Table of Content

    30 March 2021, Volume 41 Issue 2
    Spatiotemporal relationships between snow leopard(Panthera uncia) and red fox(Vulpes vulpes) in Qionglai Mountains, Sichuan Province
    SHI Xiaogang, SHI Xiaoyun, HU Qiang, FENG Xi, JIN Senlong, CHENG Yuehong, ZHANG Jing, YAO Meng, LI Sheng
    2021, 41(2):  115-127.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150475
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    Carnivores is a key functional group in the ecosystem.Under the situation of global decline of large mammal populations,determining the interspecific interaction and co-existing mechanism between sympatric predators is essential to help us understand the underlying mechanisms driving ecosystem changes and species population dynamics.The spatial and temporal niches are the two most critical dimensions shaping an animal's ecological niche,and the interaction relationship of spatiotemporal niche between sympartric species is the basis to understand species co-existence.In this study,we took the Wolong National Nature Reserve in central Qionglai Mountains,Sichuan Province,as our study area.We collected spatiotemporal data of snow leopard(Panthera uncia,occurrence locations n=198) and red fox(Vulpes vulpes,n=68) from camera-trapping and fecal DNA surveys to construct species distribution models and conduct analysis on their daily activity patterns for both species.The results showed that,the area of overlapped suitable habitats of snow leopard and red fox in the study region was 404.08 km2,which mainly located in the high-altitude area in the northwest part of the reserve,accounting for 77.74% and 80.79% of the total habitat area of snow leopard and red fox respectively.These two species had great overlap on vertical distributions as well and both showed a distribution peak approximately at 4 300 m above sea level,whereas the mean elevation of snow leopard was slightly higher than that of red fox,and the range of red fox's vertical distribution spanned slightly wider than that of snow leopard.The daily activity patterns of snow leopard(number of independent detections n=351) and red fox(n=155) were both bimodal.Snow leopards tended to be crepuscular,while red foxes were more nocturnal,with high level of overlap between the two species(Δ=0.68).At sites where snow leopards were present or where snow leopards had been previously detected within two weeks,red foxes increased their nocturnality,thus reducing the temporal overlap with snow leopards,although their daily activity pattern was not significantly changed.The results of this study preliminarily revealed the spatiotemporal niche relationship between snow leopard and red fox,which will provide examples and basic information for us to better understand the co-existing mechanism of apex predators and meso-predators in alpine ecosystems,and provide supports for the fine management of these carnivore populations in the nature reserves.
    Comparison of activity rhythms of sympatric Chinese ferret-badger(Melogale moschata) and crab-eating mongoose(Herpestes urva)
    YAO Wei, WANG Guohai, LIN Jianzhong, LONG Jifeng, LI Jiaqi, ZHOU Qihai
    2021, 41(2):  128-135.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150382
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    Understanding wildlife activity and temporal niche partitioning is fundamental in revealing mechanisms of niche partitioning among sympatric species as well as species coexistence and community composition.Based on images collected by infrared camera traps in Nonggang National Nature Reserve between December 2016 and December 2017,we examined differences in daily activity patterns between two sympatric carnivores,the Chinese ferret-badger(Melogale moschata) and crab-eating mongoose(Herpestes urva),by kernel density estimation and coefficient of overlap to explore the time niche differentiation.The results showed that the Chinese ferret-badger was a typical nocturnal animal with two peaks in daily activity(01:00-05:00 and 21:00-24:00).The peak of ferret-badger activity during the dry season was earlier and was three hours longer in duration compared with during the rainy season.The crab-eating mongoose was strictly diurnal with a single activity peak(11:00-18:00).Compared to during the rainy season,the dry season activity peak for mongooses occurred earlier and was also longer in duration.The daily activity patterns of both species showed marked difference between seasons.The overlap index between the Chinese ferret-badgers and crab-eating mongooses during the research period was lower(Δ=0.17),and was higher in the dry season(Δ=0.22) than that in the rainy season(Δ=0.12).Therefore,we conclude that sympatric Chinese ferret-badgers and crab-eating mongooses likely decrease interspecific competition by time niche differentiation so as to coexist.
    Activity patterns of Asiatic black bear(Ursus thibetanus) on the Mt.Lasha Yunling Nature Reserve
    ZHANG Yongjun, HE Yuchao, ZHAO Juanjun, CHEN Yao, LI Yanpeng, HUANG Zhipang, CUI Liangwei, XIAO Wen
    2021, 41(2):  136-143.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150444
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    The Mountains of Southwest China is an important distribution area of the Asiatic black bear(Ursus thibetanus),but the activity pattern of this species is rarely studied.This study focused on Asiatic black bear.Total 218 Camera traps were set up a grid 250 m×250 m in Mt.Lasha area of Yunling Nature Reserve,Lanping,Yunnan,from July 2017 to August 2019.Our study lasted for 2 years,with 36 175 trapping days,the cumulative monitoring period averaged to 238±100.31 days and a total of 77 Independent photographs(IPs) obtained.The annual rhythm of Asiatic black bear is unimodal,mainly animals are active in the summer rainy season(May-October).The hibernation occurred from February to April,so the hibernation period is 3 months.Double activity peaks were found in daily activity rhythms,with no difference in day and night activities.The main elevation range of the activity is from 3 100 m to 3 400 m,and there is no obvious vertical migration.The main vegetation types are mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests(50%),followed by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests(30%).Compared to the previous studies,we found that the hibernation pattern of Asiatic black bears was affected by its distribution latitude,the higher latitude that it distributed,the hibernation started earlier and lasted for a longer time.Our results reveal the hibernation pattern with latitude of Asiatic black bear on a large scale,and provide reference for conservation and management of this species.
    Maternal benefit and influencing factors of allomaternal behavior of golden snub-nosed monkeys(Rhinopithecus roxellana): a case study at Shennongjia National Park, China
    LIU Junshan, ZHU Zunyan, YAO Hui, YANG Wanji, YU Yang, XIANG Zuofu
    2021, 41(2):  144-155.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150453
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    Detailed observations of allomaternal behaviors are critical for clearly understanding the maternal benefit and influencing factors of allomaternal behaviors in Rhinopithecus roxellana.From March to November 2019,allomaternal behaviors of <6 months old infants were observed,using focus animal sampling and instantaneous scan sampling methods at Dalongtan,Shennongjia National Park,China.We found that the time non-maternal caregivers spent in allomaternal behaviors was significantly negatively correlated with infant age.The gender and reproductive experience were significant related to non-maternal behavior,while the sex and birth date of infants did not.When infants were cared for by non-maternal caregivers,the mothers' feeding and grooming time significantly increased.Therefore,mothers' benefit from allomaternal behavior were feeding efficiency and meet their hygiene and social needs when they were released form baby taking.In addition,juveniles learn some reproductive experience from allomaternal behaviour.Therefore,this study support learning-to-mother hypothesis and maternal relief hypothesis.
    A preliminary study on social laterality in captive Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys(Rhinopithecus roxellana)
    TIAN Xiangling, LI Baoguo, ZHAO Dapeng
    2021, 41(2):  156-163.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150465
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    Social laterality is defined as the behavioral laterality during animal inter-individual interactions under social environment.Social laterality has important evolutionary significances for both individual-level and group-level adaptive survival.Based on phylogenetic relationships,this study applied the quantitative multi-dimensional method and the Observer 11.0 to investigate the basic characteristic of social laterality(positional laterality during social interactions) in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys(Rhinopithecus roxellana) for the first time.Social laterality on the individual level was analyzed by side index(SI) score and z scores respectively.Social laterality on the group level was analyzed by one-sample tests with individual SI scores.Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to investigate both sex and age differences.It was found that:(1) the front preference was found on the group level for this species;(2) the R.roxellana displayed a certain tendency toward leftward preference in the lateral condition,which did not reach at the significant level;(3) there was no sex difference and age-group difference for the direction and strength of social laterality for R.roxellana.Our findings to some extent support the right hemisphere hypothesis.
    Effects of traffic noise on behavior, learning and memory and oxidative stress in Tupaia belangeri
    PENG Hongbi, JIA Ting, ZHU Wanlong, WANG Zhengkun
    2021, 41(2):  164-172.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150479
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    In order to investigate the effects of noise stimulation on behavior,learning and memory and oxidative stress in Tupaia belangeri,body mass,food intake,behavioral changes,the ability of learning and memory,and concentrations of Malondialdehyde(MDA),Superoxide dismutase(SOD),Acetylcholinesterase(AChE) concentration,Nitric oxide synthase(NOS),activities of SOD,AChE and NOS in brain under the condition of constant stimulation 8 hours for 0 dB,40 dB and 80 dB noise last for 28 days,respectively.The results showed that different noises had different effects on body mass in T. belangeri. Body mass showed significant differences among three groups on day 28,which was lower in 80 dB group. Variation trend of food intake was similar to that of body mass changes. Higher noise intensity reduced feeding and activity behavior significantly in T. belangeri,and increased rest behavior,but had no significant effect on modification behavior. On day 28,there was a significant difference in the correct response rate among three noise groups;the correct reaction rate was lowest under the condition of 80 dB. The influence of different noises intensity on MDA concentration,SOD concentration and AChE concentration were significant,among which the concentration of MDA and SOD were higher and the concentration of AChE was lower in 80 dB group. Different noises intensity also affected NOS concentration,NOS,SOD and AChE activities significantly,among which SOD activity was higher,while NOS concentration,NOS and AChE activities were lower under the condition of 80 dB. All of the above results suggested that higher noise intensity reduced body mass,food intake,feeding behavior and activity behavior,increased rest behavior,and induced the cognitive impairment in T. belangeri. Moreover,intense noise stimulation increased oxidative stress and different degrees of oxidative damage in brain of T. belangeri.
    Transcriptome analyses for three Soricid shrews
    ZHOU Jingjing, QIU Yinbin, WAN Tao, HE Shuiwang, JIANG Xuelong, PAN Xinghua, HE Kai
    2021, 41(2):  173-181.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150403
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    China harbors high species diversity of Soricid shrews.Sixty-one species representing 12 genera are distributed in China,inhabiting various habitats.In this study,we sequenced the transcriptome of heart and lung tissue from three species,namely, Episoriculus umbrinus,Nectogale elegans,and Sorex bedfordiae,and obtained 20.5 Gb clean data.After de novo assembly,we obtained 131 045,153 621,and 135 838 unigenes for E.umbrinus,N.elegans,and S.bedfordiae,respectively.BUSCO analyses suggested we recovered as many as 82.2% full-length transcripts of genes.Ortho Finder recognized more than 8 000 homologous gene families as shared by soricid and talpid species.We compared two post-Trinity pipelines to optimize the quality of unigenes.When combining Trinity scripts,CD-Hit and TransRate,the proportions of single-copy genes increased 18%-25% compared with using CD-Hit alone,and the proportions of multi-copy genes decreased from 28.4%-31.8% to 0.7%-1.1%.Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified tissue enriched genes,validating our analysis pipeline.Our analyses HIF 1 A highly expressed in both heart and lung of N.elegans.HIF 1 A is a key gene in the hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathway and regulates the expression of downstream genes related to hypoxia,probably associated with aquatic adaptation.This is the first report of shrew transcriptome,providing important data for understanding the evolution and physiology in Soricidae.Our analysis pipeline could also inspire transcriptomic study in other non-model organisms.
    Seasonal changes in immune function in female striped hamsters
    XU Deli, HU Xiaokai, TIAN Yufen, WANG Dehua
    2021, 41(2):  182-192.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150451
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    Animals in temperate areas often show seasonal changes in immunity. In our study,seasonal variations in immune responses in female striped hamsters(Cricetulus barabensis) were examined to test the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis. Female hamsters were wild-captured in the autumn and winter of 2014 and in the spring and summer of 2015.The degree of the swelling in the footpad was measured after injecting phytohaemagglutinin(PHA),which is indicative of cellular immunity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect serum anti-KLH IgM and IgG concentration after injecting keyhole limpet haemocyanin(KLH),which reflects humoral immunity.Body mass,relative fatness,total body fat mass and blood glucose levels of the hamster increased during the summer,whereas body mass and total body fat mass decreased in the autumn.The number of total white blood cells(WBC) increased in the winter and spring and decreased in the summer,and phytohaemagglutinin(PHA) response which indicates the cellular immunity was lower in the summer than other seasons,while thymus and spleen mass had no seasonal changes.IgG titres elevated and IgM titres decreased after 5 days of KLH injection in the autumn compared to other seasons.Body fat mass and blood glucose had negative correlations with cellular immunity,but no correlations with IgG or IgM titres,implying that energy reserves affect cellular immunity but not humoral immunity in hamsters.Maximum leptin levels occurred in the spring,which were positively correlated with IgM levels but not with cellular immunity,indicating its boosting effect on humoral immunity and no effect on cellular immunity.Corticosterone levels were the highest in the winter and spring while the lowest during the autumn,which were positively correlated with IgG or IgM levels but not with cellular immunity,suggesting its enhancing effect on humoral immunity but no effect on cellular immunity. In summary,different components of the immune system showed distinct patterns of seasonal changes. The winter immunoenhancement hypothesis was supported by the results of seasonal changes in white blood cells,cellular immunity and IgG titres,but not by immune organs and IgM titres.
    Variations of metabolites in adipose tissue of Tupaia belangeri under cold acclimation
    CHEN Simeng, JIA Ting, ZHU Wanlong, WANG Zhengkun
    2021, 41(2):  193-201.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150478
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    In order to investigate the changes of different metabolites of white adipose tissue(WAT) and brown adipose tissue(BAT) in Tupaia belangeri under cold acclimation,WAT and BAT were collected between control and cold acclimation group acclimated for 28 days in the present study,which were analyzed using non-targeted metabolome(liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer,LC-MS) detection technology.The results showed that 7 different metabolites were significantly up-regulated of WAT in cold acclimation group compared with that of control group;there were 25 different metabolites in BAT,among which 23 were up-regulated and 2 were down-regulated significantly,which were mainly involved in pathways of tricarboxylic acid cycle,lipid metabolism,amino acid metabolism and glucose metabolism.All of the above results indicated that T.belangeri could use different metabolites in different tissues to resist lower temperature and improve survival rate.
    Effect of different doses of quinestrol on organs, sperm density, reproductive hormones and CYP3A4 enzyme levels of male and female mice
    WANG Yujie, LIU Yuhang, QIN Jiao, LIU Yutong, NIE Haiyan, LIU Quansheng
    2021, 41(2):  202-213.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150441
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    To investigate the effects of varied-dose quinestrol on the weight of organs,concentration of reproductive hormones in serum,and content of CYP3A4 enzyme in intestine and liver,Swiss mice were treated with 0.008 mg/kg,0.04 mg/kg,0.2 mg/kg,1.0 mg/kg,and 5.0 mg/kg of quinestrol for 3 consecutive days and dissected on the day 7 after the first dose.In female mice,the liver weight increased with the dose increasing,and the liver weight of mice in the dose of 5.0 mg/kg increased 89.7% than that of the control.Small intestine,kidney and spleen were changed significantly,but there was no evident dose effect.The uterus showed different degrees of edema in female mice treated by 0.2 mg/kg,1.0 mg/kg,and 5.0 mg/kg of quinestrol.The luteinizing hormone and estradiol concentrations in serum were no significant change among varied groups of female mice.However,the follicle-stimulating hormone concentration significantly increased in female mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg quinestrol compared with the control.CYP3A4 enzyme content of liver in female treated by 1.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg of quinestrol increased significantly by 59.1% and 102.9%,respectively.In male mice,quinestrol at different doses showed a significant impact on the liver and spleen,which increased by 23.3% and 130% in mice treated by 5.0 mg/kg of quinestrol,but no significant change was observed in small intestine and kidney.Quinestrol had no significant dose effect on testes,however epididymis decreased significantly in male treated with 5.0 mg/kg quinestrol.Sperm density and total sperm count decreased by 43.9% and 70.5% at the dose of 1.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg compared with the control male,respectively.Luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentration in serum decreased significantly in high dosage groups.CYP3A4 content in per g tissues and total content in liver increased by 7.1% and 30% in male treated with 5 mg/kg quinestrol,respectively.In conclusion,quinestrol has inhibitory effects on reproduction of male and female mice,but the effective dose on female is lower than male.The response of liver and CYP3A4 to quinestrol in female was more sensitive than that in male,which indicated more quickly metabolism speed to quinestrol in female mice.
    The effects of dietary diversity on the survival rate and body growth rate of young Brandt's vole
    SHI Chao, YANG Dongmei, TAO Shuanglun, HE Qian, LI Shuang, LI Junnian
    2021, 41(2):  214-223.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150442
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    To explore the relationship between diet diversity and the population of small mammalian herbivores,this study measured the effects of diet diversity on survival rate and body growth rate of young Brandt's voles(Lasiopodomys brandtii) fed diets with five different common herbaceous plants containing Leymus chinensis,Stipa krylovii,Medicago sativa,Allium mongolicum,or Convcolvulaceae sepium.The results showed that(1) As the richness of food items increased,the survival rate of young Brandt's vole was significantly increased(P<0.05).Compared with voles fed with diet only containing one plant species,voles fed with diet containing 2,3 and 4 plant species increased their survival rates by 15.6%,18.0% and 12.2% respectively.Each specific plant species contributed differently to the survival rate of young Brandt's vole(P<0.01).With the increase in the proportion of Stipa krylovii and Convcolvulaceae sepium in the dietary,the survival rate of young Brandt's vole was significantly decreased(P<0.05).(2) As the richness of food items increased,the body growth rate of young Brandt's vole was significantly decreased at fifth weeks(P<0.05).Each specific plant species contributed differently to the body growth rate of young Brandt's vole(P<0.01).With the increase in the proportion of Leymus chinensis in the dietary,the body growth rate of young Brandt's vole was significantly increased at fifth week(P<0.01).With the increase of the proportion of Stipa krylovii in the dietary,the body growth rate of young Brandt's vole was significantly decreased at third and fifth week(P<0.05).With the increase in the proportion of Convcolvulaceae sepium in the dietary,the body growth rate of young Brandt's vole was significantly decreased at third week(P<0.01).Diet diversity improves the survival rate and reduces the body growth rate of the young Brandt's vole,the survival rate and the body growth rate of young Brandt's vole were reduced by Stipa krylovii and Convcolvulaceae sepium,the body growth rate of Brandt's vole was improved by Leymus chinensis.Diet diversity can influence survival rate,growth and population density of Brandt's voles.
    Changes in body weight of captive giant panda cubs at early age
    HUANG Xiangming, FENG Yongyou, LAN Jingchao, WU Kongju, YANG Kuixing, PENG Wenpei, YUAN Bo, XIE Yi, WANG Shuqun, CHEN Min, DENG Tao
    2021, 41(2):  224-234.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150411
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    The mortality rates of captive giant panda cubs at 0 and 1 year old was 12.89% and 18.37% respectively,in order to improve survival rate and the nursing level of captive giant panda cubs,145 cubs born in 2000-2017 at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding were analyzed by grouping primarily body weight(W0<100,100 ≤ W0<150,150 ≤ W0<200,W0 ≥ 200) and gender.The results indicated that(1) the weight curves of giant panda cubs with different primarily body weights during 180d were cubic functions.(2) Gender and primarily body weight of giant panda cubs had no interaction with the weight and average growth rate during 180 d.Gender did not affect the weight and their average growth rate of cubs,but the primarily body weight had a significant impact on the weight during 98 d and the average growth rate at the ascent stage(3-6 d),high-level stage(7-13 d),decline stage(14-45 d) and stabilization stage(46-180 d). The tokinaga of physiological weight loss was(1.77±0.67) d,and the day-age which weight recovered to primarily body weight was(4.59±1.23) d.(3) The primarily body weight and gender of giant panda cubs had no interaction on the maximum weight loss,the rate of maximum weight loss,the day-age of recovery to primarily body weight,the maximum growth rate and the day-age of maximum growth rate,but affected the day of maximum weight loss together.(4) Although the primarily body weight of giant panda cubs had a significant effect on the maximum weight loss,the day of maximum weight loss,the day-age of recovery to primarily body weight,and the maximum growth rate,it did not affect the rate of maximum weight loss and the day-age of maximum growth rate.Gender of giant panda cubs did not affect the maximum weight loss,the day-age of recovery to primarily body weight,the rate of maximum weight loss,the maximum growth rate and the day-age of maximum growth rate,but it did affect the day-age of maximum weight loss.These results indicated that the lower primarily body weight was,the less weight loss(maximum weight loss) would be,the faster speed with bottoming(the day of maximum weight loss) and recovery to primarily body weight(the day-age of recovery to primarily body weight) would be at early age.In addition,the lower primarily body weight was,the greater growth intensity of unit weight would be during the various stages at increasing growth rate,maintaining a high position,decreasing and tending to stabilize.The study revealed the characteristics of captive giant panda cubs in body weight at early age,and it provided abundant references for the early rearing of giant panda cubs.