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    Human-large mammals conflicts:A new challenge of wildlife conservation
    CAI Jing,JIANG Zhigang
      
    Abstract1819)      PDF (357KB)(3387)       Save
    Human-mammals conflict has become a problem worldwide. It not only brings damage to those people who live near the wildlife,but also causes problems to the conservation for wildlife. Main species causing problems include the wildelephants in Africa and Asia,the deer in North America and most of the large and median sized carnivores worldwide. The factors causing human and large mammals conflicts include the human population increases,wildlife habitat losses,change of land use pattern and wildlife population growth after effective implementation of conservation measures. Quite often several factors are involved in the human-large mammals conflicts. To resolve this problem,the government should enhance the management of large mammals and try to reduce the damage caused by those wild animals. On the other hand,the government
    should care the indigenous communities that are near the nature reserves and to help to develop the local economy while raising conservation awareness in the indigenous communities.
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    Population size and distribution of western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor) in Ailao Mountain, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan Province
    LI Genhui, QIN Zhongyi, LU Lixiong, GAO Wenjun, LUO Wenfu, LI Han, LI Yuwu, YIN Cunquan, XU Ping, YIN Guanghua, LI Fabao, NIU Xiaowei, JIANG Xuelong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (5): 513-522.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150749
    Abstract650)   HTML17)    PDF (5140KB)(1427)       Save
    From November to December 2020, we conducted the second field survey on the population and distribution of the western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor) in Ailao Mountain, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan by interviews and loud morning calls counting method. The survey recorded 61 groups and 14 individuals of western black crested gibbon, a total of about 270 individuals in the National Nature Reserve and its surrounding state forest areas. The gibbon population was mainly found (59 groups and 13 individuals) from the central part of Chuxiong City to the south part of Shuangbai County, while from the central to the north part of Nanhua County it was represented by a small isolated population (two groups and one individual). Compared with the previous survey in 2005, the population of the western black crested gibbon in Ailao Mountains, Chuxiong Prefecture increased significantly but still facing threats from population isolation and human disturbance such as grazing by cattle and goats. According to the current population and distribution pattern, we propose to conduct long-term population dynamic monitoring for concentrated populations, regular and irregular patrolling for isolated and marginal distributed groups, habitat assessment and restoration, and assign the groups in state forests managed by national nature reserve management and protection bureau for protection and conservation of western black crested gibbons in Ailao Mountains, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan.
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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract13410)      PDF (1771KB)(7003)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract2970)      PDF (3119KB)(3841)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    A preliminary study of wolverine in Altay, Xinjiang
    LIU Xu, MA Ming, XU Fujun, XIONG Jiawu, Zhu Shibing, CUI Shaopeng, JIANG Zhigang, ZHANG Tong, GUO Hong, ERBOLAT Tuoliuhan
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (5): 519-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150161
    Abstract2131)      PDF (7555KB)(3256)       Save
    Wolverine ( Gulo gulo) distribution in China is small, being found only in the Great Khingan Mountains, northeast China and the Altay Mountains, northwest China. It had been category Ⅰstate key protected wild animals because of the rarely population. Some studies of wolverines have been done in the Great Khingan Mountains but few in the Altay Mountains. In 2013-2016, we surveyed six chosen ranges to estimate the population size and density of wolverine in the Altay Mountains using a line transect method, a trace method, a questionnaire survey and infrared cameras. As a result, we directly observed and captured wolverines in Kaba, Burjin (Kanas Nature Reserve), Altai (Xiao donggou), Fuyun (Kurmut), Qinghe (Qinggil River). The population size in Altay Mountains was estimated approximately to be 97-166 individuals, from which the density was estimated to be 2.57-4.39 individuals/ 1000 km2. This scarce population may be related to grazing pressure, reduced food resources, habitat loss, or the increasing interference of human activity. As well, the conflict between wolverines and livestock and the border fencecould be another reason.
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    STUDIES ON REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF DOMESTIC BLACK BEAR
    KONG Linglu, LAN Minjian, YANG Shikui, YANG Zhiyong, DENG Yinghong
      
    Abstract1356)      PDF (158KB)(2213)       Save
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    ON THE GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION TAXONOMIC STATUS OF SPECIES AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SIKA DEER IN CHINA
    QUO Yanshu , ZHENQ Huizhen
      
    Abstract2778)      PDF (506KB)(3403)       Save
    In early Pleistocene, sika deer was only found in north China region and Taiwan; in middle pleistocene to holocence it extended to northeast region the east of Mongolia-Xinkian region the central China region the south China region, the east of southwest region and Qinghai-Tibet region. There is only one species ( Cervus nippon) in the east Asia from early pleistocene to holocene. It is devided into nine subspecies in China (C. n. sintikuensis, C. n. taicxuanus, C. n.grayi,C. n .hortulorum,C. n .mandarinu, C. n. grassianus,C. n. sinchuanrinus, C. n . kopschi C. n . pseudxis). Sika deer whose home is on the edge of the forest has better adaptabililty. Its distribution regions are abruptly shrinking with the continuous rising of Qinghai-Tibet plateau and man’s action after ice age. Now, there are only 1500 wild sika deers in China. It is discussed evolutionary history of sika deer yet.
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    A review of research on the dietary specialization in vampire bats
    CHEN Yuxuan, ZHAO Huabin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (2): 202-208.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150240
    Abstract2615)      PDF (8245KB)(3010)       Save
    Members of Chiroptera (i.e. bats) possess a huge diversity of diets, which include insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, fruits, flowers, nectar, pollen, foliage, and blood. Of bats, approximately 70% of bat species are insectivorous, while only three species of bats (i.e. vampire bats) feed exclusively on blood. Vampire bats are the only group of mammals that drink blood, which appear to be unique and have become an attractive animal model to study dietary shift in mammals. Here we review studies on morphology, physiology, behavior, sensory systems, and gut microbiota in vampire bats, and highlight their adaptive traits of dietary specializations. Following the release of a high-quality genome sequence of the common vampire bat, we will have opportunities to explore functional changes of diet-related genes in vampire bats, aiming to dissect the molecular basis of dietary shift in animals. This review will be helpful in future studies of dietary changes in vampire bats and other animals.
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    Advances in reproductive isolation mechanisms during animal speciation
    ZHANG Yuxing, WU Hong, YU Li
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (6): 627-643.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150838
    Abstract446)   HTML14)    PDF (4322KB)(684)       Save
    The process of speciation and its mechanism is not only the‘mystery of mysteries’of Darwin, but also a key to understanding the biological diversity in nature, and it is also one of the scientific focuses in the field of evolutionary biology. Speciation refers to the evolutionary process in which a new species diverges from its ancestors, and it is also the process of reproductive isolation or barrier establishment among populations. The exploration and revelation of this process and its inherent genetic mechanism are the key to understanding the phenomenon of biodiversity. By focusing on animal groups, this review systematically describes the ways of reproductive isolation establishment and their molecular mechanisms, then discusses the bottlenecks, challenges and potential opportunities faced by current research on animal reproductive isolations, with a view to providing reference and inspiration for subsequent research on animal speciation.
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    Feeding activity of François langurs in Karst habitat
    ZHOU Qihai,CAI Xiangwen,HUANG Chengming,LI Youbang,LUO Yaping
      
    Abstract3833)      PDF (1396KB)(4107)       Save
    To explore the influence of habitat fragmentation on the ecology of the François langur ( Trachypithecus francoisi), data on habitat use were collected from a group of François langurs living in an isolated hill in the Fusui Rare Animal Nature Reserve,Guangxi Province,between August 2002 and July 2003. Our results indicated that there was significant variation in the distribution of feeding activity in different vertical hill zones They showed preference for feeding in the middle zone. The top zone,as well as the bottom zone were used less for feeding. Langurs' feeding activities were concentrated in six patches,with a total area of 7.94 ha,which occupied 18.9% of the habitat. The densities of langurs' preferred food plants in the feeding patches were higher than that in the non-feeding patches. Langurs' diet varied according to season, even though leaves contributed a large proportion of the diet. This diet shift corresponded to seasonal variations in the utilization of feeding patches.
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    THE AGE DETERMINATION FOR GIANT PANDA
    WEI Fuwen 1, XU Guangzan 1, HU Jinchu 1, LI Pei 2
      
    Abstract1435)      PDF (1577KB)(2258)       Save
    This paper reports the age determination methods for giant panda. The results are as follows:Having studied the incisor sections of known-age panda specimens,we find their age in years corresponds to the number of cementum annuli. The true age of a panda can be obtained by adding one to the number of cementum annuli,as the incisors drop away after they are one-year-old.Having studied the wear of molars we find the older the panda is, the more the molars wear. According to the wear of molars and skull growth we can divide the panda into six age classes: 0-2 years old, 3-4,5-9,10-14,15-19 and 20-26. It's more convenient to determine approximate age in the field by age classes without sectioning the incisors.
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    Marine mammal researches in China
    HAO Yujiang,WANG Kexiong,HAN Jiabo,ZHENG Jingsong,XIAN Yijie,YAO Zhiping,LU Zhichuang,LI Haiyan,ZHANG Xianfeng
      
    Abstract7924)      PDF (441KB)(5288)       Save
    Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica’s
    30 year anniversary,we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience,summarized its progress,and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups:whales,pinnipeds,and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology,conservation genetic,acoustics,and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First,Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology,c onservation biology,and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point,unfortunately,is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.
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    Opportunities and challenges of fecal DNA technology in molecular ecology researches
    SHAN Lei, HU Yibo, WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (3): 235-246.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150194
    Abstract2273)      PDF (1829KB)(3754)       Save
    Advances in fecal DNA technology have expanded its usages in molecular ecology, especially in genetic assessment of wild animals. The technology allows researchers to understand ecological issues without contacting, disturbing, or even seeing animals, thus avoided invasions to the animal studied, and greatly promotes studies in molecular ecology of wild animals. Although this technology could yield poor DNA and relatively high genotyping errors in its early stages, these problems have been overcome gradually with the technological achievements being made in the past 25 years. Nowadays, fecal DNA technology yields good DNA and low genotyping errors, allowing researchers to address questions in reliability. Here, we share our knowledge about technological pitfalls on fecal sampling, preservation, DNA extraction, PCR, and genotyping in detail, and discuss opportunities and challenges of its applications, aiming to increase the power and role of the technology in molecular ecology of wild animals.
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    Research progress in conservation biology of endangered mammals in China
    Wei Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 255-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603001
    Abstract4599)      PDF (1562KB)(4956)       Save
    Research progress achieved by Chinese scientists in conservation biology of endangered mammals (e.g. Carnivores, primates, ungulates and cetaceans) from 2010-2015 was reviewed. These researches are mainly related to different branches of the conservation biology, such as evolutionary biology, ecology, behavior, physiology, genetics, genomics and meta-genomics, as well as policy and practices. The remarkable research achievements have been made in Conservation Biology of endangered mammals in China, especially for giant pandas and golden monkeys. Evidence from multidisciplinary researches indicated that the giant panda is not an evolutionary cul-de-sac, remaining evolutionary potential. Although the panda is facing environmental problems such as habitat fragmentations, its population is growing and available habitat is expanding. It turned out that its Red List Category could be downlisted from
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    Abstract798)      PDF (309KB)(1790)       Save
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    Habitat prediction of Asiatic golden cat ( Catopuma temminckii) in Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province
    Liwen HE, Xiaotong YANG, Jirong TENG, Junliang WANG, Sheng LI, Lingyun XIAO, Jian HUANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (3): 237-247.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150737
    Abstract866)   HTML1449)    PDF (11457KB)(832)       Save

    The Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) is listed as a First Class species in the National Key Protected Wild Animals in China, and assessed as Near Threatened (NT) and Endangered (EN) by IUCN Red List and China Species Red List, respectively. Once widely distributed from East to Southeast Asia, the Asiatic golden cat inhabits diverse habitats ranging from lowland rainforests to montane coniferous forests and subalpine rhododendron forests, whereas its habitat selection preference remains poorly understood. In this research we determined the habitat selection strategy of this species in the montane forest ecosystem in Southwest China. We collected the occurrence data (292 independent detections at 117 sites) of the Asiatic golden cat through camera-trapping surveys from 2016 - 2019 in Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province, and constructed a MaxEnt model with 7 environmental variables (altitude, aspect, slope, distance to river, land use type, distance to road, distance to residents) to predict its suitable habitats in the reserve. The results showed that the suitable habitats were estimated as 1 045.90 km2 in the reserve, yet separated into the northern and southern parts by natural and anthropocentric barriers including the Bailongjiang River, 212 National Highway and the residential area along the low valley. The model response curves showed that the Asiatic golden cat prefers the evergreen coniferous forests close to rivers, at an elevation of around 2 400 m. The results indicated that, the wide river and anthropogenic impacts (e.g. roads) are possibly key factors driving the fragmentation status of the Asiatic golden cat’s habitat at the landscape scale. Future studies shall further examine the impacts of different types of human disturbance on Asiatic golden cats, and explore their basic ecology including diet composition, activity rhythm, population status and dynamics by integrating multiple methods.

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    A review of wildlife conservation and management strategies of Sanjiangyuan National Park
    Tongzuo ZHANG, Feng JIANG, Jingjie ZHANG, Zhenyuan CAI, Hongmei GAO, Haifeng GU, Pengfei SONG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (2): 193-205.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150698
    Abstract1034)   HTML44)    PDF (1493KB)(1065)       Save

    Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) is one of the first and largest national parks in China and the first national park on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It has landmark significance for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and even for China's accelerated construction of national parks as a natural areas protection system. The diversity of wildlife in SNP is high and the proportion of endangered species is large, among which the proportion of mammals and birds under threat is 32.26% and 19.90%, respectively. SNP also harbors abundant national key protected species and rare species endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, including 46.77% of mammals endemic to China or the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and 7.65% of birds endemic to China. Its rich biodiversity has conservation value of national and even global significance. We briefly reviewed the progress and achievements of global wildlife conservation research, analyzed the causes of wildlife endangerment in SNP, and proposed several wildlife conservation and management strategies, such as strengthening the monitoring of wildlife dynamics in SNP, innovating habitat protection techniques, establishing wildlife migration corridors and refuges, conducting research on the balanced management of grass and livestock, disease control, human-animal conflict, and establishing wildlife gene resource bank. There strategies will provide useful guarantees for the achievement of strict protection of ecological environment, harmonious coexistence between human and nature, as well as regional sustainable development strategic needs in SNP.

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    Mating behavior of captive wolves (Canis lupus) in Heilongjiang,China
    SHA Weilai,ZHANG Honghai,KONG Fanfan,CHEN Lei,ZHANG Chengde
      
    Abstract7112)      PDF (237KB)(3869)       Save
    In order to better understand mating patterns and processes of captive wolves ( Canis lupus), we observed 4 pairs in the Harbin North Forest Zoo for about 25 days (225 hours in total)from October 2005 to April 2006. We used focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording. Mating behaviors usually occurred during 8∶ 00 - 10∶00 am and 14∶00 -16∶ 00 pm. Among 741 mounts recorded,46 copulations were observed (6. 2% ). The mating period lasted for 5 - 14 days. We observed copulatory locks during copulations. After copulatory lock and several repeated twitches,male wolves would ejaculate. Female wolves displayed obvious sexual solicitations and acted in concert with male mounts by standing
    still with their tails to one side,and haunches bent forward. There were no differences in the twitching times ( P = 0. 827), but we did observe differences in the durations of copulatory locks (one-way ANOVA, F = 71.43, P < 0.001) among the four male wolves. The mean mating duration was 534 ±402 seconds,with the longest 1 588 seconds and the shortest 28 seconds.
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    Research progress of bat biology and conservation strategies in China
    JIANG Tinglei, ZHAO Huabin, HE Biao, ZHANG Libiao, LUO Jinhong, LIU Ying, SUN Keping, YU Wenhua, WU Yi, FENG Jiang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (6): 539-559.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150430
    Abstract2948)      PDF (3009KB)(3365)       Save
    Since the end of 2019, the global pandemic of COVID-19 has attracted much attention on bats (Chiroptera), and even people are frequently frowned upon when talking about bats. Bats are extremely diverse in ecology and taxonomy, accounting for ~20% of mammalian diversity worldwide. Bats play an important role in pest control, seed transmission, plant pollination, offering a great economic benefit to human society. Moreover, bats bear important scientific research value in health and longevity, biomimetic, language evolution, and more. There are more than 140 species of bats in China, ranking China one of the top countries in terms of bat species diversity of the world. In recent decades, Chinese researchers have made great progresses in diverse fields such as bat taxonomy, ecology, ethology, evolutionary biology, neurobiology, and viral pathogens in China. However, researches focusing on ecosystem services and conservation of bats were very scarce. Due to logging and plants harvesting, over-hunting, habitat destruction, urbanization, agricultural activities, climate change, and so forth, bats in China are largely threatened: 51% of bat species have been listed as Near Threatened or above (Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable). We argue that successful bat conservation in China must first strengthen basic research, particularly in assessing the population status and trends of bat species and establishing a monitoring network for bat diversity. Additionally, a combination of conservation efforts, including the protection of bat habitats,
    construction of artificial bat habitats, improvement of relevant laws and regulations, and enhancement of public education on bats, are vital to ensuring sustainable bat populations in China.
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    Camera-trapping survey on the mammal diversity in the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province
    LI Sheng, WANG Dajun, BU Hongliang, LIU Xiaogeng, JIN Tong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 282-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603004
    Abstract2508)      PDF (1610KB)(3735)       Save
    The biological inventory within the established protected areas is the fundamental of biodiversity research and monitoring at both regional and national levels, and camera-trapping has been considered one of the most efficient tools for inventory of mammal community. Laohegou Nature Reserve is located in northern Minshan Mountains, Sichuan Province, and within the core area across the distribution of the iconic conservation species, giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Prior to its establishment in 2012, little is known about the mammal fauna in this area. From 2011 to 2014, we conducted a camera-trapping survey to census the mammals of Laohegou by dividing the reserve into 1 km x 1 km survey blocks. With an extensive survey effort of 9,188 camera-days, we detected and identified 24 wild mammal species and 1 domestic mammal species belonging to 7 orders and 18 families. Other unidentified animals were primarily small-bodied mammals of Chiroptera, Insectivora and Rodentia. Carnivora (9 species) was the most diversity taxon, followed by Artiodactyla (7 species) and Rodentia (6 species). Artiodactyla was the order with the highest detections (43.97%), followed by Rodentia (25.61%) and Carnivora (22.44%), all three taxa summed up to 92.02% of all detections. Three mammal species are evaluated as Endangered by IUCN Red List, 3 species as Vulnerable and 3 species as Near Threatened. Four species are listed as Class I state key protected wild animals in China and 5 species as Class II. This study was the first systematic inventory on the large mammals of Laohegou Nature Reserve. The results provide us valuable information of the community structure, spatial distribution and relative abundance, which will serve as a baseline and foundation for future research and conservation management.
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    Canine distemper and wildlife
    WU Qiaoxing, TANG Liubin, ZHU Qifeng, JIN Xuelin, JIN Yipeng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 261-274.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150456
    Abstract1908)      PDF (3717KB)(3354)       Save
    Canine distemper is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by canine distemper virus, outbreaks of this disease have occurred multiple times among domestic dogs and wildlife worldwide. Cross-species transmission of canine distemper has been threatening various wildlife populations severely such as Siberian tiger, African lion, snow leopard and giant panda. At the same time, the range of infectious hosts is still expanding. Recent studies showed that wildlife in China, especially populations in the wild, are facing serious threats from infection of canine distemper due to the constant variation of canine distemper virus and increase of stray dog population. In order to better cope with the hazard brought by canine distemper to wildlife, this study summarized the research progress on pathogenic characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of canine distemper in wildlife. Based on the above research, we proposed prevention and control measures aimed at canine distemper in wildlife from three aspects including source of infection, transmission route and susceptible animals. At present, due to the lack of scientific research and technology in nature reserves in China and the low awareness toward the risk of wildlife canine distemper transmission, little has been done in monitoring wildlife canine distemper, which undoubtedly increases the difficulty to its prevention and control. Therefore, in order to secure the existence of wildlife population in China, the research about wildlife canine distemper monitoring and epidemiology should be enhanced, establishing an effective monitoring and control system to protect wildlife population from canine distemper.
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    Behavior coding and ethogram of the free-ranging giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
    HOU Jin, YAN Linlu, LI Liang, LI Yujie, LIAO Yushan, ZHANG Jindong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (5): 446-457.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150392
    Abstract3457)      PDF (6550KB)(3052)       Save
    Ethograms are the foundation of animal behavior studies. The giant panda is a flagship species for biodiversity protection, and its behavioral ecology is of widespread concern. However, due to their limited population size and avoidance of people, it is difficult to observe giant pandas in the wild. As a result, basic behavioral research, such as the specification of ethograms, has been mainly done by observing captive giant pandas. In order to promote further development of giant panda behavioral research, we constructed an ethogram of giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) behavior using the PAE (Posture, Act and Environment) coding system based on infrared camera trap data collected in Wolong Nature Reserve during January 2015 to June 2016 and August 2018 to April 2019. In total, we identified and recorded 12 types of postures, 52 acts and 56 behaviors. This study not only recorded the major behaviors of giant pandas, but also discovered unrecorded behaviors of captive pandas in any past research, such as using plant stems to clear snow from the body. In general, our results enriched knowledge of the impact of environmental factors on giant panda behavior. This study provides basic information for behavioral ecology of giant pandas.
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    SOME RECORDS OF MI-LU( Elaphurus davidianus) IN CHINESE ANCIENT BOOKS
    XIA Jingshi
      
    Abstract1873)      PDF (588KB)(2590)       Save
    This paper deals with the historical conditions of Mi-lu ( Elaphurus davidianus) which has been stamped out in China since the end of the 19th century. The author has studied a nmber of records and narratives on Mi-lu from Chinese ancient books and holds the following views:1. Mi-lu existed in China widely in ancient times, sometimes a herd of thousands could be found in wild. It still existed in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.2. The distribution range of Mi-lu extended to the centre and south of Shaanxi, east of Sichuan, north of Hunan and Jiangxi in the old days.3. 22 Mi-lu have been returned to China from England and 20 of them were sent to Nanhaizi of Peking and the other two were sent to Shanghai Zoo in 1985.4 . Meat of Mi-lu is edible, its oil and young pilose antler as well as antler are one of the traditional Chinese medicines.
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    Distribution and activity patterns of wild boar ( Sus scrofa) in the Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province
    XIE Peigen, HU Juan, LI Tingting, GUO Rui, XU Lijuan, SONG Xiao, LI Jiaqi, XU Aichun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (2): 168-176.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150534
    Abstract2385)   HTML549)    PDF (2989KB)(2324)       Save
    To study the distribution and activity patterns of wild boar ( Sus scrofa),a grid-type infrared camera method was employed in the Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province.From March 2018 to February 2019, a total of 109 cameras were deployed in Qianqingtang and Longtangshan areas of the reserve,with a total monitoring time of 39 240 camera-days.Wild boar tended to select deciduous broad-leaved forest (capture rate=5.33 ±5.64) and coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest (3.75 ±3.46) in Qianqingtang,while in Longtangshan,it selected mainly coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest (4.32 ±5.21).There was a significant difference ( P < 0.01) in daily-discrepancy index α in different months,and the average value of α in winter was significantly higher than that in the other seasons.In addition,the average value of diurnal-nocturnal index β was 0.870 in Qianqingtang and 0.768 in Longtangshan,which are significantly higher than the theoretical value of 13/24( P < 0.01).These results indicated that the wild boar is a diurnal animal and its activity pattern in winter is not consistent with the other seasons.The Kernel density estimation showed that the daily activity patterns of wild boar varied among seasons with two apparent activity peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00) and dusk (17:00-19:00) in spring,one apparent peak in winter afternoon (13:00-17:00),and no obvious peak in the other seasons.This study will help to deepen the understanding of the ecological habits of wild boar and contribute to the wildlife management in the reserve.
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    BEHAVIORAL INTERACTIONS AND MATING BEHAVIOR OF RATLIKE HAMSTERS (CRICETULUS TRITON) DURING THE BREEDING SEASON
    ZHANG Jianxu,ZHANG Zhibin,WANG Zuwang
      
    Abstract2426)      PDF (161KB)(1813)       Save
    In a Y-maze, the focal female ratlike hamsters ( Cricetuus triton) preferred body odor of males to females' or control (P<0.05) ; themale did not show a sexual preference for body odor ( P> 0.05), while preferred body odor of conspecific to control, these results indicated that body odor are attractive to the hamster, and the hamster’s response to the odor had sexual difference. The focal hamster spent more time in one of arms of Y-maze with hamster demonstrator than another control arm ( P< 0.05 or P < 0.01) ; males spent more time in one of arms with same-sex hamster demonstrator than another with the opposite-sex individual conspecific ( P< 0.01), and females did not spend different time ( P > 0.05). The results were mediatedby combination of agonistic behavior and mating patterns. The staged dyadic encounters were conducted in a neutral arena.Paired encounters between both same sexes contained frequent agonistic acts and few amiable acts, and the victors had more attack and flank gland marking ( P < 0.05 o r P < 0.01); although both male sand females exhibited less aggression when paired with opposite-sex conspecific, amiable acts were also fewer, and females received males' mounting only on the estrous day of estrous cycle and attacked males on other days of. The above results implied that the hamster was solitary and that f lank gland marking was positively related to agonistic behavior and dominant status. Ratlike hamsters had a typical mating behavior and exhibit multiple intromission followed by multiple ejaculations. Both males' Coolidge effectand females' multiple matings indicated that the hamster was polygynousor promiscuous mating.
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    Preliminary study on breeding periodicity of wild francois' langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi francoisi)in Mayanghe Nature Reserve,Guizhou
    WU Ankang,LUO Yang,WANG Shuangling,CHEN Zhengren,WANG Bin
      
    Abstract1410)      PDF (306KB)(2022)       Save
    Francois’ langur, the Black-headed leaf monkey ( Trachypithecus francoisi francoisi), is a rare species of monkey, occurring in isolated small groups in China. Breeding periodicity of wild Francois’ langur in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve in Yanhe County, Guizhou, China, was studied. For the subject group,known as Gandong group, they were artificial fed periodically due to shortage of natural food since August,1997. From the latter half of the year of 1998,they were adapted to artificial feeding and fed once per day. Because of the same feeder, a trust relationship between the group and the feeder was established, and the group could be observed within fifteen meters. Through artificial feeding, Gandong group monkeys were individual recognized according to characteristics of stature, posture and appearance, and the females were differentiated by the way of F1,F2,…. The first dates of seeing newborn monkeys of the group were recorded and regarded as birth dates. The error was not beyond twenty-four hours because of daily observation and record. Birth dates of eleven newborn monkeys of Gandong group from 1999 to 2005 were recorded. The genders of the newborn monkeys were identified by observing male genitals fifteen days after born. In addition, birth dates of six other groups were combined with that of Gandong group. The six groups included Xiangguba group, Leijia group, Banqiaozi group, Shibanxi group, Dashandong group and Longdongtang group. For the six groups, the first dates of finding new baby monkeys were recorded by patrolmen who patrolled once every five days, and then verified by the authors within two days. According to characteristic of baby monkey whose hair was bright orange at first and then became gradually black one month later, birth dates of nine baby monkeys of these six groups were estimated from 2003 to 2004. The error was not beyond one week. By record, eight offspring were added into Gandong group from 1999 to 2005. At present, this group was consisted of seven males and five females, including three baby monkeys and nine non-baby monkeys. Six other groups produced nine offspring totally from 2003 to 2004. The analysis results showed that seasonal birth of wild Francois’langur distributed from January to June, and no newborns were given birth from July to December, seventeen monkeys born from February to April in proportion with 85% in total, eight in March in proportion with 40% determined as the peak of whole year, five in April and four in February as the secondary birth peak. This distribution pattern was different significantly from that of captive Francois' langurs whose birth failed in seasonality. Under captive conditions, food sources were secure, the surrounding was stable and there was little change of annual cycle. However it was difficult for the wild to have the above all conditions. The breeding interval of wild Francois' langurs was 704±50 days averagely, namely twenty-three months, longer seven months than that of captive. Francois' langurs, indicating that natural environmental stresses that the wild populations were subject to might have a long-term influence on reproduction of Francois' langurs. Meanwhile breeding periodicity was linked with difference of species, climate, habitat, and female reproductive biology.
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    Comparative Space Use Patterns of Wild Giant Pandas and Livestock
    ZHOU Shiqiang, Vanessa HULL, ZHANG Jindong, HUANG Jinyan, LIU Dian, HUANG Yan, LI Desheng, ZHANG Hemin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (2): 138-151.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201602002
    Abstract2407)      PDF (2409KB)(3606)       Save
    Habitat use describes how wildlife utilize natural resources, and their activity patterns, and has great influence on the genetic exchange between local populations and their viability. Between 2010 and 2012, we collected habitat data and GPS data from giant pandas and livestock—domestic horses at the Hetaoping section of Wolong National Nature Reserve and surrounding areas by using GPS collar tracking technology. Afterwards, we selected GPS data from a representative 3 pandas and 3 horses and calculated the terrain, home range, daily movement distance and number of core areas by applying analyses such as digital elevation model (DEM) and animal movement module. Finally, we analyzed and tested whether there were significant differences between the habitat use of giant pandas and of livestock. The results showed that there were significant differences in habitat use between giant pandas and livestock in terms of altitude, slope and aspect of the terrain, home range, daily movement distance and number of core areas both seasonally and yearly. For giant pandas, habitat use changed between Fargesia robusta, Yushania brevipaniculata and Bashania faberi bamboo forests according to season and food abundance (bamboo shoots, bamboo stems, bamboo leaves), and exhibited a random dispersal pattern across a large activity range (altitude range, home range), short daily movement distance, large number of core areas and high variation between individuals and months. For livestock, depending on the original release site and disturbance level, habitat use exhibited a different pattern. However, compared with that of giant pandas, horses featured small home ranges, long daily movement distance, small number of core areas, and low variation between individual groups and months. These two divergent habitat use patterns put distinctive levels of pressure on local natural resources: the one adopted by giant pandas is beneficial for the recovery of bamboo resources and the sustainable development of the ecosystem; on the contrary, the one adopted by livestock will cause deterioration of the bamboo resources and destruction to the integrity of the ecosystem. Consequently, it is urgent for Wolong National Nature Reserve to reinforce the management of domestic grazing animals, and coordinate economic development of local communities with biodiversity conservation.
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    Seasonal changes in serum reproductive steroids levels of red-bellied squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus)
    JIA Yiping, JIN Wei, ZUO Zhicai, WANG Zhengyi, YU Shumin, DENG Junliang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (4): 426-432.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150092
    Abstract1919)      PDF (1435KB)(3084)       Save
    We examined variation of some hormones reflecting reproductive function in the blood plasma of red-bellied squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus). 70 males and 74 females were captured from February to December 2015 from Yingjing County, Sichuan Province. We measured the levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone: T, estradiol: E 2, follicle-stimulating hormone: FSH, luteinizing hormone: LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone: GnRH, progesterone: P 4) by ELISA, and analyzed the data from the different sexes and months. In addition, impacts of reproductive status were also analyzed. These indices were analyzed by two-way ANOVA or ANCOVA. If some indices showed significant sex differences, monthly variations of those indices for any gender were further examined by one-way ANOVA or ANCOVA. The results were as follows: (1)There were sex differences in the levels of serum reproductive hormones in female and male squirrels that changing with reproductive status (except GnRH), and were lowest in October. (2)The serum concentrations of FSH, LH, T, E 2 and P 4 in males peaked in February or March and July or August, shortly before mating. Concentrations of FSH, LH and E 2 in females and GnRH of both sexes peaked in February and July during the mating period, whereas T concentrations in females were low throughout the year, and serum P 4 was highest in May. (3)Compared with non-reproductive squirrels, the concentrations of all serum reproductive hormones were significantly higher in pregnancy, mating and lactating female squirrels, or mating males. These results indicate that the levels of serum reproductive hormones in female and male squirrels can vary with the seasons and the reproductive status, which is of great significance to understanding the reproductive characteristics of the red-bellied squirrels and control their damage to plantations.
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    History,current situation and prospects on nature reserves for giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China
    HU Jinchu,ZHANG Zejun ,WEI Fuwen
      
    Abstract9451)      PDF (190KB)(5051)       Save
    The giant panda,a tribute to emperors in ancient China,is an endemic species and regarded as a modern national
    treasure. Contributing to extensive illegal hunting,it has become endangered before liberation. During 1950s,Chinese
    government initiated the establishment of nature reserves to conserve wildlife and their habitats,and in 1960s,five reserves,
    including Wolong,Wanglang,Baihe,Labahe and Taibaishan,were established for the giant panda. Seven more
    reserves were established in 1970s,based on the first national ground survey for the giant panda,and the reserves for the
    species summed up to thirteen. The second national ground survey (1985 - 1988)indicated that the population of wild giant
    pandas was decreased as much as 54% . In 1990s,the total of panda reserves was increased to 36,and by now,there
    have been 63 reserves established to protect giant pandas and their habitats,covering about 85% of the remaining habitats
    and 50% of individuals. The extant population was estimated about 2000,sparsely distributed in remote western mountane
    ranges in China. Chinese government has developed many in-situ and ex-site conservation strategies to conserve the animal
    by now. Giant pandas should deserve a promising future.
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    Research advances in conservation genetics and genomics of snow leopard ( Panthera uncia)
    Yubo HAO, Hong JIN, Lin YANG, Kexin LI, Yibo HU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (5): 508-518.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150687
    Abstract1614)      PDF (1521KB)(1529)       Save

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) (Carnivora, Felidae, Panthera) is a flagship species distributed in the Qinghai?Tibet Plateau and surrounding regions. With the development of molecular biology and high-throughput sequencing technology, snow leopard conservation genetics and conservation genomics have developed rapidly. Noninvasive genetic sampling has provided genetic samples and facilitated the conservation genetics research of snow leopards. In this review, we summarize the application of noninvasive genetic sampling in species identification, individual identification and sex determination of snow leopards, the phylogenetic status, phylogeographic pattern, population genetic structure, and subspecies controversies in snow leopards. Furthermore, the evolutionary history, adaptive evolution, and genome characteristics of snow leopards are reviewed. Finally, we discuss the future development trends of snow leopard conservation genetics and genomics, aiming to better promote snow leopard conservation biology research and science-based conservation decisions.

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