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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract13403)      PDF (1771KB)(6991)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract2967)      PDF (3119KB)(3830)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    Diversity and functional characteristics of intestinal microflora of free-living wild boars in the Miaoling Mountain area in Guizhou Province, China
    YANG Xiongwei, PENG Caichun, GUO Qunyi, RAN Jingcheng, WANG Yeying, ZHANG Mingming, HU Canshi, LI Shize, SU Haijun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 365-376.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150515
    Abstract1781)      PDF (7115KB)(3249)       Save
    Wild boars( Sus scrofa), which are widely distributed in southern China, are one of the few large-hoofed species that populations are proliferating.In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted on the intestinal microflora of wild animals, but none have investigated the intestinal microflora of the wild populations of S.scrofa.In this study, total DNA from the gastrointestinal tract(stomach, ileum, colon, and rectum) of four samples of free-living wild boars from the Miaoling Mountain area of Guizhou Province was extracted, and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primer PCR.The amplification products were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform to assess the community structure, diversity, and flora function of intestinal bacteria of wild boars.A total of 1 268 577 valid sequences remained after the results were filtered for quality, and the low-quality reads were discarded.After drawing out the minimum sample sequence number, 1 019 OTUs were identified at the 97% similarity level.All samples were categorized into 19 phyla and 292 genera.At the level of phylum classification, the key floras in the intestinal tract were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria and there were 15 dominant genera, including Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Escherichia- Shigella, and Bifidobacterium.Rarefaction curves indicated that the sequencing depth had basically covered all bacteria in the sample.Among alpha diversity indices, the Chao1 and Shannon indices of the colon and rectum were significantly higher than those of the stomach and ileum( P<0.05).This fully confirmed that the colon and rectum had a bacterial community structure relatively similar and greater floral richness and diversity to that of the stomach and ileum.The results of principal coordinates analysis(PCoA) and analysis of similarity(Anosim) showed a readily visible difference in distinct parts of the gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars.LEfSe analysis indicated that there were 22 bacterial genera with significant differences in distinct intestinal segments of boars, most of which were attributed to Firmicutes.In addition, PICRUSt showed that different intestinal segments also had unique metabolic functions and pathways.This study preliminarily revealed the characteristics of the intestinal flora of wild boars from Guizhou Province.We found that the intestinal flora of wild boars had a relatively complex structure and that there were significant differences between distinct intestinal segments.
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    Effects of visual and olfactory density signals on social stress in Brandt's voles
    HE Chen, HUANG Shuli, LIU Jing, SONG Yiran, LU Wei, ZHANG Zhibin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 416-430.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150532
    Abstract1389)      PDF (4114KB)(3172)       Save
    Rodents have the density-dependent behavior-endocrine regulation mechanism.When their population density increases, it will increase social stress, nervous anxiety, aggression behaviors, as well as alter neuroendocrine in the brain.Social stress caused by increased density may involve different senses such as visual, olfactory, touch, hearing, andtaste, however, their distinct effects on social stress have never been evaluated.Our previous study indicates that high population density decreases the expression of oxytocin(OT) in the brain of male Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomys brandtii), increases the expression of arginine-vasopressin(AVP), and increases serum corticosteroid(CORT), which are linked to the increase of aggressive behavior.However, the role of olfactory and visual signals in triggering social stress is unknown.Because the olfactory signal is involved in marking the territory or dominance of animals, while the visual signal is involved in collective cooperation for defending territory against intruders or predators, the social stress effects may be different.We used nest pads and mirrors to simulate olfactory and visual density.To test the distinct effects of olfactory and visual density signals on social stress of Brandt's voles, we analyzed the behavioral(open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and three-chamber sociability test), body weight, organs, serum physiological indicators, and brain neurotransmitter expression changes.We found that nest-pads treatment groups with high olfactory density decreased OT expression but increased AVP expression in specific brain regions of Brandt's voles, which is similar to the density effect(except for the OT increase in males).This result generally supported the hypothesis that high-density olfactory is the main signal path of density-dependent social stress.High visual density group treatment increased OT expression in males, but decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor(GR), serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), and anxiety behavior in females, supporting the hypothesis that high-density visual is the main signal path for reducing social stress.Our study suggests that visual and olfactory signals play a different, or even opposite role in the density-dependent behavioral or population regulation of social Brandt's voles, which may be beneficial in maintaining an optimal population density or group size.
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    Effects of repeated exposure to cat odor on anti-predator and anxiety-like behaviors of juvenile Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    PENG Yan, WU Yongzhen, GU Chen, YANG Shengmei, YIN Baofa, WEI Wanhong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 451-458.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150469
    Abstract1649)      PDF (1823KB)(3161)       Save
    The predator odor has an important effect on the behavior and physiology of the prey.This paper aimed to investigate the change of anti-predator, anxiety-like behaviors and endocrine level of juvenile Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomysbrandtii) after repeated exposure to cat odor for 18 days.We also discuss the response strategy of juvenile Brandt's voles affected by the cat odor.The results showed that juvenile Brandt's voles significantly increased concealing behavior and decreased the locomotion, jumping, grooming and contact behaviors after exposed to cat odor for one day.However, after repeated exposure to cat odor for 18 days, they developed a behavioral adaptation to the cat odor and their anti-predator behaviors were not significantly different to that of the control group.The open field test showed that the repeated exposure to cat odor significantly reduced the total distance moved and average velocity of juvenile Brandt's voles, while increased their immobility time.In the light-dark box test, female Brandt's vole in the cat-odor group visited more frequently the light area than the male, however, there was no significant difference in time in the light box between genders and treatments.There were no significant changes in plasma corticosterone(CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) concentrations for the juvenile Brandt's voles after repeated exposure to cat odor.These findings indicate that when juvenile Brandt's voles are initially exposed to cat odor, their anti-predator behaviors increased, but subsequently diminished over repeated exposures.On the other hand, their anxiety-like behaviors did not vary.
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    Activity pattern of Transbaikal zokor( Myospalax psilurus) and its relationship with soil temperature and humidity
    Manduhu, YUAN Shuai, YANG Suwen, JI Yu, Chaoketu, WEI Jun, FU Heping, WU Xiaodong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 441-450.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150523
    Abstract1837)      PDF (2146KB)(3046)       Save
    The activity rhythm of animals is a comprehensive adaptation to environmental conditions.Subterranean rodents live in relatively low oxygen and dark environment all year round.How their activity rhythm and intensity are affected by soil temperature and humidity of their habitat, and whether there are gender differences, has received extensive attention.The influence of these factors can objectively reflect the long-term life-history strategies of subterranean rodents to adapt to their habitats.Transbaikal zokor ( Myospalax psilurus) is a dominant rodent species in the meadow steppe of northern China.It is very important to study the diurnal and seasonal activity intensity of zokor and their relationships with soil temperature and humidity for understanding its survival and reproductive strategies and ecological controlling factors.This study was conducted in May(spring), July(summer), and September(autumn) of 2016 and 2017 in the meadow grassland of Hulunbeier city, Inner Mongolia, China, using radio-tracking methods to monitor the diurnal and seasonal activity intensity of Transbaikal zokor.We analyzed the daily activity intensity and sex differences among zokor in different seasons, and the relationships between activity intensity and soil temperature and soil relative humidity were analyzed.The results showed that(1) the daily activity rhythm of zokor was unimodal.The activity peak appeared from night to morning in different seasons, and the duration of peak activity varied between seasons:12 hours in spring, 7 hours in summer and 6 hours in autumn.There was no significant difference in the daily and seasonal activity intensity between male and female individuals, which exhibited a high synchronization.(2) The activity intensity of zokor was significantly correlated with soil temperature( P<0.01).The activity intensity of zokor was highest when soil temperature was at 7℃-10℃(20:00 to 08:00 the next day) in spring, 17℃-22℃(20:00 to 03:00 the next day) in summer and 10℃-12℃(22:00 to 04:00 the next day) in autumn, and then gradually decreased with increasing soil temperature.There was no significant correlation between activity intensity and soil relative moisture.
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    Effects of seasonality and social ranks on fecal cortisol levels in male Tibetan macaques( Macaca thibetana)
    WU Mingyang, CHEN Shiwang, SUN Binghua, WANG Xi, XIA Dongpo, LI Jinhua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 398-405.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150524
    Abstract1334)      PDF (1535KB)(3044)       Save
    Many primate species are social, a consequence of long-term evolutionary processes.Despite natural selection favoring sociality, intragroup competition can generate stress for individuals.Cortisol level is one physiological indicator of an individual's stress.Seasonally-breading Tibetan macaques( Macaca thibetana) are ideal candidates for the investigation of the potential relationships between social stressors, cortisol levels, and dominance rank.We collected 325 fresh feces from 13 males in Huangshan, Anhui Province, China, and quantified cortisol levels from the fecal samples.We analyzed individual variation in fecal cortisol levels to test the effects of season(i.e., the mating and non-mating seasons) and position in the dominance hierarchy.Our results show that the macaque subjects had higher fecal cortisol levels in the mating season.There was no significant difference in the cortisol levels of high-ranked, middle-ranked, and low-ranked males in the non-mating season, but in the mating season, cortisol levels of middle-ranked males were significantly higher than those of both high- and low-ranked males.As we have known, this is the first study to investigate the cortisol levels in wild Tibetan macaques, and analyze the effects of seasonality and social ranks on cortisol.
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    The relative role of climate, land-use and spatial structure on spatial distribution pattern of species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas
    LI Dan, WANG Xiaojun, ZHAO Xuzhe, ZHOU Hong, HONG Mingsheng, WEI Wei, HAN Han, TANG Junfeng, ZHANG Zejun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 377-387.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150512
    Abstract1673)      PDF (4487KB)(2846)       Save
    Climate and land-use are recognized as the two main driving factors of biodiversity distribution patterns.However, most studies on the effects of climate and land-use have primarily focused on the species level, while their role on community diversity remains poorly understood.In this paper, combining species richness, climate and, land-use data as well as latitude and longitude data, we investigated the relative importance of climate, land-use, and spatial structure vari-ables on the species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas by using model comparison and variation partitioning.Our results show that(1) the number of genera and species of large and medium mammals differs in the five mountains of Sichuan Province.Minshan mountain has the highest number of genera(25) and species(28), while Liangshan mountain has the lowest number of genera(19) and species(20).The top five dominant species in the five mountains are the giant panda, takin, wild boar, Chinese goral, and Chinese serow.(2) We observed high spatial variation in species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas.The number of species in all 10×10 km grids ranged from 1 to 14, with an average of 6.199±3.475.(3) The full model(including all the climatic, land-use, and spatial structure variables, CLS) performed significantly better than all other six models, and the models including land-use covariates performed significantly better than those not including land-use covariates.(4) Climatic, land-use, and spatial structure variables together explained 43.0% of the variation in species richness, among which land-use variables accounted for the largest proportion, explaining 23.0% of the variation in species richness.Climatic and spatial variables explained only 6.3% and 9.3% of the variation in species richness, respectively.These findings indicated that the species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas was predominantly determined by land-use factors.Therefore, good forest stewardship to reduce anthropogenic threats and increase forest cover is the key to achieve comprehensive protection of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas.
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    Comparative on foraging behavior between white-headed langurs( Trachypithecus leucocephalus) and François'langurs( T.francoisi) in Guangxi, China
    LIAO Rong, LU Shiyi, HUANG Zhonghao, LI Youbang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 406-415.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150470
    Abstract1926)      PDF (1585KB)(2806)       Save
    Comparing the foraging behavior of sibling species can reveal similarity in behavioral plasticity and adaptability.White-headed langur( Trachypithecus leucocephalus) and François'langurs( T.francoisi) are sibling species sharing similar body size, social structure and habitat environment.They are neighboring primates distributed in the karst seasonal rain forest of the white-headed Langur National Nature Reserve in Chongzuo, Guangxi.In order to explore whether the two langurs have similar foraging strategies in response to karst habitat, we studied their foraging behavior from January to December 2012 using instantaneous scanning sampling.The results revealed that the feeding habits of the white-headed langur and the François'langur did not vary across day time.Leaves were the main food items for these two species, which accounted for 77.0%±4.4% of annual diet for the white-headed langurs and 68.9%±8.3% of annual diet for the François'langurs.There was no significant change in the eating time of leaves for both langurs(white-headed langur: χ 2=6.602, df=11, P=0.830;François'langurs: χ 2=11.393, df=11, P=0.411).Foraging behaviors of both species occurred frequently after leaving the sleeping cave in the early morning and before entering the sleeping cave in the later afternoon.Specifically, at 09:00-10:59 and 16:00-17:59, white-headed langur spent 41.7% and 46.3% of day time on feeding, whereas François'langurs devoted 31.3% and 38.0% of day time to feeding at 09:00-10:59 and 16:00-17:59, respectively.In addition, there was no significant difference in foraging time between the two langurs.Our result suggests that the white-headed langur and François'langurs share similar foraging strategy in the limestone forest, implying that the similar conservation efforts based on feeding ecology should be considered for both langurs.
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    Second record of collared sprite( Thainycteris aureocollaris, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) from China
    XIE Huixian, LI Yannan, LIANG Xiaoling, ZHANG Huiguang, ZHAN Liying, WU Yi, YU Wenhua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 476-482.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150533
    Abstract1698)      PDF (12388KB)(2799)       Save
    During a chiropteran survey in June 2020 in the Wuyi Mountain National Park, Fujian Province, a male bat was captured by a harp trap on a forest trail.It was a medium-sized vespertilionid bat with a forearm length of 45.9 mm and a distinct broad stripe of buffy hairs running across the top of its head between the bases of the ears.Its skull was robust with the greatest length of 17.42 mm, obvious supraorbital protuberances, and a dental formula of 2113/3123.These characteristics are consistent with those of the Collared sprite Thainycteris aureocollaris, a species rare in China.The morphology-based identification was also verified by phylogenetic inference using the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene segment. The calls of the specimen recorded during flight were the frequency modulation type with a dominant frequency of(30.05±0.94) kHz. T.aureocollaris has so far only been recorded in Libo County, Guizhou Province, China, therefore the current record represents the second known occurrence of the species in China, and a new chiropteran record from Fujian Province.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genomics and meta-genomics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, HUANG Guangping, FAN Huizhong, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 581-590.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150518
    Abstract2840)      PDF (1937KB)(2781)       Save
    Understanding the evolutionary processes, endangered mechanisms and adaptive evolution are key scientific issues in conservation biology. During the past decades, advances in high-throughput sequencing and multi-disciplinary crossover provide deep insights into the evolutionary history, genetic structure, adaptive evolution, and host-microbiota coevolution of endangered species. The emergence of two new branches of conservation biology, Conservation Genomics and Conservation Metagenomics, provides novel insights into wildlife conservation. In this review, we summarize the important advances in the two fields and discuss the future research directions, aiming to promote the conservation biology of threa-tened animals in China.
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    The influence of group size and foraging environment on the daily path length of a critically endangered primate Nomascus nasutus
    LI Xingkang, ZHONG Xukai, WEI Shaogan, CUI Liangwei, FAN Pengfei, GUAN Zhenhua, MA Changyong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 388-397.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150495
    Abstract1475)      PDF (5042KB)(2741)       Save
    Daily path length can reflect animals'foraging efforts and offer insights into their foraging strategy, which is essential for implementing effective conservation plans for endangered species.The Cao Vit gibbon( Nomascus nasutus) is a small, critically endangered arboreal ape living in polygynous social groups(average group size 6.3).Research on its daily path length related to foraging habits is still limited.During two distinct periods, one from April 2008 to December 2009 and the other from October 2016 to August 2017, we followed two gibbon groups(G1 and G4) in Bangliang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China.We collected feeding behavioral and dietary data using instantaneous scan sampling at 5 min intervals on gibbon groups and mapped the gibbon groups' positions every 30 minutes.A total of 157 full-day observations were used to analyze the dietary changes and calculate the gibbons' daily path lengths.The gibbons changed their diet significantly in the two observation periods, and we found that they traveled on average 1 373 m per day(range:354-2 837 m), similarly to monogamous gibbon species living in low-latitude areas with smaller group sizes(3.8 in average).These findings indicate that, despite Cao Vit gibbons' relatively bigger group sizes, their daily foraging effort is not higher than other species, conflicting with the ecological constraints model.The availability of larger food patches, lower inter-species competition, and low group density might be the main reason for allowing Cao Vit gibbons to survive in bigger groups without increasing foraging efforts.Furthermore, the gibbons fed more fruits and traveled longer distances when anthropogenic disturbances were lower, while they significantly decreased their movements during the fruit-scarce dry season.This points to a potential energy conservation strategy employed by Cao Vit gibbons as an adaptation to cope with limited high-quality food.The large amount of data provided by the present work significantly amplified our understanding of Cao Vit gibbons travel patterns related to their foraging behavior when facing food scarcity, and improved the scientific knowledge that fosters the conservation of critically endangered wildlife.
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    Research advances and perspectives of mammalogy in China in the past 40 years
    WANG Dehua, WEI Fuwen, ZHANG Zhibin, WANG Zuwang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 483-486.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150602
    Abstract2708)      PDF (1229KB)(2724)       Save
    It has been 40 years since the establishment of the Branch of Mammalogical Society of China Zoology Society in 1980 and the official founding of the journal Acta Theriologica Sinica in 1981. Most areas of mammalogy experienced great and healthy developments in China, especially in taxonomy and phylogeny, population ecology, physiological ecology, behavioral ecology, conservation ecology, conservation genetics, molecular evolution, and habitats assessments. Here we invited 11 review papers to reveal the main advances of these areas in the past 40 years in China and proposed some potential developmental directions for the future. Based on the well developments of these areas, some new problems and areas such as diseases of wild mammals and their transmission ecology, the roles of mammals in the ecosystem under climate changing, conservation physiology, and conservation metagenomics are the research fields that should be enhanced.
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    Spatial pattern of plateau pika burrows under different grazing modes
    HE Qianyun, WANG Xiaoyi, LUO Gai, ZHANG Pei, RAN Jianghong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 431-440.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150502
    Abstract1475)      PDF (2447KB)(2681)       Save
    We studied the impacts of grazing on the number and spatial patterns of plateau pika( Ochotona curzoniae) burrows in Zoige County of Sichuan Province, China from April to November, 2019.The grazing mode was categorized as grazing prohibition(GP), winter grazing(WG) and year-round grazing(YG).The average nearest neighbor ratio and the S 2/ m value(the ratio of variation to mean) were respectively used to assess the spatial patterns of burrows within quadrats(10 m×10 m) and at a larger scale within plots.A nonparametric test was used to evaluate differences in spatial patterns between grazing modes and investigation months.Our results showed that:(1) the total and available burrow numbers of plateau pika were significantly different between grazing modes, and WG plots had the highest number.The number of burrows in the WG plots and YG plots differed significantly between months.(2) There were significant differences in the spatial patterns of burrows between grazing modes in the scale of quadrat and plot.The spatial patterns of all burrows and available burrows showed different distributions.(3) The height and coverage of vegetation were correlated with the number and spatial patterns of pika burrows.(4) The total burrow number was positively correlated with the average nearest neighbor ratio.Our study indicated that grazing mode can affect the spatial patterns of plateau pika and subsequently population dynamics.The utilization and spatial pattern of pika burrows are highly influenced by the height and coverage of vegetation near and around burrows.
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    Melatonin implantation affected annual changes of main reproductive hormones in mink serum
    LI Dehe, CUI Kai, GAO Hui, MA Zefang, HU Liangchen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 459-467.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150526
    Abstract1285)      PDF (1771KB)(2679)       Save
    The purpose of this experiment was to explore the effects of the implanted exogenous melatonin(MLT) on the annual changes of main reproductive hormones in mink serum.A total of 72 female and 72 male minks at 4 months old were randomly divided into four groups:Group A(female) and Group C(male) without any treatment as controls, Group B(female) and Group D(male) were implanted with exogenous MLT from July 7, 2018 to July 7, 2019.During the implantation period, three minks in each group were randomly selected to collect cardiac blood and separate serum samples for every 30 days, resulting in 12 sample collections.The Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to determine the contents of the main reproductive hormones in the collected sera.The results showed that (1) in Group A, the contents of gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH), prolactin(PRL), and progesterone(P) were at higher levels in January than those in other time.The levels of PRL and P showed a small peak in June and July, respectively.Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH) first decreased and then increased in autumn and winter and reached a high level in December.In spring and summer, FSH showed a gradual downward trend, while LH decreased at first and then increased.Estradiol(E2) gradually increased in autumn and winter and reached a high level in January, followed by a gradual decrease and fluctuated trends in spring and summer. (2) In Group B, in comparison with Group A, GnRH significantly increased in October( P ≤ 0.05) and January( P ≤ 0.01);PRL decreased in January, February, and June( P ≤ 0.05);P increased in October and June( P ≤ 0.05);FSH increased( P ≤ 0.01) in October, but decreased in both January and February( P ≤ 0.05);and LH significantly increased in March( P ≤ 0.05).(3) The testosterone(T) in Group C increased to the highest level only in January, while in Group D decreased in January( P ≤ 0.01).In summary, the exogenous MLT can increase the content of GnRH, reduce the concentrations of PRL, P and T in January, and induce FSH and LH to reach the peak in October and E2 to peak in November.Implantation of MLT resulted in inconsistent estrus periods between male and female minks, therefore this protocol is not suitable for mink breeding.
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    Research advances and prespectives in ethology and behavioral ecology of the mammals in China
    LI Baoguo, HOU Rong, ZHANG He, CHEN Guoliang, FANG Gu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 525-536.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150529
    Abstract2741)      PDF (2008KB)(2651)       Save
    Ethology and behavioral ecology study the behavioral traits, behavior patterns and behavior mechanisms of animals, as well as the behavior strategies to adapt to environmental changes. Here, we briefly review some significant achievements of these two research fields over the past forty years in China by focusing specifically on mammalian taxa. The results indicate that more advanced technologies and methods have significantly improved the ways of data collection and experimental analysis over the past two decades. Chinese scholars have published many high-quality papers in international journals and books, which has narrowed the research gap between China and the developed nations. In particular, behavioral studies on the giant panda are playing a leading global role. Some other significant research achievements include those on interspecific interactions and behavioral adaptation mechanisms of rodents, primates' social behavior and adaptation mechanism of foraging strategy, and echolocation behaviors of bats. In contrast, behavioral studies on some groups, such as carnivores, ungulates, and marine mammals, are still lacking. The increasing national support on basic research, more high-level research bases and the growing number of scientists, as well as the application of interdisciplinary and advanced techniques, will facilitate the prosperous development of ethology and behavioral ecology in China.
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    Research advances and prepectives on habitat assessment and protection of endangered mammals of China
    JIANG Guangshun, LI Jingzhi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 604-613.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150501
    Abstract2430)      PDF (2121KB)(2641)       Save
    At present, global, species are facing increasing extinction risk at an unprecedented rate. The effective assessment and scientific protection of wildlife habitat are important prerequisites and means to prevent endangered wildlife from extinction and maintain their sustainable survivals and development. This article summarizes the current status and achievements of research progress on habitat assessment and protection from five categories of endangered wildlife in China:carnivores, ungulates, primates, small mammals, and marine mammals. This article summarizes and analyzes related acade-mic achievements in order to reveal systematic and valuable methods and technical means for the scientific protection and management of habitats. This article also offers prospects for the theoretical and technical challenges of habitat assessment and protection research. It proposes that the habitat assessment and protection research of endangered mammals in China should move towards a ‘precise’ development direction of integration, quantification, intelligence, and multi-disciplinary cross-integration applications, to provide technical support for the effective implementation of national ecological construction projects.
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    Seasonality of abundant and rare taxa in gut microbiota of plateau pikas
    FAN Chao, ZHANG Liangzhi, FU Haibo, LIU Chuanfa, LI Wenjing, ZHANG He, TANG Xianjiang, CHENG Qi, SHEN Wenjuan, ZHANG Yanming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 617-630.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150540
    Abstract2007)   HTML714)    PDF (12688KB)(2640)       Save
    Climate and diet are important factors driving seasonal changes in gut microbiota of small herbivorous mammals. However, most previous studies rarely addressed abundant and rare taxa in gut microbiota. Here, we used plateau pika ( Ochotona curzoniae) as a model and conducted 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling to explore the seasonal differences (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) in microbial composition, diversity, and function in abundant and rare taxa. The results showed that the Shannon index of abundant and rare taxa was significantly higher in winter than in other seasons. However, the ACE index of abundant taxa was significantly lower in autumn than in other seasons while that of rare taxa was significantly higher in winter than in spring and summer. For the abundant taxa, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in winter and autumn was significantly higher than that in spring and summer, while for the rare taxa, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in summer and autumn was significantly higher than that in winter and spring. The relative abundance of the amino acid metabolism pathway in abundant taxa was significantly higher in winter than that in spring and summer, while the relative abundance of this pathway in rare taxa was significantly higher in spring than that in summer and autumn. Air temperature, precipitation, and vegetative nutrition were significantly associated with variations in the microbial composition of both abundant and rare taxa. The total explanation proportions of environmental variables to the changes of abundant and rare taxa were 18% (air temperature:3%; precipitation:4%; vegetative nutrition:10%; combined:1%) and 9% (air temperature:1%; precipitation:2%; vegetative nutrition:5%; combined:1%), respectively. The results indicate that abundant and rare taxa of gut microorganisms have different distribution patterns, seasonal characteristics, and contributions to the entire microbial variation. The abundant taxa were more strongly influenced by environmental variables, reflecting the inconsistency in responses of different gut microbial taxa to seasonal changes. This study promotes our understanding of seasonal processes and environmental adaptability of animal's gut microbiota.
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    Research advances and prespectives in mammal physiological ecology in China
    WANG Dehua, ZHAO Zhijun, ZHANG Xueying, ZHANG Zhiqiang, XU Deli, XING Xin, YANG Shengmei, WANG Zhengkun, GAO Yunfang, YANG Ming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 537-555.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150558
    Abstract2381)      PDF (2869KB)(2624)       Save
    After more than 70 years of development, mammalian physiological ecology in China has made great progress in the study of physiological adaptation of animals living in different geographical environments, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Inner Mongolia Grassland, and the Hengduan Mountains. The main research topics include energy metabolism and body temperature regulation, hibernation physiology, water metabolism, ecological immunology, and the thermoregulatory role of gut microbiota. Some topics and areas still require more effort, such as physiological adaptation of mammals to extreme environments, large mammals physiology and conservation physiology. The new technologies need to be better integrated including the multi-omics technology, isotope technology, and remote sensing technology. This paper reviews the main advances of mammalian physiological ecology in China.
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    Research advances and perspectives on mammal population ecology in China
    BIAN Jianghui
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 556-570.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150500
    Abstract2290)      PDF (2704KB)(2588)       Save
    Mammal population ecology is key component of model ecology. Charles Sutherland Elton's 1924 article on periodic fluctuations in animal populations marked the beginning of modern population ecological research. What factors regulate population fluctuation has always puzzled ecologists and many hypotheses were put forward to explain mechanism underlying population fluctuation, but there is no one hypothesis that can perfectly explain its mechanism. The study of mammal population ecology in China began in the 1950s, and has gone through 70 years of development, and has made some important achievements. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in rodent and other mammal populations during the past 70 years on various aspects, including pattern of population dynamics, changes in demography, effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and interaction of those factors. Meanwhile, future research directions are suggested.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genetics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, MA Tianxiao, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 571-580.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150517
    Abstract2589)      PDF (1840KB)(2573)       Save
    China is one of the world's mega-diverse countries. There are diverse terrestrial and marine mammals in China, including endemic and flagship species like the giant panda, snub-nosed monkey, South China tiger, Milu, and Baiji. However, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, pollution, and climate change imposed direct threats to mammals' survival, which resulted in the genetic diversity loss of species. Genetic diversity is the basic component of biodiversity and affects the long-term survival of species and populations. Therefore, conservation genetics was established as an important branch subject of conservation biology, aiming to investigate the population genetic variation and genetic mechanisms of species endangerment and extinction. With rapid development in research techniques and methods, great progress has been made in China in the past 40 years in the evaluation of genetic diversity and inbreeding, landscape genetics, ecological genetics, and genetic management on threatened mammals. Meanwhile, the threats to mammals' survival caused by human activities still exist. The further development of new techniques, such as high-throughput sequencing, could deepen our understanding of the genetic adaptation and endangerment processes of threatened mammals, and lead to more effective management and conservation.
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    Positional behavior of Assam macaque ( Macaca assamensis) living in the limestone forest of southwest Guangxi, China
    LIU Zheng, LIU Shengyuan, LI Youbang, HUANG Zhonghao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 12-23.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150543
    Abstract1899)   HTML322)    PDF (1650KB)(2464)       Save
    Positional behavior studies have vital importance for understanding the adaptation mechanism of primates to their habitat. To explore seasonal and daily variations of Assam macaques ( Macaca assamensis) positional behavior and the influence of food composition and ecological factors on this type of behavior, we collected positional behavioral data via instantaneous scan sampling method from September 2012 to August 2013 at Guangxi Nonggang National Nature Reserve, located in southwest China. The quadrupedal walking (45. 3% ±7. 6%) was observed as the most frequently used locomotion mode, followed by leaping (28. 8% ±4. 8%), climbing (23. 9% ±6. 2%), quadrupedal running (1. 2% ±0. 7%) and bridging (0. 9% ±0. 6%), with a significant difference. Locomotion modes varied significantly between seasons. Assam macaques used bridging more frequently in fruit-rich season but used climbing less during the fruit-lean season. However, the other modes of locomotion did not significantly vary in the different seasons. Assam macaques were documented to climb more often in the afternoon than during the morning period. There were also significant variations in the macaques' postures. Specifically, sitting (91. 7% ±4. 1%) was the dominant posture, followed by standing-forelimb suspending (4. 2% ±3. 3%), suspending (1. 9% ±1. 6%), quadrupedal standing (1. 4% ±1. 8%), and lying (0. 8% ±0. 5%). In addition, we observed a variety of significant different postures during different activities. For instance, sitting (87. 3% ±6. 1%) and standing-forelimb suspending (7. 9% ±5. 5%) was the dominant postural modes for feeding, sitting (95. 6% ±2. 8%) and lying (3. 1% ±2. 2%) was the dominant postural mode during the grooming behavior; and sitting (97. 1% ±1. 4%) and quadrupedal standing (2. 2% ±1. 1%) was the dominant postural modes observed during the resting periods. There was no significant seasonal variation in observations related to the different postures of this group of macaques. Lying and suspending posture were more frequently used in the morning (06:00-11:59) than during the afternoon (12:00-19:00). Nevertheless, diet and ecological factors were important parameters that affected the positional behavior of macaques. We established both model I (including fruits) and model II (including immature leaves) to test the effects of diet composition on the positional behavior of Assam macaques. These results provided evidence of the effects of diet and ecological factors on the positional behavior of Assam macaques. This study highlights the necessity to increase the knowledge of behavioral ecology and to understand the influence of ecological factors on the survival of Assam macaque in the limestone forest.
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    Differential expression genes analysis of liver in Maiwa yak at different growth stages
    FU Fang, WANG Li, ZI Xiangdong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 85-94.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150506
    Abstract1649)   HTML176)    PDF (7938KB)(2462)       Save
    The study was conducted to detect the expression pattern of genes in yak liver growth. The transcriptome sequencing of 1-day-old (LD), 15-month-old (LM) and 5-year-old (LY) healthy Maiwa yaks were performed by using Illumina (HiSeqTM2500) high-throughput sequencing platform, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in livers of yaks at different growth stages were verified by qRT-PCR. The results indicated that 325, 85 and 84 significantly DEGs with higher expression levels in LD, LM and LY than the other two groups, respectively ( P < 0. 05). The DEGs were significantly enriched in 102, 104 and 134 GO terms and 19, 13 and 19 KEGG pathways, respectively ( P < 0. 05). The oxidation-reduction-related process, development process, and metabolic-related process were the largest proportion of GO terms. The PI3K Akt signaling pathway, focal adhesion and ECM receptor interaction were the largest proportion of KEGG pathways. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed that the expressions of CYP7B1, PGFS2, CYP1A1, UGT2C1-1, UGT2C1L, HSD11B1, CYP2C19 and UGT2C1-2 were consistent with those of RNA-Seq. In summary, this study provides powerful experimental data for further exploring the yak liver development at different growth stages and a reference for in-depth understanding of yak liver growth and development process.
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    Mammal specimen collection in China
    WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 614-616.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150603
    Abstract2155)      PDF (1017KB)(2460)       Save
    China is rich in mammal diversity, with 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera and 686 species. In the past 40 years, the number of mammal specimens in Chinese museums has increased rapidly. According to the newly published catalogue of mammals in China, 19 museums were investigated and a total of 166 178 mammal specimens are preserved. The top 5 museums, which accounted for 84.9% of all preserved specimens, are the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS); Institute of Zoology, CAS; Sichuan Academy of Forestry Sciences; Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS; and China West Normal University. Among the specimens in the 19 museums, small mammals accounted for 91.5%. Large- and medium-sized mammal specimens, especially cetaceans, are relatively low. The specimen collection and preservation of these groups should be increased in the future.
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    Research advances and perspectives in the genetics and evolution of mammals in China
    YANG Guang, TIAN Ran, XU Shixia
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 591-603.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150538
    Abstract2408)      PDF (2179KB)(2433)       Save
    China has a rich resource of mammals, about 150 of which are endemic species. This review summarizes research on the evolutionary genetics of mammals in China for the past 60 years, including phylogenetic reconstruction, genetic diversity, population structure, adaptive evolution, and molecular mechanisms of convergent evolution. We especially focus on the significant research achievements in some key taxa such as Carnivora (giant panda and red panda), Ungulate, Chiroptera, Primates, small mammals, and marine mammals, providing useful information for the conservation of Chinese mammals. We also propose several suggestions for future studies on the evolution of Chinese mammals, including utilizing multi-omics technologies, screening new genetic markers and candidate genes or regulatory elements, integrating methods of epigenetics and evolutionary developmental biology. This review aims to help understand the taxonomy, origin, as well as the developmental and genetic mechanisms in specific phenotypes and unique adaptations of Chinese mammals, further realizing the new vision and conceptual framework of ‘Unity of Nature and Man’ in conservation biology.
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    Impacts of a road on abundance of wild animals through infrared camera monitoring: a case study of road inside Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve
    SOO Yu Han, CAI Qiong, ZHU Ziyu, HE Xiangbo, LIU Xuehua, Melissa Songer
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 49-57.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150504
    Abstract2168)   HTML313)    PDF (11981KB)(2393)       Save
    From July 2014 to October 2018, 20 infrared cameras were used to monitor the impacts of an internal road on the activities of wild mammals and birds in Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve in Shaanxi. A total of 16 168 pieces of photographs were obtained with 13 species of wild mammals and 14 species of wild birds. Among the detected species, 4 are listed as Class Ⅰ state key protected wild animals in China and 7 as Class Ⅱ. The result showed that the further away from the road, the more animal species appeared. 2 species of mammals only appeared in the area that is 100 m away from the road, which indicated that certain mammals showed an obvious avoidance effect on the road. As 8 species of birds only appeared in an area 50 m away from the road, birds showed a stronger avoidance effect than mammals. However, roads with fewer vehicles at night can provide easier night mobility for certain mammals, so the intensity of activity at night of takin ( Budorcas taxicolor) near the road increased. Only the wild boar ( Sus scrofa) in the area 5 m away from the road showed a peak in night activity to avoid human disturbance during the day. Only golden pheasant ( Chrysolophus pictus) in an area 100 m away from the road have similar activity time as other studies in Qinling. This showed that golden pheasants near the road changed their activity time to adapt to road disturbance. Our study preliminarily proved that roads have a certain impact on wild animals. We suggest studies on road ecology in the whole Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve area.
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    Personality assessment and sex differences of captive South China tiger ( Panthera tigris amoyensis)
    KONG Xuanmin, ZHANG Xueli, CHEN Siming, ZHANG Peng, DONG Guixin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 24-33.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150573
    Abstract1571)   HTML91)    PDF (1504KB)(2342)       Save
    Personality research plays an important role in the ecological adaptation and ex situ conservation of wildlife. Surprisingly, personality traits of South China tiger ( Panthera tigris amoyensis), the most endangered tiger subspecies, have not been explored. In this paper, we used the personality characteristics evaluation method to assess 6 captive South China tigers, The diversity of personality characteristics of South China tigers of different genders was compared. and the novel object test was used to further verify the results of the personality characteristics evaluation method. The result showed three dimensions of personality traits. trusting-friendly, aggressive-dominant, and curious-adaptation. we also found that males had a higher score in aggressive-dominant than females. This study provides some research data for the delicate breeding management of South China tigers and provides references for the conservation and reintroduction of South China tigers.
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    Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Guizhou Dashahe National Nature Reserve
    LI Qiaoming, GOU Wei, JI Chengpeng, XIAO Wenhong, CHEN Sikan, XIAO Zhishu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 108-117.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150536
    Abstract1585)   HTML108)    PDF (2255KB)(2322)       Save
    From December 2016 to August 2019, we set up 85 grids (1 km×1 km) and 114 camera-trapping stations to investigate the wildlife resources of mammals and birds in the Dashahe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou province, China. Our survey included 19 950 trap days and 10 767 independent pictures. We identified a total of 86 species from 35 families and 12 orders, including 25 species of mammals belonging to 14 families and 5 orders and 61 species of birds belonging to 21 families and 7 orders. Among them, 4 species were listed as Class Ⅰ and 19 species were listed as Class Ⅱ National Protected Wildlife in China, and 24 species were recorded for the first time in the Dashahe reserve. The most abundant mammal species based on the relative abundance index and grid occupancy were Muntiacus reevesi, Paguma larvata, and Sus scrofa. In addition, the most abundant bird species were Chrysolophus pictus, Tragopan temminckii, and Leiothrix argentauris. Our results provide basic information on the relative abundance of terrestrial wild mammals and birds for protection management and long-term monitoring in this reserve.
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    New records of bat species and their conservation status in Macao, China
    WANG Junhua, WONG Kai-Chin, CHEK Si-Nga, VU Ka-Man, CHAN Hoi-Hou, LIANG Jie, HE Xiangyang, ZHANG Libiao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 125-130.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150521
    Abstract1832)   HTML318)    PDF (23206KB)(2216)       Save
    Between 2013 and 2019, we surveyed the bats of Macao aiming to shed further light on the local bat diversity and to evaluate the bat population size. By undertaking a roost survey, and recording bat morphological characteristics and echolocation calls, we were able to identify bat species and estimate their population size. We identified six previously unrecorded species for Macao belonging to 5 genera and 3 families. The newly recorded bats were Rhinolophus affinis and R. sinicus (Rhinolophidae), Chaerephon plicatus (Molossidae), Tylonycteris fulvida, Scotophilus kuhlii, and Vespertilio sinensis (Vespertilionidae). Together with the previously recorded species, the diversity of bats in Macao now totals 16 species (11 genera, 5 families). We describe the distributions, morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of the six newly added bats species. Finally, the population and conservation status of the bats in Macao are also discussed.
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    Review on embryonic diapause and its regulation mechanisms in mammals
    LIU Jun, ZHANG Peijun, LI Songhai
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 95-107.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150482
    Abstract1748)   HTML250)    PDF (4497KB)(2214)       Save
    Embryonic diapause is a survival strategy and reproductive state that is widespread in mammals. It starts prior to implantation when embryo development is minimized or put on hold, and terminates when embryo development is reactivated. Embryonic diapause is supposed to be reversible and harmless to the subsequent embryo development and it has two types:facultative diapause and obligate diapause. Facultative diapause is activated by lactation whereas obligate diapause is activated by seasonal photoperiod. The entrance, maintenance, and reactivation of embryonic diapause are all regulated by the relative levels of prolactin, progesterone, or ovarian estrogen. In addition to hormone regulation, the molecular mechanisms of embryonic diapause have been studied in several mammal species. A large number of potential factors that could regulate embryonic diapause were reported, including nutrients, proteases, cytokines, growth factors and transcription factors. In the present study, we reviewed previous studies on embryonic diapause, summarized current knowledge, and then proposed some scientific suggestions for further research needed on this topic.
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