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Mammalian fauna and its vertical changes in Mt. Qomolangma National Nature Reserve,Tibet,China

HU Yiming,YAO Zhijun,HUANG Zhiwen2 ,TIAN Yuan,LI Haibin,PU Qiong,YANG Daode,HU Huijian   

  • Online:2014-02-21 Published:2014-02-21


胡一鸣 姚志军 黄志文 田园 李海滨 普琼 杨道德 胡慧建   

  1. 中南林业科技大学野生动植物保护研究所

Abstract: The Mt. Qomolangma Natural Reserve,Tibet (QNR)conserves the extreme-highly mountainous ecosystem of Mt. Qomolangma and,thus,plays an important ecological role. However,its mammalian fauna is still a mystery,due to its harsh natural environments and difficult access. We carried out five field baseline surveys of mammalian diversity in the
QNR by using a belt transect method,visits,an auto-trigger camera system,and traps,from September,2010 to October, 2012. A total of 81 species from 23 families and 10 orders were recorded,including 34 species which were listed on the State Key Protection List. Among them,regional species were common at 38. 3% of the total,with 14 Himalaya-Hengduan Mountainous species and 17 Highland species. With increasing attitude,species richness increased and reached its maximum at 2 500 -3 300 m where 48 species were found,followed by a rapid decrease in richness at higher elevations. The Fauna on the South Slope differed significantly from that on the North Slope. Among the 76 species on the South Slope,41 species belonged to the Orient Realm and 25 belonged to the Palearctic Realm. Among the 29 species on the North Slope,there were 2 Oriental species and 23 Palearctic species. On the South Slope,the Oriental species were dominant below an attitude of 3300m and the Palearctic were dominant above 4 000 m. Hence,we suggest that a division between the Oriental Realm and the Palearctic Realm exited in the South Slope in QNR with the dividing line between 3 300 m and 4 000 m.

Key words: Mammalian fauna, Mt Qomolangma National Nature Reserve, Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Vertical distribution

摘要: 珠穆朗玛峰国家级自然保护区保护着以世界最高峰为代表的极高山生态系统,在生态和生物的演化及保护中具有重要地位。受交通、自然环境等条件限制,外界对其哺乳动物区系的了解尚不完整。我们于2010 年9月至2012 年10 月在保护区的调查点内利用样带法、访问调查法、自动感应照相系统监测法和夹日法进行了5 次哺乳动物区系调察,共确认10 目23 科81 种。国家重点保护物种有34 种,占总数的42.0% ;地域特征明显,高地型17 种和喜马拉雅—横断山区型14 种,共占38. 3%。区内可以划分为6 个自然带,哺乳动物物种丰富度表现为随海拔先升高后降低,并以2 500 -3 300 m 的物种数最多,共48 种。区系组成南、北翼差异显著,南翼的76 种哺乳动物中,东洋界41 种,古北界25 种;而北翼的29 种中,东洋界仅2 种,古北界23 种。南翼3 300 m以下东洋界优势明显,而4 000 m 以上古北界则占绝对优势,据此我们认为保护区位于东洋界和古北界分界线上,且分界线在3 300 -4 000 m 之间为宜。

关键词: 珠穆朗玛峰国家级自然保护区, 哺乳动物区系, 青藏高原, 垂直变化