Table of Content

    30 January 2021, Volume 41 Issue 1
    Preliminary study on habitat suitability of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in central Tianshan Mountains
    MA Bing, PAN Guoliang, LI Leiguang, CHEN Ying, LI Yibin, LIU Yizheng, BALIKE·Jiekeyi, SUN Shiwei, SHI Kun
    2021, 41(1):  1-10.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150436
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    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to anthropogenic pressure have a detrimental impact on the long-term population viability of endangered species, especially for snow leopards (Panthera uncia) inhabiting plateau mountains.To evaluate the potential distribution and habitat quality for snow leopards in the Tianshan Mountains, 78 snow leopard presence records were collected covering an area of 2 425 km2 in central Tianshan Mountains from November 2018 to June 2019.Eight species distribution models of snow leopard habitat selection were simulated.The results indicated that topographic roughness and altitude were the major factors influencing snow leopard distribution in the study area.Snow leopards preferentially occur in areas with topographic roughness greater than 70 and at altitudes range from 1 700-2 900 m.Ensemble model prediction results indicated that suitable habitat is concentrated between the west of Usu City and Banfanggou.This study obtained the potential distribution area of snow leopards in central Tianshan Mountains and evaluated the influence of environmental factors on it based on field investigation and model analysis.The study provides valuable baseline knowledge in the context of transboundary snow leopard conservation in the Tianshan Mountains.
    Effect of group size on daily travel distance and activity budget of Rhinopithecus bieti during the winter and spring seasons in Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China
    WANG Haoran, LI Yanpeng, GUAN Zhenhua, REN Guopeng, YANG Xin, HUANG Zhipang, CUI Liangwei, XIAO Wen
    2021, 41(1):  11-19.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150434
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    The ecological constraints model(ECM) proposes that when the population size increases, primates will increase daily travel distance, moving time, feeding time, reduce resting time.In line with the ECM, within-group scramble competition occurred within groups of frugivorous primates due to patch-distributed and high-quality food resources (such as fruits).During the period from December 2018 to May 2019, we collected data on daily time budget of both a larger group(170) and a smaller group(100) of Rhinopithecus bieti living in the same area through instantaneous scanning sampling every 20 minutes.Locations were recorded on a topographic map(1:50 000) every 30 minutes to collect daily travel distance data in Mt.Lasha of Yunling Provincial Nature Reserve.We then analyzed differences in daily travel distance and time budget in order to test whether temperate folivorous primates follow the ECM.The results indicate that the larger group had longer daily travel distance than the smaller group in spring and winter, reduced socializing time and increased moving time in spring.However, no difference in time budget between the two groups was found in winter.Moreover, all age-sex classes of individuals in the larger group decreased the time spent in socializing activities in spring, but adult females increased the time spent in moving.In winter, adult females in the larger group increased resting time, but there were no differences in time budget of other age-sex classes of individuals between the groups.Our study demonstrates that there was within-group scramble competition in R.bieti, and much intensity of scramble competition was found in spring than in winter, which was in accordance with the ECM.In addition, the group size had a greater influence on the time budget of adult females, which was related to their relatively high nutritional and energy needs during pregnancy.
    Habitat suitability assessment of the white-headed langur (Trachy-pithecus leucocephalus) based on MaxEnt modeling: a case study of the Chongzuo White-Headed Langur Nature Reserve, Guangxi
    WU Manfei, HU Zhanbo, ZHOU Qihai, WU Jianbao
    2021, 41(1):  20-31.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150416
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    The study of relationships between species distribution patterns and environmental variables is of great significance to the planning of ecological corridors and environmental restoration.We collected 51 distribution points of Trachypithecus leucocephalus and 11 environmental variables in the National Nature Reserve of the white-headed langur in Chongzuo, Guangxi.This paper makes a comprehensive evaluation of habitat suitability by using maximum entropy modeling, which generated habitat suitability indices through threshold delimitation.We delimited low-suitability area, suitable area and highly-suitable area, which covered 5 061.43 km2, 42.80 km2 and 20.63 km2 respectively.The analysis of environmental variables showed that the comprehensive contribution values of annual precipitation, land use classification, slope and annual average temperature were 54.6%, 17.4%, 11.8% and 9.5% respectively.The cumulative contribution value of those four environmental variables was 93.3%, suggesting that these factors had greatest effect on the distribution of white headed langurs.In order to effectively protect the white-headed langur and its habitat, we suggest planning ecological corridors within the reserve in order to expand the suitable habitat into the restoration area and promote intergroup gene exchange between the langurs.
    Copulation calls and its influencing factors of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China
    LI Biaobiao, WANG Xi, XIA Dongpo, ZHANG Qixin, LI Jinhua
    2021, 41(1):  32-41.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150408
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    Copulation call has been defined as an unique and rhythmic vocalization which can be performed by males and/or females during their copulations in mammals.Copulation calls are taken as a mating strategy of males and females.The studies of copulation calls will help us to reveal the differences of mating strategies among varieties of species.In this study, we recorded the frequency of copulation calls between mating males and females when copulatory behavior occurred in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).We further analyzed the related elements along with copulation calls and whether copulatory behaviors had an impact on the following friendly behavior between mating males and mating females.The results showed that the adult higher-ranking males performed more copulation calls than other classes.There is no difference on copulation calls between dominated females and subordinated females.Moreover, copulation calls contributed to more friendly behavior and closer spatial distance between males and famales after mating.This study provided a fundamental datum about communication process for copulation calls in Tibetan macaques, and it helped to understand the theoretical significance of function and evolution in muti-males and muti-females society.
    Genetic diversity and sex structure of red deer population in Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia
    ZHANG Zhao, ZHANG Rui, LI Xiaoyu, Saihan, YANG Zhendong, HAN Zhiqing, BAO Weidong
    2021, 41(1):  42-50.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150439
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    Red deer(Cervus canadensis) in northeast China are geographically isolated and their habitat is fragmented;therefore, studies on genetic diversity and sex structure are useful for understanding survival trends of isolated populations and improving conservation efforts for red deer in this region.In this study, we used eight pairs of microsatellite molecular markers to analyze the genetic diversity and sex structure of a population of red deer from Saihanwula National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia using 456 fecal samples collected in the field.The analysis identified 56 individuals in the winter of 2015 and 41 individuals in the autumn of 2016.The average expected heterozygosity of the eight microsatellite loci was 0.650 1 and the average polymorphic information content was 0.603 5, indicating that the genetic diversity of the red deer population was high.The genetic differentiation coefficient was -0.053 99, the inbreeding coefficient was 0.086 67 and the gene flow was 2.942 11, indicating that the red deer population had normal gene exchange and a low level of inbreeding.Based on the sex-determining region Y(SRY gene), the sex ratio of females to males was 1.8:1 for the winter population and 0.71:1 for the autumn population.This study reveals that although this isolated red deer population currently has relatively high genetic diversity, there is a risk of inbreeding in the long term.Therefore, strengthening population monitoring, improving genetic structure and promoting exchanges of individuals with nearby populations will help to ensure the long-term survival of this and other red deer populations in Northeast China.
    Cloning of AQP1 and AQP3 genes and their locations and expressions in different tissues of yak(Bos grunniens)
    LI Juan, WANG Li, LUO Xiaolin, GUAN Jiuqiang, ZHANG Xiangfei
    2021, 41(1):  51-58.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150433
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    Aquaporin(AQP) is widely expressed in tissues of organisms and affects the process of water metabolism.In order to investigate the biological function of AQP1 and AQP3, the expression patterns and location of AQP1 and AQP3 in different yak tissues were clarified in this study.The PCR was used to amplify the AQP1 and AQP3 genes of yak, and their sequences were analyzed by bioinformatic techniques.The qPCR was used to detect the expression of AQP1 and AQP3 in different tissues of yak.Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression and distribution of AQP1 and AQP3 proteins in tissues.The results showed that the CDS of AQP1 and AQP3 genes of yak were 816 bp and 840 bp.And the homology with the wild yak was at most 99% of AQP1 and AQP3.The expression levels of AQP1 and AQP3 genes were the highest in the kidney, which were significantly higher than those of the intestine, muscle, rumen and other tissues(P<0.01).The expression of AQP1 gene is higher than AQP3 in all tissues.AQP1 and AQP3 proteins were mainly distributed in the renal proximal tubules, intestinal lamina propria cells and rumen granulosa cells, and both showed the highest expression in the kidney.The results of this study have implications for the study of mammals in the alpine and hypoxic environment, and contribute to the study of the functions of AQP1 and AQP3 in yak.
    Advances in ecological research on the limestone langurs in China
    ZHOU Qihai, HUANG Chengming
    2021, 41(1):  59-70.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150422
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    Limestone hill is a unique habitat. Animals inhabiting limestone hills have evolved unique behavioral mechanisms to adapt to specific conditions. The limestone langurs of the genus Trachypithecus are rare and endangered primate species, restricted to the habitats characterized by Karst topography. There are seven allopatric taxa of limestone langurs:François' langur (Trachypithecus francois), white-headed langur (T. leucocephalus), Delacour's langur (T. delacouri), Cat Ba langur (T. policephalus), Hatinh langur (T. hatinhensis), black langur (T. ebenus), and Lao langur (T. laotum).There are no systematic research on the ecology of limestone langurs, except for François' langurs and white-headed langurs in China. This paper reviews the research advances on the poulation, behavior ecology, and conservation of François' langurs and white-headed langurs in China. These efforts will improve our understanding of these species and provide important baseline information for the conservation of such rare and endangered species endemic to China. Further research should focus on the population history of limestone langurs, as well as the adaptive mechanisms in response to habitat fragmentation and climate change.
    A summary of phylogenetic systematics studies of Myodini in China(Rodentia: Cricetidae: Arvicolinae)
    TANG Mingkun, CHEN Zhihong, WANG Xin, CHEN Zhixing, HE Zhiqiang, LIU Shaoying
    2021, 41(1):  71-81.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150409
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    The tribe Myodini is distributed within the Holarctic realm and parts of the Oriental realm.Phylogenetic relationships and the taxonomy of taxa remain controversial due to a sparsity of fossils, convergent or parallel morphological evolution, relatively recent diversification, limited molecular sampling, and difficulty in obtaining specimens of some species.Major advances in phylogenetic systematics studies of Myodini have been made recently in China, including the following:(1) all taxa of the genus Eothenomys have been sampled and phylogenetic analyses have ended long-term debates for some groups.Changes included erection of subgenus Ermites and recognition of Eothenomys shimianensis, E.jinyangensis, E.meiguensis, and E.luojishanensis.Subspecies E.melanogaster colurnus, E.chinensis tarquinius, and E.custos hintoni were elevated to full species, the validity of E.eleusis and E.fidelis was confirmed, and E.miletus confinii and E.melanogaster libonotus were synonymized with E.cachinus;(2) a complementary phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular characters validated genus Craseomys and molecular analyses relegated C.shanseius to a subspecies of C.rufocanus;and(3) phylogenetic studies rejected the validity of Platycranius as a subgenus of Alticola because A.strelzowi clustered within nominate subgenus Alticola, and A.stracheyi was relegated to a junior synonym of A.stoliczkanus.Results of the recent studies show that Myodini consists of 30 species in 5 genera in China.Future sampling and analyses of Myodini can test the validity of subgenus Aschizomys and resolve relationship between remaining controversial taxa.
    Effects of melatonin on behavioral time budgets of growing female mink based on different analysis models and sampling methods
    YU Xiaojun, YANG Feifei, WANG Guang, LI Dandan, WANG Lihua
    2021, 41(1):  82-89.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150458
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    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of melatonin on the behavioral time budgets of female mink in growing period based on different analysis models and sampling methods.A total of 12 short-haired black young females (with 6 minks implanted melatonin and 6 minks without implanted melatonin) were randomly selected from the mink farm.Behaviors of each mink in the two groups were video-recorded at 30 d(period Ⅰ), 60 d (period Ⅱ) and 75 d(period Ⅲ) after melatonin implantation.The results showed that there were totally different statistic results for the analysis of fixed effect of melatonin on location, eating, grooming, abnormal behavior and drinking by mixed linear model and generalized linear mixed model, respectively.The results from generalized linear mixed model conformed to the recognized effects of melatonin.Regarding to all behaviors, there were not significant differences for data obtained by instantaneous sampling at no more than 1.5 min interval and continuous sampling (P>0.05).It could be concluded that generalized linear mixed model was more suitable for the analysis of non-normalized data, and instantaneous scan sampling at 1.5 min interval was reasonable to determine behavioral time budgets of mink.
    Camera-trapping survey of the mammal diversity in the Qilian Mountains National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province
    MA Duifang, SUN Zhangyun, HU Dazhi, AN Bei, CHEN Liuyang, ZHANG Dexi, DONG Kai, ZHANG Lixun
    2021, 41(1):  90-98.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150418
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    From August 2017 to August 2018, 60 infrared cameras were set up in three monitoring sample areas in Gansu Qilian Mountains National Nature Reserve.A total of 1 619 independent wildlife photographs were collected from 14 999 camera-days.Nineteen species were identified and belonged to 5 orders and 9 families.Three domestic animal species were captured.Among the detected wildlife species, 3 species are listed as Class Ⅰ state key protected wild animals in China and five species as Class Ⅱ.Two species are endemic to China.One specie is assessed as endangered(EN), one specie near threatened(NT) and four species as vulnerable(VU) by the IUCN Red List.The fauna analysis of mammals in the reserve showed that the Palaearctic species occupies 53% and the widespread occupies 47%.These 19 species were captured when any single camera had worked for 204 days.The four highest relative abundance indexes(RAI) species were red deer(Cervus yarkandensis) (5.16), bharal(Pseudois nayaur) (2.01), Siberian roe deer(Capreolus pygargus) (0.96) and Alpine musk deer(Moschus chrysogaster) (0.71).Their activity rhythm showed that the daily activity rhythm of red deer, bharal and Alpine musk deer showed double peak with morning and night peak, while Siberian roe deer only had one morning peak.The highest relative activity intensity was in summer.Our study provides basic status of current mammal species.These findings may contribute to understanding the behavioral adaptation of the four important species, and provide baseline information for the formulation of relevant protection strategies in the reserve.
    Comparative on the salt-licking behavior of three species of deer in the Tianmushan National Nature Reserve
    ZHOU Hu, LIU Zhou, PANG Chunmei, CHEN Kangmin, ZHANG Shusheng, YANG Shuzhen, XU Aichun
    2021, 41(1):  99-107.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150394
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    To study the salt-licking behavior of South China sika deer (Cervus nippon kopschi), black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) and Chinese muntjac(M. reevesi), twelve artificial salt fields were set up in the Tianmushan National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province, China.Two cameras were set up in each site to monitor the visits of deers from April 2018 to March 2019.The frequency and duration of each visits were recorded to reveal the daily salt-licking rhythm and seasonal pattern of different species, and the allometricl model was employed to test the gender differences of visitors.The results show that:(1) all the three species use artificial salt fields, but Chinese muntjac and South China sika deer have relatively high frequency of visiting;(2) The South China sika deer and black muntjac prefer to use salt fields at high and low altitude, respectively, however Chinese muntjac have no preference for altitude;(3) Chinese muntjac is a typical morning-dusk animal to visit salt fields, and South China sika deer and black muntjac mainly at dusk and night;(4) most identifiable visitors are single sex, and no more than two species appear in a same record;(5) the three species have different salt-licking patterns:South China sika deer has relatively low frequency but large quantity, black muntjac with low frequency and small quantity, and Chinese muntjac with high frequency and large quantity.Accordingly, We suggest that the wildlife management departments could set up more artificial salt fields in spring and summer, and appropriately reduce the salt bricks in autumn and winter.
    Discussion of taxonomic status of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis Liu Y, Chen SD, and Liu SY, 2020 and Crocidura huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang and Li, 2020
    CHEN Shunde, CHEN Dan, TANG Keyi, QIN Boxin, XIE Fei, FU Changkun, LIU Yang, LIU Shaoying
    2021, 41(1):  108-114.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150503
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    From the morphological and molecular comparison of the two recently published Crocidura species (Crocidura huangshanensis and Crocidura dongyangjiangensis) based on specimens collected from geographically close locations, it is found that the two species are similar in overall description, and the appearance and morphological measurements are overlapped in many skull characteristics.Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed the two species were clustered and did not form an independent clade from each other.The uncorrected p-distance of Cyt b holotypes of the two taxon was only 1.1%.In GenBank, the BLAST similarity of Cyt b genes of the two species was 99.56%.Therefore, it is determined that the two taxon should recognized as the same species.Since the publication of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis was earlier than Crocidura huangshanensis, thus we suggest Crocidura huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang and Li, 2020 as a junior synonym of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis Liu Y, Chen SD, and Liu SY, 2020.