ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (6): 652-664.DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150655

• ORIGINAL PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Diet conversions of pre-released giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs

Shiqiang ZHOU(), Shengshan HE, Yuanyuan QU, Yong LUO, Daifu WU, Yan HUANG, Desheng LI, Hemin ZHANG   

  1. Key Laboratory of State Forestry and Grassland Administration on Conservation Biology of Rare Animals in the Giant Pandas National Park, China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda, Dujiangyan 611830, China
  • Received:2021-12-28 Accepted:2022-05-26 Online:2022-11-30 Published:2022-12-02
  • Contact: Shiqiang ZHOU


周世强(), 何胜山, 屈元元, 罗永, 吴代福, 黄炎, 李德生, 张和民   

  1. 中国大熊猫保护研究中心,大熊猫国家公园珍稀动物保护生物学国家林业和草原局重点实验室,都江堰 611830
  • 通讯作者: 周世强
  • 作者简介:周世强 (1966- ),男,教授级高级工程师,主要从事野生大熊猫种群动态、栖息地和主食竹,圈养大熊猫野化放归、野外 种和重引入研究.
  • 基金资助:
    林业公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201104050);国家林业和草原局大熊猫国际合作基金项目 (KB1401, SD1116, WL01, 林护发 [2017] 115号);中国大熊猫保护研究中心2018年“科研年”项目(CCRCGP181928)


This paper takes 15 giant panda cubs undergoing pre-release training, including female animals with cubs, monitored from 2010 to 2020 as the research object. Based on the behavior data observed and interpreted by infrared video monitoring system and audio collar, and the fecal sample data collected by GPS collar tracking and positioning, this paper analyzes the behavior development process and food conversion characteristics of giant pandas undergoing pre-release training. The results show that with the growth and development of giant pandas undergoing pre-release training, the behaviors related to foraging and vigilance are fully developed, and have a strong temporal correlation,including feeding, crawling, walking, playing with objects, climbing trees, biting and playing with bamboo, drinking water and eating bamboo. Generally, at the age of 8 ? 10 months, giant panda cubs begin to eat bamboo organs, and the process of developmental dietary transition is clearly divided into three stages: ready?to?eat milk period (1 ? 7 months old), breast milk bamboo conversion period (8 ? 28 months old) and bamboo eating period (29 ? 39 months old). The conversion period can be divided into critical period (8 ? 18 months old) and transition period (19 ? 28 months old). According to the statistical test, there are significant differences between different feeding stages, and the giant panda in the transition period can leave the mother animal and live independently in the study area. The proportions of food components in the transition period are not significantly different from that in the bamboo feeding stage. The seasonal dietary shift pattern of the wild training giant panda is similar to the mother animal with offspring and the wild giant panda in that is the main food is bamboo shoots in spring, young bamboo stems and leaves in summer and autumn, and bamboo leaves and stems in winter. The results of this study not only verify the scientific basis and feasibility of the pre-release training method of female animals with cubs, but also provide a reference for the pre-release training and reintroduction of captive giant pandas in the future.

Key words: Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), Pre-released training of female animal with cub, Behavior developmental schedule, Developmental dietary transition, Seasonal dietary shift


本文以2010—2020年15只母兽带仔野化培训的大熊猫幼仔为研究对象,基于红外视频监控系统观察和音频颈圈解译获得的行为资料、GPS颈圈跟踪定位采集的粪样数据,分析了野化培训大熊猫幼仔的行为发育进程和食性转换特征。结果表明:随着野化培训大熊猫幼仔的生长发育,与觅食和警戒相关的行为得到充分发育,且具有较强的时间关联性,包括食乳、爬行、走动、玩耍物品、爬树、咬玩竹子、饮水和采食竹子等。8 ~ 10月龄的大熊猫幼仔开始取食竹子,其发育性食性转换过程划分为3个阶段:食乳期 (1 ~ 7月龄)、食母乳—食竹子转换期 (8 ~ 28月龄) 和食竹期 (29 ~ 39月龄),其中转换期细分为关键期 (8 ~ 18月龄) 和过渡期 (19 ~ 28月龄)。从统计检验来看,不同食性阶段间差异显著;过渡期的大熊猫幼仔可离开母兽独立生活,此阶段大熊猫幼仔食物组分比例与食竹期相比无显著差异。野化培训大熊猫幼仔的季节性食性转换规律与带仔母兽和野生大熊猫具有相似的格局,即春季主要取食竹笋,夏、秋季则以嫩竹茎和竹叶为食,冬季采食竹叶与竹茎。

关键词: 大熊猫, 母兽带仔野化培训, 行为发育进程, 发育性食性转换, 季节性食性转换

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