Table of Content

    27 February 2013, Volume 33 Issue 3
    Call sonograms of eastern black crested gibbon (Nomascus nasutus)
    FENG Junjuan,MA Changyong,FEI Hanlan,CUI Liangwei,FAN Pengfei
    2013, 33(3):  203-214. 
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    We used a Sony TC - D5 Pro2 recorder,a Sony C - 76 directed microphone and a Sony tape recorder to record call bouts of three groups of eastern black crested gibbons (Nomascus nasutus)from September 2007 to June 2009 in Bangliang Nature Reserve,Guangxi. Signal/ RTS 4.0 was used to analyze the sonograms of five high quality bouts for each group. Call frequency of eastern black crested gibbon was quite high,sometimes reaching or exceeding 5 kHz. Adult males produced boom,aa notes,pre-modulated notes and modulated phrases,whereas adult females produced great calls.Adult males and mated females coordinated to produce complex duets,which usually began with and ended with the male call. We also compared the duet structure of eastern black crested gibbon with western black crested gibbon (N. concolor) and Hainan gibbon (N. hainanus ). Both male and female calls and their coordinated duet sequences showed obvious differences between the three species. Sonogram characters,based on our results,therefore support the division of these groups of Nomascus into the current three species.
    The correlation between dominance rank and spatial position of adult fe- males in one-male units of the golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)in Qinling Mountains,China
    ZHAO Haitao, WANG Xiaowei ,QI Xiaoguang, WANG Chengliang,GAO Cunlao, SI Kaichuang,LI Baoguo
    2013, 33(3):  215-222. 
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    Group-living imposes costs and provides benefits for animals. While potential benefits may include decreased predation risk and greater defense of important resources,one of most prominent cost associated with group living is an increase in intra-group competition for important resources. Dominance rank is a common regulating resource fashion in
    group-living nonhuman primates,influencing the distribution of dominance resource among individuals. Aiming to establish the correlation between spatial position and female rank in golden snub-nosed monkeys,we selected four one-male units (OMU)of provisioned Qinling golden snub-nosed monkeys as target units during September 2009 and January 2010,by setting various spatial position of different density,to calculated the gain extent of dominance resource depend on the frequency and duration of dominance spatial position occupancy,at Yuhuangmiao village in the Zhouzhi National Nature Reserve in the north slope of Qinling Mountains,China. Our results showed that female ranks during feeding and resting periods were consistent,and they were positively correlated with the rank orders which were determined by displacement using Spearman Correlation Test. This study showed that compared with dominance index of displacement,the dominance index of defending dominant resources was feasible and easier in operation and statistic,and can determine female ranks quickly. The dominance index of defending dominant resources may facilitate the study of individual ranks in non-human primates under captivity and provisioning conditions of nature as a new determining method.
    Time budgets of Rhinopithecus bieti at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve,Northwest Yunnan,China
    LI Dayong,REN Baoping,HU Jie,HE Xinming,LI Baoguo,LI Ming
    2013, 33(3):  223-231. 
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    Studies of time budgets can provide important information about the time allocation patterns,movement rules, and habitat use of nonhuman primates. A large group of up to 480 individual black and white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti)living at Xiangguqing (27°37′N,99°22′E),within the Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve,was observed
    to determine how monkeys spent their time. Data were collected from June 2008 to May 2009 via instantaneous scan sampling. In total,we observed 260 546 individual activity records,and obtained 1 609 observation hours. Group members spent 38.8% of their time feeding,27.4% moving,20.9% resting,and 12. 9% engaged in other activities. Time
    budgets showed significant seasonal variation:monkeys spent more time feeding in winter (41. 5% ),and less in autumn(36.5% ). In summer,the group spent more time moving (32.8% ) than they did in other seasons. To conserve energy,monkeys rested most often in winter (24. 4%). More time was devoted to other activities (15.7% )during autumn
     The amount of absolute time spent moving showed a significant positive relationship with day length and monthly mean temperature (P < 0.01). Absolute time spent resting was significantly negatively affected by monthly mean temperature (r = -0.585,P = 0. 046). Precipitation amount did not influence the time budgets of the study group at all (P >
    0.05 ). Seasonal dietary changes had a strong influence on activity patterns;monkeys moved less (r = - 0.902,P < 0.001)and rested more (r = 0.860,P < 0.001)when primarily consuming lichens,moving more often while young leaves or bamboo shoots were abundant (r = 0.832,P = 0.001). These results suggest that the time budget of R. bieti reflects
    an adaptation to seasonal variations in diet,day length,and climate.
    Facial similarity in Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) based on modular principal components analysis
    WANG Baishi ,WANG Zhenlong ,LU He ,LI Li ,LU Jiqi
    2013, 33(3):  232-237. 
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    From April to August in 2012,a target troop (named as WW - 1) of Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis)was investigated for facial similarity in the Tiantanshan area (35°05′ -35°15′ N,112°12′ - 112°22′ E)of the Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve (TMNNR)in Jiyuan,China. Facial close-up photos of 26 individuals over 3-years-old belonging to 3 matrilineal units within troop Wangwu-1 (WW - 1)were photographed and facial similarity values between every two different individuals were analyzed using modular principal component analysis (MPCA)method. We aimed to find the correlation between facial similarity and individual kinship. The results showed that:(1) facial similarity was significantly associated with kinship between individuals;the facial similarity between mothers and offspring(0. 93 ± 0. 00)was significantly higher than those of the intra-unit group (0. 89 ± 0.00)and the inter-unit group (0. 84 ±0.01);the similarity value of the intra-unit group is significantly higher than the inter-unit group;and (2)individual face features varied with increasing age in Taihangshan macaques;higher facial similarity was found between≥4 year old individuals and their mothers (0.88 - 0. 95),and mother-offspring relationship could be assuredly recognized via this value.The results from this study may provide reasonable and effective methods for individual identification in nonhuman primates
    Stability of the female dominance hierarchy in free-ranging,provisioned adult Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)at Mt. Huangshan,China
    ZHU Lei,LI Jinhua,XIA Dongpo,ZHU Yong,WANG Xi,SUN Binghua,WANG Shuang
    2013, 33(3):  238-245. 
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    Dominance hierarchy stability has been used to measure group stability and cohesiveness. In female-philopatric species,the stability of the female dominance hierarchy is especially important in determining group dynamics. For four months each during the mating (September - December 2011)and non-mating (February - May 2012) seasons,we examined stability of the adult female dominance hierarchy in free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana). We studied Yulinkeng (Y)A1 and YA2 groups,using focal animal and all-occurrences data collection methods. We investigated the female dominance hierarchy and its stability based on three quantitative indices:aggression-submission frequency,social ranks and hierarchical steepness. We found no variation by season in the three variables in either social group (P > 0. 05). Our data indicate that,in YA1 and YA2,the female dominance hierarchy is stable. Our results support earlier,qualitative reports of female dominance hierarchy in this species.
    Diet and its seasonality of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)in Qingmuchuan Nature Reserve,Shaanxi Province,China
    LI Yankuo ,JIANG Zhigang ,MIAO Tao
    2013, 33(3):  246-257. 
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    From 2005 to 2008,we studied the diet of golden snub-nosed monkeys(Rhinopithecus roxellana)in Qingmuchuan Nature Reserve,Shaanxi Province,China. We made 73 -day observations on the monkeys in the field,including 31 days in summer and 42 days in winter during the period. Golden snub-nosed monkeys were found feeding on 42 plant species,belonging to 34 genera of 23 families. Twenty-one plant species were consumed in summer while 25 species were fed on in winter; among these plants,two species were eaten in both winter and summer. The monkeys consumed Rosaceae the most,followed by Fagaceae. Plant parts consumed by the monkey were fruits,flowers,leaves,buds and barks. The monkeys had a primarily frugivorous diet in summer and a folivorous diet in winter. Frequencies of the monkey feeding on fruits increased from 5. 6% in winter to 72. 2% in summer. In winter,leaves were the main foods,accounting for 73. 0% of the total observations. Fruit of the giant dogwood (Cornus controversa)was the major food in summer. Bark-stripping mainly occurred in deciduous broadleaved forests,and coniferous-deciduous broadleaved mixed forests,but seldom occured in mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forests. Compared with the diets of other snub-nosed monkeys reported in recent years,we found that the monkeys in Qingmuchuan had a wide food spectrum,dominated by species of Rosaceae and Fagaceae,as well as Betulaceae,Cornaceae, Caprifoliaceae,Aceraceae and Betulaceae.
    Distribution and vicissitude of gibbons (Hylobatidae)in China during the last 500 years
    ZHOU Yunhui,ZHANG Peng
    2013, 33(3):  258-266. 
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    Gibbon (Hylobatidae spp. )is the only hominoid inhabiting China,and it is the genus which has died out most rapidly in the modern history of China. Research on the historical distribution of gibbons and the factors affecting their distribution, however,are rather limited. Based on ancient literature,in this paper we probe into regional changes in the distribution of gibbons in China dating back to Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644). Our results show that the distribution area of gibbons not only shrank towards the southwest,but also in other several regions until gibbons now can be found. Gibbons now survive only in southwestern China and Hainan Island. Although reasons of for the habitat decrease are multiple,among them,the human disturbance matters significantly.
    Overview of kin selection in nonhuman primates
    WU Linlin,GUO Songtao,QI Xiaoguang,ZHANG Pei,LI Baoguo
    2013, 33(3):  267-273. 
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    Kin selection is one of the most important research topics in animal evolution. Nonhuman primates are particularly suitable subjects for kinship studies because of their complex social networks. Kin selection is based on kin recognition and usually shown in primates through kin-biased social behaviors. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms underlying kin recognition and the effects of kinship on social behaviors in nonhuman primates. Familiarity and phenotype matching are viewed as the most likely mechanisms of kin recognition. Neither is mutually exclusive and it is probable that both are used in combination to recognize one’s kin. Kinship is the primary force in patterning social behaviors within primate groups and it influences affiliative,aggressive and sexual behaviors in many species,although those influences are not identical between different groups. This means that kin selection theory helps to explain the distribution of social behaviors.We discuss the similarities and differences between these two mechanisms and the limitations of kin selection theory for primate groups.Studies on kin selection in nonhuman primates have been progressing for decades,most recently through molecular genetics techniques. Nonetheless,the difficulty of assessing the values of b and c in Hamilton’s equation and the limited number of studied primate orders are still issues to be solved in the future
    Social affiliation of Taihangshan macaque based on huddling behavior
    LU He ,WANG Zhenlong ,WANG Baishi,LIU Jindong,LU Jiqi
    2013, 33(3):  274-281. 
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    From September 2011 to June 2012,using instantaneous and scan sampling methods,we collected data,with 10 min interval,on huddling behaviors between individuals of troop Wangwu 1 (WW - 1)of Taihangshan macaque (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis)inhabiting the Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve (TMNNR),and then analyzed the individual social affiliation within troop WW - 1. The results showed that:(1)huddling among individuals of troop WW -1 was categorized into 5 huddling groups,and huddling behavior was more frequently observed in adult females inside a given unit (84. 21% );(2)individual ages and sexes significantly influenced frequency of huddling behaviors. The sexual dimorphism of huddling behavior arose during the subadult period;and (3)proportions of social affiliations that happened between mother and offspring was significantly larger than that of the other huddling types. Our results indicated that,within Taihangshan macaque society,social affiliation exhibited a web-like structure based on matrilineal units,and that the mother-offspring link was the strongest affiliation inside a unit. We established the affiliation sociogram of Taihangshan macaques based on method of behavioral ecology,and we hope this will be helpful for better understanding socioecology of rhesus macaques.
    First evidence of geophagy by golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)
    ZHAO Dapeng ,Michael A Huffman ,LI Baoguo
    2013, 33(3):  282-285. 
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    This is the first report of geophagy by golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)as well as in the genus Rhinopithecus. Three adult females were seen ingesting clay during the long-term monitoring of a R. roxellana group inhabiting the Qinling Mountains of China. On all occasions,the females selected argillaceous rocks under a cliff near the
    provisioning area,licking the surface and ingesting attached clay. All events occurred in late autumn. Clay consumption in pregnant R. roxellana may serve a similar function as mineral supplementation. Although only three bouts of geophagy were observed in this study,such descriptive cases are very useful for a better understanding of dietary behavior in golden snubnosed monkeys,as well as for further comparison of geophagy among primate species with different life styles.
    Measurement of urinary and fecal steroid metabolites in a provisioned group of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)at Shennongjia Reserve,Hubei,China
    FAN Penglai ,CHEN Haochun ,YAO Hui,WANG Zhenlong ,YANG Jingyuan ,XIANG Zuofu
    2013, 33(3):  286-292. 
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    Steroid hormone metabolites in the feces and urine (SHMFU)have been used to monitor the physiological status,i. e. ,reproductive,health or social status,in many primate species. Owing to the different metabolic path in the body,SHMFU may have different concentration peak. The refore,it is necessary to analyze the correlation or consistency of SHMFU when apply them to identify the physiological status of the animal. In this study,we clarify the consistency of SHMFU of a semi-free ranging group in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) at Shennongjia,central China,with total 84 samples,including two adult males (24 samples)and ten adult females (60 samples),from November,
    2011 to June,2012. Enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA)were applied to detect the testosterone of the male,testosterone estradiol and progesterone of the female. Significant correlation of testosterone,testosterone estradiol and progesterone in the feces and urine were found both the males and females. The result indicated that it was feasible to judge the physiological status of R. roxellana through SHMFU. However,this study couldn’t provide the lag time of SHMFU because the number of samples is not enough.