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    Human-large mammals conflicts:A new challenge of wildlife conservation
    CAI Jing,JIANG Zhigang
    Abstract1795)      PDF (357KB)(3344)       Save
    Human-mammals conflict has become a problem worldwide. It not only brings damage to those people who live near the wildlife,but also causes problems to the conservation for wildlife. Main species causing problems include the wildelephants in Africa and Asia,the deer in North America and most of the large and median sized carnivores worldwide. The factors causing human and large mammals conflicts include the human population increases,wildlife habitat losses,change of land use pattern and wildlife population growth after effective implementation of conservation measures. Quite often several factors are involved in the human-large mammals conflicts. To resolve this problem,the government should enhance the management of large mammals and try to reduce the damage caused by those wild animals. On the other hand,the government
    should care the indigenous communities that are near the nature reserves and to help to develop the local economy while raising conservation awareness in the indigenous communities.
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    Population size and distribution of western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor) in Ailao Mountain, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan Province
    LI Genhui, QIN Zhongyi, LU Lixiong, GAO Wenjun, LUO Wenfu, LI Han, LI Yuwu, YIN Cunquan, XU Ping, YIN Guanghua, LI Fabao, NIU Xiaowei, JIANG Xuelong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (5): 513-522.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150749
    Abstract639)   HTML16)    PDF (5140KB)(1404)       Save
    From November to December 2020, we conducted the second field survey on the population and distribution of the western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor) in Ailao Mountain, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan by interviews and loud morning calls counting method. The survey recorded 61 groups and 14 individuals of western black crested gibbon, a total of about 270 individuals in the National Nature Reserve and its surrounding state forest areas. The gibbon population was mainly found (59 groups and 13 individuals) from the central part of Chuxiong City to the south part of Shuangbai County, while from the central to the north part of Nanhua County it was represented by a small isolated population (two groups and one individual). Compared with the previous survey in 2005, the population of the western black crested gibbon in Ailao Mountains, Chuxiong Prefecture increased significantly but still facing threats from population isolation and human disturbance such as grazing by cattle and goats. According to the current population and distribution pattern, we propose to conduct long-term population dynamic monitoring for concentrated populations, regular and irregular patrolling for isolated and marginal distributed groups, habitat assessment and restoration, and assign the groups in state forests managed by national nature reserve management and protection bureau for protection and conservation of western black crested gibbons in Ailao Mountains, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan.
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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract13294)      PDF (1771KB)(6935)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract2931)      PDF (3119KB)(3780)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    A preliminary study of wolverine in Altay, Xinjiang
    LIU Xu, MA Ming, XU Fujun, XIONG Jiawu, Zhu Shibing, CUI Shaopeng, JIANG Zhigang, ZHANG Tong, GUO Hong, ERBOLAT Tuoliuhan
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (5): 519-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150161
    Abstract2089)      PDF (7555KB)(3249)       Save
    Wolverine ( Gulo gulo) distribution in China is small, being found only in the Great Khingan Mountains, northeast China and the Altay Mountains, northwest China. It had been category Ⅰstate key protected wild animals because of the rarely population. Some studies of wolverines have been done in the Great Khingan Mountains but few in the Altay Mountains. In 2013-2016, we surveyed six chosen ranges to estimate the population size and density of wolverine in the Altay Mountains using a line transect method, a trace method, a questionnaire survey and infrared cameras. As a result, we directly observed and captured wolverines in Kaba, Burjin (Kanas Nature Reserve), Altai (Xiao donggou), Fuyun (Kurmut), Qinghe (Qinggil River). The population size in Altay Mountains was estimated approximately to be 97-166 individuals, from which the density was estimated to be 2.57-4.39 individuals/ 1000 km2. This scarce population may be related to grazing pressure, reduced food resources, habitat loss, or the increasing interference of human activity. As well, the conflict between wolverines and livestock and the border fencecould be another reason.
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    KONG Linglu, LAN Minjian, YANG Shikui, YANG Zhiyong, DENG Yinghong
    Abstract1355)      PDF (158KB)(2187)       Save
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    A review of research on the dietary specialization in vampire bats
    CHEN Yuxuan, ZHAO Huabin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (2): 202-208.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150240
    Abstract2581)      PDF (8245KB)(3004)       Save
    Members of Chiroptera (i.e. bats) possess a huge diversity of diets, which include insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, fruits, flowers, nectar, pollen, foliage, and blood. Of bats, approximately 70% of bat species are insectivorous, while only three species of bats (i.e. vampire bats) feed exclusively on blood. Vampire bats are the only group of mammals that drink blood, which appear to be unique and have become an attractive animal model to study dietary shift in mammals. Here we review studies on morphology, physiology, behavior, sensory systems, and gut microbiota in vampire bats, and highlight their adaptive traits of dietary specializations. Following the release of a high-quality genome sequence of the common vampire bat, we will have opportunities to explore functional changes of diet-related genes in vampire bats, aiming to dissect the molecular basis of dietary shift in animals. This review will be helpful in future studies of dietary changes in vampire bats and other animals.
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    Habitat prediction of Asiatic golden cat ( Catopuma temminckii) in Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province
    Liwen HE, Xiaotong YANG, Jirong TENG, Junliang WANG, Sheng LI, Lingyun XIAO, Jian HUANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (3): 237-247.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150737
    Abstract846)   HTML1448)    PDF (11457KB)(820)       Save

    The Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) is listed as a First Class species in the National Key Protected Wild Animals in China, and assessed as Near Threatened (NT) and Endangered (EN) by IUCN Red List and China Species Red List, respectively. Once widely distributed from East to Southeast Asia, the Asiatic golden cat inhabits diverse habitats ranging from lowland rainforests to montane coniferous forests and subalpine rhododendron forests, whereas its habitat selection preference remains poorly understood. In this research we determined the habitat selection strategy of this species in the montane forest ecosystem in Southwest China. We collected the occurrence data (292 independent detections at 117 sites) of the Asiatic golden cat through camera-trapping surveys from 2016 - 2019 in Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province, and constructed a MaxEnt model with 7 environmental variables (altitude, aspect, slope, distance to river, land use type, distance to road, distance to residents) to predict its suitable habitats in the reserve. The results showed that the suitable habitats were estimated as 1 045.90 km2 in the reserve, yet separated into the northern and southern parts by natural and anthropocentric barriers including the Bailongjiang River, 212 National Highway and the residential area along the low valley. The model response curves showed that the Asiatic golden cat prefers the evergreen coniferous forests close to rivers, at an elevation of around 2 400 m. The results indicated that, the wide river and anthropogenic impacts (e.g. roads) are possibly key factors driving the fragmentation status of the Asiatic golden cat’s habitat at the landscape scale. Future studies shall further examine the impacts of different types of human disturbance on Asiatic golden cats, and explore their basic ecology including diet composition, activity rhythm, population status and dynamics by integrating multiple methods.

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    QUO Yanshu , ZHENQ Huizhen
    Abstract2752)      PDF (506KB)(3297)       Save
    In early Pleistocene, sika deer was only found in north China region and Taiwan; in middle pleistocene to holocence it extended to northeast region the east of Mongolia-Xinkian region the central China region the south China region, the east of southwest region and Qinghai-Tibet region. There is only one species ( Cervus nippon) in the east Asia from early pleistocene to holocene. It is devided into nine subspecies in China (C. n. sintikuensis, C. n. taicxuanus, C. n.grayi,C. n .hortulorum,C. n .mandarinu, C. n. grassianus,C. n. sinchuanrinus, C. n . kopschi C. n . pseudxis). Sika deer whose home is on the edge of the forest has better adaptabililty. Its distribution regions are abruptly shrinking with the continuous rising of Qinghai-Tibet plateau and man’s action after ice age. Now, there are only 1500 wild sika deers in China. It is discussed evolutionary history of sika deer yet.
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    Opportunities and challenges of fecal DNA technology in molecular ecology researches
    SHAN Lei, HU Yibo, WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (3): 235-246.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150194
    Abstract2232)      PDF (1829KB)(3729)       Save
    Advances in fecal DNA technology have expanded its usages in molecular ecology, especially in genetic assessment of wild animals. The technology allows researchers to understand ecological issues without contacting, disturbing, or even seeing animals, thus avoided invasions to the animal studied, and greatly promotes studies in molecular ecology of wild animals. Although this technology could yield poor DNA and relatively high genotyping errors in its early stages, these problems have been overcome gradually with the technological achievements being made in the past 25 years. Nowadays, fecal DNA technology yields good DNA and low genotyping errors, allowing researchers to address questions in reliability. Here, we share our knowledge about technological pitfalls on fecal sampling, preservation, DNA extraction, PCR, and genotyping in detail, and discuss opportunities and challenges of its applications, aiming to increase the power and role of the technology in molecular ecology of wild animals.
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    Research progress in conservation biology of endangered mammals in China
    Wei Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 255-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603001
    Abstract4567)      PDF (1562KB)(4923)       Save
    Research progress achieved by Chinese scientists in conservation biology of endangered mammals (e.g. Carnivores, primates, ungulates and cetaceans) from 2010-2015 was reviewed. These researches are mainly related to different branches of the conservation biology, such as evolutionary biology, ecology, behavior, physiology, genetics, genomics and meta-genomics, as well as policy and practices. The remarkable research achievements have been made in Conservation Biology of endangered mammals in China, especially for giant pandas and golden monkeys. Evidence from multidisciplinary researches indicated that the giant panda is not an evolutionary cul-de-sac, remaining evolutionary potential. Although the panda is facing environmental problems such as habitat fragmentations, its population is growing and available habitat is expanding. It turned out that its Red List Category could be downlisted from
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    Marine mammal researches in China
    HAO Yujiang,WANG Kexiong,HAN Jiabo,ZHENG Jingsong,XIAN Yijie,YAO Zhiping,LU Zhichuang,LI Haiyan,ZHANG Xianfeng
    Abstract7901)      PDF (441KB)(5255)       Save
    Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica’s
    30 year anniversary,we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience,summarized its progress,and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups:whales,pinnipeds,and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology,conservation genetic,acoustics,and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First,Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology,c onservation biology,and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point,unfortunately,is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.
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    WEI Fuwen 1, XU Guangzan 1, HU Jinchu 1, LI Pei 2
    Abstract1421)      PDF (1577KB)(2240)       Save
    This paper reports the age determination methods for giant panda. The results are as follows:Having studied the incisor sections of known-age panda specimens,we find their age in years corresponds to the number of cementum annuli. The true age of a panda can be obtained by adding one to the number of cementum annuli,as the incisors drop away after they are one-year-old.Having studied the wear of molars we find the older the panda is, the more the molars wear. According to the wear of molars and skull growth we can divide the panda into six age classes: 0-2 years old, 3-4,5-9,10-14,15-19 and 20-26. It's more convenient to determine approximate age in the field by age classes without sectioning the incisors.
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    Diversity and activity rhythm of mammals and birds in the Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan inferred through camera traps
    Xiangdong RUAN, Yixin CHEN, Boyu WANG, Xiao YANG, Chunlin LIAO, Yang YU, Cheng GUO
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (3): 342-351.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150708
    Abstract787)   HTML411)    PDF (12272KB)(718)       Save

    Identifying the status of fauna diversity in protected areas is important for understanding their current population demography and distribution, while is essential for accurate conservation planning. Due to the complex terrain and dense vegetation, the knowledge of the fauna diversity status of Mt. Wuling, situated at the edge of the Yun-Gui Plateau,remains insufficient. From March 2017 to December 2018, we investigated the diversity, community composition, and activity rhythms of terrestrial mammals and birds by deploying 60 infrared camera traps at the northern Mt. Wuling in Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan, China. We established 60 camera sites, monitored totaling 18 525 camera-trapping days, and identified 2 865 independent images. We totally identified 15 mammals and 35 birds, belonging to 8 orders, 25 families, and 37 genera. We also identified three birds, namely Schoeniparus dubius, Turdus feae, and Emberiza tristrami as new recorded species for the reserve. Rodentia, Cetartiodactyla, Carnivora, Galliformes, and Passeriformes were the most abundant orders and widely occurred in the study area. Based on the detailed time records of the eight most abundant species, the results show that: (1) Dremomys pyrrhomerus and Paguma larvata are typically diurnal and nocturnal mammals respectively, and their activity rhythms are consistent with other populations outside the region; (2) Both Elaphodus cephalophus and Sus scrofa exhibit cathemeral activities but their activity rhythms are significantly different from each other; (3) We also detected significant differences in activity rhythms, between Tragopan temminckii and Chrysolophus pictus as well as between Garrulax ocellatus and Leiothrix lutea. This survey provides basic and valuable information on the current status of mammalian and avian diversity in Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, which is essential for wildlife monitoring and biodiversity conservation in this area.

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    Seasonal changes in serum reproductive steroids levels of red-bellied squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus)
    JIA Yiping, JIN Wei, ZUO Zhicai, WANG Zhengyi, YU Shumin, DENG Junliang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (4): 426-432.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150092
    Abstract1902)      PDF (1435KB)(3069)       Save
    We examined variation of some hormones reflecting reproductive function in the blood plasma of red-bellied squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus). 70 males and 74 females were captured from February to December 2015 from Yingjing County, Sichuan Province. We measured the levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone: T, estradiol: E 2, follicle-stimulating hormone: FSH, luteinizing hormone: LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone: GnRH, progesterone: P 4) by ELISA, and analyzed the data from the different sexes and months. In addition, impacts of reproductive status were also analyzed. These indices were analyzed by two-way ANOVA or ANCOVA. If some indices showed significant sex differences, monthly variations of those indices for any gender were further examined by one-way ANOVA or ANCOVA. The results were as follows: (1)There were sex differences in the levels of serum reproductive hormones in female and male squirrels that changing with reproductive status (except GnRH), and were lowest in October. (2)The serum concentrations of FSH, LH, T, E 2 and P 4 in males peaked in February or March and July or August, shortly before mating. Concentrations of FSH, LH and E 2 in females and GnRH of both sexes peaked in February and July during the mating period, whereas T concentrations in females were low throughout the year, and serum P 4 was highest in May. (3)Compared with non-reproductive squirrels, the concentrations of all serum reproductive hormones were significantly higher in pregnancy, mating and lactating female squirrels, or mating males. These results indicate that the levels of serum reproductive hormones in female and male squirrels can vary with the seasons and the reproductive status, which is of great significance to understanding the reproductive characteristics of the red-bellied squirrels and control their damage to plantations.
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    Research progress of bat biology and conservation strategies in China
    JIANG Tinglei, ZHAO Huabin, HE Biao, ZHANG Libiao, LUO Jinhong, LIU Ying, SUN Keping, YU Wenhua, WU Yi, FENG Jiang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (6): 539-559.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150430
    Abstract2853)      PDF (3009KB)(3330)       Save
    Since the end of 2019, the global pandemic of COVID-19 has attracted much attention on bats (Chiroptera), and even people are frequently frowned upon when talking about bats. Bats are extremely diverse in ecology and taxonomy, accounting for ~20% of mammalian diversity worldwide. Bats play an important role in pest control, seed transmission, plant pollination, offering a great economic benefit to human society. Moreover, bats bear important scientific research value in health and longevity, biomimetic, language evolution, and more. There are more than 140 species of bats in China, ranking China one of the top countries in terms of bat species diversity of the world. In recent decades, Chinese researchers have made great progresses in diverse fields such as bat taxonomy, ecology, ethology, evolutionary biology, neurobiology, and viral pathogens in China. However, researches focusing on ecosystem services and conservation of bats were very scarce. Due to logging and plants harvesting, over-hunting, habitat destruction, urbanization, agricultural activities, climate change, and so forth, bats in China are largely threatened: 51% of bat species have been listed as Near Threatened or above (Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable). We argue that successful bat conservation in China must first strengthen basic research, particularly in assessing the population status and trends of bat species and establishing a monitoring network for bat diversity. Additionally, a combination of conservation efforts, including the protection of bat habitats,
    construction of artificial bat habitats, improvement of relevant laws and regulations, and enhancement of public education on bats, are vital to ensuring sustainable bat populations in China.
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    A review of wildlife conservation and management strategies of Sanjiangyuan National Park
    Tongzuo ZHANG, Feng JIANG, Jingjie ZHANG, Zhenyuan CAI, Hongmei GAO, Haifeng GU, Pengfei SONG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (2): 193-205.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150698
    Abstract1012)   HTML44)    PDF (1493KB)(1042)       Save

    Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) is one of the first and largest national parks in China and the first national park on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It has landmark significance for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and even for China's accelerated construction of national parks as a natural areas protection system. The diversity of wildlife in SNP is high and the proportion of endangered species is large, among which the proportion of mammals and birds under threat is 32.26% and 19.90%, respectively. SNP also harbors abundant national key protected species and rare species endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, including 46.77% of mammals endemic to China or the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and 7.65% of birds endemic to China. Its rich biodiversity has conservation value of national and even global significance. We briefly reviewed the progress and achievements of global wildlife conservation research, analyzed the causes of wildlife endangerment in SNP, and proposed several wildlife conservation and management strategies, such as strengthening the monitoring of wildlife dynamics in SNP, innovating habitat protection techniques, establishing wildlife migration corridors and refuges, conducting research on the balanced management of grass and livestock, disease control, human-animal conflict, and establishing wildlife gene resource bank. There strategies will provide useful guarantees for the achievement of strict protection of ecological environment, harmonious coexistence between human and nature, as well as regional sustainable development strategic needs in SNP.

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    Behavior coding and ethogram of the free-ranging giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
    HOU Jin, YAN Linlu, LI Liang, LI Yujie, LIAO Yushan, ZHANG Jindong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (5): 446-457.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150392
    Abstract3421)      PDF (6550KB)(3026)       Save
    Ethograms are the foundation of animal behavior studies. The giant panda is a flagship species for biodiversity protection, and its behavioral ecology is of widespread concern. However, due to their limited population size and avoidance of people, it is difficult to observe giant pandas in the wild. As a result, basic behavioral research, such as the specification of ethograms, has been mainly done by observing captive giant pandas. In order to promote further development of giant panda behavioral research, we constructed an ethogram of giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) behavior using the PAE (Posture, Act and Environment) coding system based on infrared camera trap data collected in Wolong Nature Reserve during January 2015 to June 2016 and August 2018 to April 2019. In total, we identified and recorded 12 types of postures, 52 acts and 56 behaviors. This study not only recorded the major behaviors of giant pandas, but also discovered unrecorded behaviors of captive pandas in any past research, such as using plant stems to clear snow from the body. In general, our results enriched knowledge of the impact of environmental factors on giant panda behavior. This study provides basic information for behavioral ecology of giant pandas.
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    Comparative Space Use Patterns of Wild Giant Pandas and Livestock
    ZHOU Shiqiang, Vanessa HULL, ZHANG Jindong, HUANG Jinyan, LIU Dian, HUANG Yan, LI Desheng, ZHANG Hemin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (2): 138-151.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201602002
    Abstract2391)      PDF (2409KB)(3598)       Save
    Habitat use describes how wildlife utilize natural resources, and their activity patterns, and has great influence on the genetic exchange between local populations and their viability. Between 2010 and 2012, we collected habitat data and GPS data from giant pandas and livestock—domestic horses at the Hetaoping section of Wolong National Nature Reserve and surrounding areas by using GPS collar tracking technology. Afterwards, we selected GPS data from a representative 3 pandas and 3 horses and calculated the terrain, home range, daily movement distance and number of core areas by applying analyses such as digital elevation model (DEM) and animal movement module. Finally, we analyzed and tested whether there were significant differences between the habitat use of giant pandas and of livestock. The results showed that there were significant differences in habitat use between giant pandas and livestock in terms of altitude, slope and aspect of the terrain, home range, daily movement distance and number of core areas both seasonally and yearly. For giant pandas, habitat use changed between Fargesia robusta, Yushania brevipaniculata and Bashania faberi bamboo forests according to season and food abundance (bamboo shoots, bamboo stems, bamboo leaves), and exhibited a random dispersal pattern across a large activity range (altitude range, home range), short daily movement distance, large number of core areas and high variation between individuals and months. For livestock, depending on the original release site and disturbance level, habitat use exhibited a different pattern. However, compared with that of giant pandas, horses featured small home ranges, long daily movement distance, small number of core areas, and low variation between individual groups and months. These two divergent habitat use patterns put distinctive levels of pressure on local natural resources: the one adopted by giant pandas is beneficial for the recovery of bamboo resources and the sustainable development of the ecosystem; on the contrary, the one adopted by livestock will cause deterioration of the bamboo resources and destruction to the integrity of the ecosystem. Consequently, it is urgent for Wolong National Nature Reserve to reinforce the management of domestic grazing animals, and coordinate economic development of local communities with biodiversity conservation.
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    Camera-trapping survey on the mammal diversity in the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province
    LI Sheng, WANG Dajun, BU Hongliang, LIU Xiaogeng, JIN Tong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 282-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603004
    Abstract2481)      PDF (1610KB)(3694)       Save
    The biological inventory within the established protected areas is the fundamental of biodiversity research and monitoring at both regional and national levels, and camera-trapping has been considered one of the most efficient tools for inventory of mammal community. Laohegou Nature Reserve is located in northern Minshan Mountains, Sichuan Province, and within the core area across the distribution of the iconic conservation species, giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Prior to its establishment in 2012, little is known about the mammal fauna in this area. From 2011 to 2014, we conducted a camera-trapping survey to census the mammals of Laohegou by dividing the reserve into 1 km x 1 km survey blocks. With an extensive survey effort of 9,188 camera-days, we detected and identified 24 wild mammal species and 1 domestic mammal species belonging to 7 orders and 18 families. Other unidentified animals were primarily small-bodied mammals of Chiroptera, Insectivora and Rodentia. Carnivora (9 species) was the most diversity taxon, followed by Artiodactyla (7 species) and Rodentia (6 species). Artiodactyla was the order with the highest detections (43.97%), followed by Rodentia (25.61%) and Carnivora (22.44%), all three taxa summed up to 92.02% of all detections. Three mammal species are evaluated as Endangered by IUCN Red List, 3 species as Vulnerable and 3 species as Near Threatened. Four species are listed as Class I state key protected wild animals in China and 5 species as Class II. This study was the first systematic inventory on the large mammals of Laohegou Nature Reserve. The results provide us valuable information of the community structure, spatial distribution and relative abundance, which will serve as a baseline and foundation for future research and conservation management.
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    Canine distemper and wildlife
    WU Qiaoxing, TANG Liubin, ZHU Qifeng, JIN Xuelin, JIN Yipeng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 261-274.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150456
    Abstract1867)      PDF (3717KB)(3329)       Save
    Canine distemper is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by canine distemper virus, outbreaks of this disease have occurred multiple times among domestic dogs and wildlife worldwide. Cross-species transmission of canine distemper has been threatening various wildlife populations severely such as Siberian tiger, African lion, snow leopard and giant panda. At the same time, the range of infectious hosts is still expanding. Recent studies showed that wildlife in China, especially populations in the wild, are facing serious threats from infection of canine distemper due to the constant variation of canine distemper virus and increase of stray dog population. In order to better cope with the hazard brought by canine distemper to wildlife, this study summarized the research progress on pathogenic characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of canine distemper in wildlife. Based on the above research, we proposed prevention and control measures aimed at canine distemper in wildlife from three aspects including source of infection, transmission route and susceptible animals. At present, due to the lack of scientific research and technology in nature reserves in China and the low awareness toward the risk of wildlife canine distemper transmission, little has been done in monitoring wildlife canine distemper, which undoubtedly increases the difficulty to its prevention and control. Therefore, in order to secure the existence of wildlife population in China, the research about wildlife canine distemper monitoring and epidemiology should be enhanced, establishing an effective monitoring and control system to protect wildlife population from canine distemper.
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    Abstract795)      PDF (309KB)(1774)       Save
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    Phylogenetic study of Ochotona based on mitochondrial Cytb and morphology with a description of one new subgenus and five new species
    LIU Shaoying, JIN Wei, LIAO Rui, SUN Zhiyu, ZENG Tao, FU Jianrong, LIU Yang, WANG Xin, LI Panfeng, TANG Mingkun, CHEN Liming, DONG Li, HAN Mingde, GOU Dan
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2017, 37 (1): 1-43.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701001
    Abstract3382)      PDF (31573KB)(3747)       Save
    of the new subgenus include yarlungensis sp. n. were identified in addition to the 3 assigned to Alienauroa. The identifying characteristics of O. huanglongnensis (collected at the Huanglong National Scenic Reserve; Sichuan) include: front part of incisive foramen parallel; skull flat, the height of skull (SH) only 33.5% of the greatest length of skull (GLS); ears large averaging over 20 mm; congenial tragus triangular and the distal part circular; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 20 mm; the ventral hairs gray white; the back of the palms gray white; the ventral palm gray black; finger and digital pads large and orange, exposed out of hairs, and claws translucent. The identifying characteristics of O. flatcalvariam (collected from the Longmen mountains, Sichuan province) include: skull very flat, average SH 11 mm, SH only 31% of GLS; eye sockets very small, only 6.7 mm in length and 5.6 mm in breadth; body length less than 140 mm; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 22 mm; ears small averaging over 17 mm, congenial tragus triangular and small, the distal part of congenial tragus broad-round; dorsal pelage sandy yellow, ventral pelage yellow white. The identifying characteristics of O. dabashanensis (collected from Dabashan Mountains, Sichuan province) include: congenial tragus sickle-liked; ear small, less than 17 mm on average, which is similar to O. sacraria and O. flatcalvariam, but less than O. huanglongensis and O. xunhuaensis; SH relatively large and bulged, posing the largest SH and eye sockets in Alienauroa, average SH 12.45 mm; eye sockets 8.52 mm×7.13 mm. O. yarlungensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the middle of the Yarlung Zangbo River; Xizang) has its closest relationship with O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis. Its characteristics include: margin of lips lined with very narrow gray black hair, surrounding with gray white hair; soles and palms covered with dense black hairs, long hairs cover the claws, the digital pads and claws hidden in the hairs; head and body length average 150 mm, much less than that of O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis; skull flatter than that of O. curzoniae; dorsal pelage gray brown. O. qionglaiensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the Qionglai Mountains; Sichuan) has its closest genetic relationship with O. curzoniae, although its measurements and appearance are close to that of O. thibetana. Compared with O. thibetana, O. qionglaiensis has a very narrow interorbital width (4.05 mm on average; range: 3.64 - 4.19 mm), while that of O. thibetana is >4.2mm (4.45 mm on average). O. qionglaiensis is covered with sandy yellow, coarse and long hairs, while O. thibetana is covered with black brown and relatively short hairs. The backs of the palms and feet of O. qionglaiensis are a withered grass yellow, while those of O. thibetana are yellow white.
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    Distribution, group size and activity rhythm of wolves ( Canis lupus) in the Gongga Mountains, Sichuan Province
    Jiang QIAO, Xiaoli GONG, Wei JIA, Guoqing JIA, Yong JIANG, Huaming ZHOU, Jiaqi LI, Anxiang WEN, Jie WANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (3): 248-257.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150542
    Abstract826)   HTML2722)    PDF (52429KB)(702)       Save

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the largest and most widely distributed carnivores in the world. Historically, it occurred throughout mainland China, but its range has shrunk dramatically due to habitat loss and human persecution. We conducted wildlife camera trapping in 1 km grid cells, with 195 cells and 286 sites in total, in Mt. Gongga from 2011 to 2020. Wolves were detected in 46 cells and at 56 sites, with 278 independent detections. The detection percentage was 23.6% and 19.6% for grid cells and sites, respectively. Wolves were found at altitudes ranging from 3 097 m to 4 563 m. The group size of wolves averaged (1.2 ± 0.5) ind., with no significant variance among vegetation types or between seasons (t = -1.119, P = 0.266; t = -0.251, P = 0.801). Wolves were active at 03: 00 - 07: 00 and 15: 00 - 17: 00 in the dry season (November - April), and were active at 03: 00 - 07: 00 and 13: 00 - 15: 00 in the rainy season (May - October). The temporal activity pattern significantly overlapped between wolves and sympatric herbivores. The highest degree of overlap was with the Chinese serow Capricornis milneedwardsii (Δ4 = 0.908) in the dry season and with the sambar deer Rusa unicolor (Δ4 = 0.895) in the rainy season. This study determined the distribution, population size and activity rhythm of wolves in Mt. Gongga for the first time, providing reliable information for further studies and large carnivore management in the nature reserve.

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    Seasonal variation of daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula)
    ZHU Bowei, WANG Bin, RAN Jianghong, LI Bo, HUANG Feng, LI Xiaoqing, GU Xiaodong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (1): 52-61.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150178
    Abstract2985)      PDF (6510KB)(3328)       Save
    From April 2016 to April 2017, seasonal variation of daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated martens ( Martes flavigula) were studied using fecal analyses (frequency of occurrence and relative weight of remains) and Infrared Triggered Camera Technology in Liziping National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. We found that the activity of yellow-throated martens mainly occurred during the daytime, diurnal activity accounting for 85.64% of the total independent photographs. Pearson's chi-squared test showed that there was no significant difference in activity patterns of yellow-throated marten in different seasons ( χ 2=126.950, df=132, P=0.608). However, the peak time of activity patterns showed a certain difference among different seasons. The peak of the activity density occurred at 16:00-19:00 in spring (31.65%), 15:00-18:00 in summer (26.32%), 13:00-16:00 in autumn (34.31%), and 11:00-14:00 in winter (25.00%). In addition, there was more nocturnal activity in winter than that of the other three seasons. The content of yellow-throated marten feces could be classified into 4 groups: mammals, birds, insects and plants. Mammals(95.28% occurrence and 80.99% dry weight)were the major food of yellow-throated martens throughout the year. The food habits of yellow-throated martens varied in different seasons. Mammal remains in the feces appeared most frequently in spring, summer and autumn. Bird remains also appeared frequently in spring. The proportion of plants in the feces of yellow-throated martens was obviously increased in winter. Our results show that both daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated marten have certain differences in different seasons, which might be related to its seasonal breeding characteristics and physiological metabolism. These results are very helpful to a better understanding about the life history and survival strategy for yellow-throated martens, and provide a fundamental data and study for the protection of yellow-throated martens.
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    AI recognition of infrared camera image of wild animals based on deep learning: Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park for example
    GONG Yinan, TAN Mengyu, WANG Zhen, ZHAO Guojing, JIANG Peilin, JIANG Shiming, ZHANG Dingji, GE Jianping, FENG Limin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (4): 458-465.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150333
    Abstract4013)      PDF (33478KB)(3421)       Save
    Video data of wild animals from infrared cameras always has a large quantity, which takes a lot of work to select and identify. In order to meet the demand of fast automatic identification, this study, using Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park as an example, is to explore the practicability of using deep learning, convolutional neural networks to automatically identify different animal species, using videos taken by infrared cameras in the wild, under natural conditions. Pictures of each 8 species, captured from the videos from different seasons and of different conditions, consist of the data set. 2074 pictures for train set and 519 for test set. Region of Interest is selected and labeled, the model is YOLO v3 under darknet framework. All pictures are in one data set in the first group of experiment. In the second group, pictures are divided into day(RGB) and night(Grey), and in the third group, divided into day(RGB) and night(Grey) while fine-tuning is used. The mean average precision of our models is from 84.9% to 96.0%, and the models converge. Results show that althoug it is still needed to use better train set to improve the models, using YOLO v3 to identify wild animals automatically is practicable to save manpower and fine-tuning could be an assistance when the train set is small.
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    Feeding activity of François langurs in Karst habitat
    ZHOU Qihai,CAI Xiangwen,HUANG Chengming,LI Youbang,LUO Yaping
    Abstract3832)      PDF (1396KB)(4011)       Save
    To explore the influence of habitat fragmentation on the ecology of the François langur ( Trachypithecus francoisi), data on habitat use were collected from a group of François langurs living in an isolated hill in the Fusui Rare Animal Nature Reserve,Guangxi Province,between August 2002 and July 2003. Our results indicated that there was significant variation in the distribution of feeding activity in different vertical hill zones They showed preference for feeding in the middle zone. The top zone,as well as the bottom zone were used less for feeding. Langurs' feeding activities were concentrated in six patches,with a total area of 7.94 ha,which occupied 18.9% of the habitat. The densities of langurs' preferred food plants in the feeding patches were higher than that in the non-feeding patches. Langurs' diet varied according to season, even though leaves contributed a large proportion of the diet. This diet shift corresponded to seasonal variations in the utilization of feeding patches.
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    Effects of sample size and study range on accuracy of MaxEnt in predicting species distribution: a case study of the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey
    JI Qianzhao, WANG Rongxing, HUANG Zhipang, YUAN Jiahong, REN Guopeng, XIAO Wen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (2): 126-133.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150203
    Abstract2495)      PDF (2645KB)(2927)       Save
    MaxEnt is a popular species distribution model which has been widely used in the last few years. Some case studies on endangered species, invasive plants, and simulated data, reported that the MaxEnt model is capable of accurately predicting species distribution even when trained with a small sample of occurrence data. However, only few studies focused on the effect of sample size on the prediction distribution of well-studied species. Moreover, the variation of study range size might further affect the accuracy of the model. The black-and-white snub-nosed monkey ( Rhinopithecus bieti) occurs in a narrow region between the Yangtze River and Mekong River in southwest China. There are about 18-20 groups of R. bieti, living in the region and the population distribution of 16 of them is fairly well-known from long-term field observations performed by the Institute of Eastern-Himalaya Biodiversity Research team. A minimum bounding rectangle covering the occurrence data from these 16 groups R. bieti was defined as the minimum study range. Buffer zones of 25 to150 km at 25 km intervals from the minimum study range were drawn and used as alternative study range. In order to examine the effect of sample size and study range on the MaxEnt model prediction capabilities, we compiled different training datasets using occurrence data from 11 groups with sample sizes ranging from 1 to 10 groups, and background data sampled within each of the seven buffer ranges. Occurrence data from the remaining 5 groups were used as presence data for independent test. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) value of each resulting model increased with increasing sample size and study range. Our findings demonstrate how sample size influences the MaxEnt model prediction of species distribution. However, AUC values might be overestimated by an enlarged study range. Results indicated that background data should be sampled from the neighborhood of presence data. Furthermore, to predict the whole potential habitat of a species, presence data should cover the ecological gradient of this species.
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    Blood physiological parameters of captive Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica)
    HAN Zhiqiang, WANG Haijun, Liu Cunfa, WANG Xiaoxu, ZHAO Quanmin, XU Chao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (5): 590-594.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150241
    Abstract2801)      PDF (985KB)(4564)       Save
    In this study, the blood physiological parameters of 26 captive Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica) were measured by a blood cell analyser, and the differences in the physiological parameters, vital statistics, and platelet-related parameters and their effects between male and female individuals were compared. The results indicate that the differences in physiological parameters between male and female individuals is not noticeable(P>0.05). And list some platelet-related parameters, PLT (211.15±59.77)×109/L, PCT(0.26±0.09)%, MPV (12.65±0.88) fL, PDW (22.28±1.68) fL, P-LCR (44.56±8.03) %。The measurement of blood physiological parameters appears to be of great help in the diagnosis, and subsequent treatment, of diseases in Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica), and the measurement of platelet-related parameters is important in standardizing the blood physiological parameters of this species.
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    Mammal diversity in the forest fragments of Wuhan City
    Qiwei WANG, Hengyue ZHAO, Qin LIU, Neng WAN, Zhibing ZHU, Hongyu NIU, Hongmao ZHANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (3): 258-269.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150730
    Abstract763)   HTML1259)    PDF (13704KB)(672)       Save

    Urbanization is one of the main reasons for forest fragmentation in urban systems, which causes threats to biodiversity through both species decline and biotic homogenization. This study aims to reveal the richness, abundance, and diversity of mammals on the fragmented forest patches in urban, suburban and rural areas. Our study helps to provide substantial data for the protection of mammal diversity and land-use planning in urban ecosystems. According to the urban-suburban-rural gradient, we surveyed the diversity of mammals on 13 forest patches in Wuhan from 2019 to 2021 by using literature reviewing and camera-trapping. Taking the patch area, distance to the urban center, isolation, and shape index as patch characteristics of urbanization, we analyzed the relationships between species composition and patch characteristics by using RDA, and examined the relationships between the species diversity and patch characteristics by using linear regression. We recorded 15 forest mammals in total, which belong to 8 orders and 6 families. The dominant species are Racoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), Asian badger (Meles leucurus), Wild boar (Sus scrofa), and Confucian niviventer (Niviventer confucianus). The fauna type is dominated by oriental species. The species composition was positively correlated with distance to the urban center in suburban forest, and negatively correlated with area in urban forest. The species richness (P < 0.01) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index (P < 0.05) were significantly positively correlated with the distance to urban center. There was no significant correlation between species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index with isolation and shape index (P > 0.05). Our study showed that the distance to the urban center was the main factor affecting forest mammal diversity in Wuhan. The high speed of urbanization in Wuhan has reduced the mammal diversity. For maintaining and restoring the high diversity of mammals, we recommend that some specific measures should be carried out in urban forest patches to reduce human disturbance and protect natural forests, especially the continuous natural forests in the suburban and rural areas.

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