 out of the 108 samples were produced by 63 individual sika deer, resulting in a sex ratio of 1. 33 males to 1 female. The average number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and inbreeding coefficient of the 7 microsatellite loci were 3. 714, 0. 712, 0. 602, and -0. 087, respectively. Three loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and all showed heterozygote excess. These findings suggest that the genetic diversity of Taohongling sika deer is moderate, with a certain degree of sexual imbalance. Furthermore, a negative inbreeding coefficient indicates that there is no current risk of inbreeding in the population. To improve the conservation and management of rare alleles, it is advisable to implement artificial breeding programs for the Taohongling sika deer. Additionally, measures such as promoting individual migration should be implemented to facilitate genetic exchange between the Taohongling sika deer and other South China sika deer populations. This will help maintain their population genetic diversity and promote rapid development.
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    Leks Mating System and Its Mechanism
    YOU Zhangqiang JIANG Zhigang
      
    Abstract1694)      PDF (166KB)(1749)       Save
    Lek is the aggregated male display that females attend primarily for the purpose of copulation. A group of males aggregate at a traditional mating site , where they perform intricate vocal, visual or chemical displays to attract receptive females. Since 1995, leks and lekking have attracted the attention of many researchers, but there is no report on lek research in China yet. Lekking has been found in a large number of taxa, such as insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and ungulates. During the two decades since 1995, there has been about 10 hypotheses or models proposed to answer why lek exists in some species and what cause its evolution. We introduced the categories and the characteristics of lekking, aiming to benefit the animal behavior research in China. We also proposed some suggestion on the relationship between lekking and conservation.
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    Morphological and functional of giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) dentition from the Qinling Mountains
    LIU Shuangyun,CHEN Yongjin,ZHANG Min,LIU Xinyu
      
    Abstract3032)      PDF (733KB)(1784)       Save
    Different dental morphological features,including the occlusal surface,interproximal surface,buccal surface and
    lingual surface,were described by observing the 155 non-isolated teeth in maxillary specimens from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Qinling Mountains. The correlation between dental features and diet was discussed based on the measurement of dental crown width,dental crown thickness,dental crown height,dental cervical width,dental cervical thickness,dental root length and dental length,in parallel with a study on the feeding ecology of giant pandas. Dental unity of morphology and function of wild giant pandas was also described. The correlation between dental anatomy and physiology was further analyzed. The results showed that during the evolutionary process,as a special stock of carnivore,the giant panda’s food was highly specialized. Its dental morphological features are significantly different from those of other carnivores and have their own peculiarities. The incisor has a trend of degradation and double dentition. It has lost the dental morphological features of other carnivores. The canine is strong and forms a cone. Its crown height is twice the height than the molar’s crown. The premolar and the molar have complex dental morphology. Their occlusal surface has many crista. The cingulum
    is well-developed. The broad and uneven occlusal surfaces are similar to those of omnivorous and herbivorous animals. Changes in the food structure affect the dental masticatory function in different ways,resulting in the adaptive performance in the dental morphology. Morphological characteristics of these teeth meet the needs of masticatory function,which is closely related to its oral physiological functions. The results of this study provide the anatomical basis for the prevention and treatment of dental disease of giant pandas,as well as having very important ecological significance.
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    SURVEY ON AMUR TIGERS IN JILIN PROVINCE
    LI Tong,JlANG Jinsong,WU Zhigang,HAN Xiaodong,WU Jingcai,YANG Xingjia
      
    Abstract1669)      PDF (160KB)(1788)       Save
    Eight year's field survey ascertains that the seven to nine Amur tigers (Panther tiger altaica) distribute over three areas in Jilin Province. Three to five tigers distribute over Dalongling area, one over Haerbaling and three over Zhangguangcailing area. The suitable habitats for Amur tigers are hills with middle-aged, mixed forest dominated by oak, with the altitude of 800 to 1100 meters where human population density is 15 individuals km 2, and the density of prey including wild boar, roe deer and red deer is 2.5 individuals km 2.
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    Preliminary monitoring of Amur tiger population in Jilin Hunchun National Nature Reserve
    LI Bing,ZHANG Endi,ZHANG Zhenhua,LIU Yu
      
    Abstract3808)      PDF (443KB)(2805)       Save
    The Hunchun Nature Reserve,located near the boundaries of China with Russia and DPR Korea,is the only
    national level reserve in China containing tigers ( Panthera tigris) and leopards ( P. pardus). Since its establishment in December 2001, tiger monitoring has been carried out in and around the reserve. Because tigers can easily cross boundaries over the course of a year,winter snow tracking alone is insufficient as the sole method ortigermonitoring. Thus, a passivetiger monitoring method was adopted to augment the existing winter survey. Passive monitoring relies primarily on information on tiger predation reported by local villagers and informants in 12 villages. We summarize tiger monitoring efforts during 2001 - 2006, analyze tiger occurrence frequency,number,and sex/ age ratios suggested by monitoring data,and make conservation suggestions. During winters 2003 - 2005, 50 routes of 5 -10 km length were monitored for tiger sign. As of the end of 2006,a total of 93 tiger occurrences had been recorded,of which one was a cub. Based on track records during 2002 -2006,we encountered tigers 7, 16, 9, 7, and 7 times respectively,and estimate the presence of 3, 10, 5, 4, and 5 individuals in those years. Based on winter tracking during 2003 - 2005, we estimated 7 male tigers in the area, one of which was a sub-adult. Our results suggest that males outnumbered females,and speculate that this resulted from male tigers tending to disperse and hunt livestock. However,our results were affected by monitoring conditions,methodological limitations,and variable intensity of effort;. over half of all data lacked reliable footprint records. Thus our results are only capable of providing an incomplete reflection of tiger status in this area. We suggest enhancing transboudary conservation efforts by building corridors,considering translocations,conducting in-depth tiger and ungulate monitoring and research,
    building a system to help local communities and armies become better involved in conservation,and helping local communities change their methods of livestock grazing and seek alternative livelihoods.
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    Temporal niche relationship between snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) and its sympatric large carnivores in Qilian Mountains, Gansu Province
    ZHANG Changzhi, MA Teng, Wuliji, LIU Xiaomin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (1): 109-115.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150632
    Abstract1142)   HTML40)    PDF (2627KB)(1176)       Save
    Large mammalian carnivores are at the top of the food chain and nutritional level, and they play an important role in maintaining the stability of ecosystem structure and function. Exploring the interspecific interaction and coexistence mechanism of large carnivores is of great significance to understanding how biotic communities assemble, species population dynamics, and endangered species conservation and management. In this study, we seleted the Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve in the west of Qilian Mountains, Gansu Province as our study area. We collected temporal data of snow leopards ( Panthera uncia) and their sympatric large carnivores from a camera-trapping survey in the alpine ecosystem and conducted kernel density estimation and coefficient of overlap to explore temporal niche differentiation. We found that the daily activity patterns of snow leopards showed a sub-peak and a peak at 04:00-08:00 and 16:00-20:00, respectively, indicating that snow leopards tended to be crepuscular. The sub-peak and the highest peak of the daily activity patterns of brown bears ( Ursus arctos) are from 03:00 to 05:00 and from 19:00 to 21:00 respectively, which are more nocturnal. Dhole ( Cuon alpinus) has the highest peak and sub-peak from 06:00 to 10:00, which are concentrated in the daytime and mainly active in the morning, making it a typical diurnal animal. The daily activity patterns of lynx( Lynx lynx) and wolf ( Canis lupus) were both bimodal. The two activity peaks of lynx are 01:00-03:00 and 18:00-20:00, which are more nocturnal, while the two activity peaks of wolves are about 09:00-11:00 and 18:00-19:00, which are more diurnal. The overlap of daily activity patterns of snow leopard and wolf (Δ1=0. 70), snow leopard and lynx (Δ1=0. 78), and snow leopard and brown bear (Δ1=0. 82) were higher, while snow leopard and dhole (Δ1=0. 39) showed low overlap of daily activity pattern. The results preliminarily revealed the temporal niche relationship between the snow leopard and its sympatric large carnivores and, provide basic information for a further in-depth understanding of the coexistence mechanism of large carnivores in the alpine ecosystem.
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    From Egypt to Kunming-Montreal—The shift of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework
    PING Xiaoge, ZHU Jiang, WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (4): 357-363.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150816
    Abstract459)   HTML1878)    PDF (1795KB)(472)       Save
    The 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) adopted the KunmingMontreal Global Biodiversity Framework (hereinafter referred to as the Kunmeng Framework). This global biodiversity framework has gone through rounds of negotiation and consultation and the release of the zero draft, the first draft and the Kunmeng Framework. Some contents have been continuously adjusted, showing the compromises of parties on certain issues. This paper reviews in detail the indicators involved in the 2050 long-term goals and 2030 action targets in the zero draft, first draft, and the Kunmeng Framework, and proposes the following topics to be paid attention to: living in harmony with nature, genetic diversity conservation, protected area target, transformation and urgent actions, and the implementation of the framework. Future work should focus on urgent actions to translate global goals into national actions, providing financial support, and ensuring the effective implementation of the monitoring systems.
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    Preliminary study on the diversity of medium and large-sized mammals and pheasants at Chuxiong sub-region, Yunnan Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve
    YIN Guanghua, QIN Zhongyi, LUO Wenfu, LU Lixiong, LI Han, GAO Wenjun, XU Ping, LI Qianen, YIN Cunquan, LI Genhui, ZHANG Zhiqiang, LI Yuwu, LIU Dong, JI-ANG Xuelong, LI Xueyou
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2024, 44 (2): 237-246.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150751
    Abstract176)   HTML14)    PDF (4717KB)(144)       Save
    Between March 2020 and May 2022, we conducted a systematic camera-trapping survey to understand the diversity of medium and large-sized mammals and pheasants at Chuxiong Prefecture sub-region of Yunnan Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve. We set 153 camera traps along 1 km ×1 km grids, with a total trapping effort of 59 623 days, which yielded 9 309 independent records of wildlife species. A total of 23 medium and large-sized terrestrial mammals and seven pheasant species were observed: 14 families of 5 orders for mammals and 1 family of 1 order for pheasants. Of which, three and 14 species were listed as Class One and Class Two protected species respectively by the Chinese muntjac ( Muntiacus vaginalis, RAI = 7. 52), tufted deer ( Elaphodus cephalophus, RAI = 2. 43),wild boar ( Susscrofa, RAI = 2. 39), macaque( Macaca mulatta, RAI = 2. 26) and Malayan porcupine ( Hystrix brachyura, RAI = 2. 16). Species rank-abundance curve showed that species in the first three ranks were the northern red muntjac, wild boar, and silver pheasant Lophura nycthemera, which together contributed to 65% of the accumulative abundance of the whole community. In addition, our camera-trapping survey recorded numerous human-related inerference such as livestock grazing, indicating that the reserve is under some levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, our first systematic camera-trapping survey provides basic information on the diversity of medium and large-sized mammals and pheasants at Chuxiong Prefecture sub-region of Yunnan Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve. Such knowledge is important for local wildlife biodiversity management and conservation. Wildlife Conservation Law. The five species with the highest relative abundance indices (RAI) were the northern red
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    A Survey of the Giant Panda Population and Habitats in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains
    RAN Jianghong, ZENG Zongyong, WANG Hongjia, LIU Shaoying,FU Jianrong, LIU Shichang
      
    Abstract3165)      PDF (432KB)(1865)       Save
    The giant panda of the Xiaoxiangling Mountains are distributed in Shimian, Mianninng and Jiulong Counties. Their population size is one of the lowest among all mountain regions. The results of the 3rd Nationwide Giant Panda Census show that the total area of giant panda habitat in this region 802.04 km 2,the population size of the giant panda is 32 individuals. There is panda habitats of 489.68 km 2 and 24 individuals in three Nature Reserves located in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains. Area of the panda habitats is 168.01km 2 and there are 6 individuals at the Sichuan Yele Nature Reserve of Mianning County. Area of the panda habitats is 306.38 km 2 and there 14 individuals at the Sichuan Liziping Nature Reserve of Shimian County. Area of the panda habitats is 15.19 km 2 and 1individual at the Sichuan Gonggashan Nature Reserve. The panda habitats inthe Xiaoxiangling Mountains are seriously fragmented. The giant panda population in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains has been separated into two parts by No. 108 National Highway from Chengdu to Kumning, and includes individuals from two other isolated insular areas, so that it is a metapopulation of the giant panda. The size of subpopulation A, located to the east of No. 108 National highway, is 13 with relatively intact habitats of 263.54 km 2. The size, of subpopulation B, located to the west of No. 108 National Highway, is 19 with fragment habitat of 538.50 km 2. Because of small population size and fragmentation of habitat in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains,
    the giant panda population is severely endangered. So conservation of the panda population and their habitats in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains must be enhanced.
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