Table of Content

    15 May 2015, Volume 35 Issue 2
    Floristic characteristics in an isolated habitat of the western black crested gibbon and implications for adaptation in habitat use and diet in southern Yunnan, China
    NI Qingyong, JIANG Xuelong, WANG Xiaowei, LIANG Zongli, XIE Meng
    2015, 35(2):  119-129. 
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    Due to a long history of hunting and habitat deterioration,many populations of the critically endangered western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor)are distributed in small scattered areas. We established 55 sampling quadrats and conducted a floristic investigation in an isolated and disturbed forest occupied by a small group at Bajiaohe, southern Yunnan, China. A total of 85 species in 57 genera and 28 families were recorded in the forest, which was dominated by Fagaceae, Lauraceae and Staphyleaceae.The floristic composition and structure differed significantly between areas in different forest fragments and varied with topography.We studied diet and home range use of the group over two years using a scan sampling method.The gibbons at Bajiaohe relied on some dominant tree species such as Litsea subcoriacea and Turpinia pomifera as food resources.They visited more liana fruits in secondary vegetation when tree fruits were less available, but did not consume more leaves and buds.It is noteworthy that the gibbons did not feed on any figs.This may be explained by the low availability of fig plants caused by human disturbance. The tree community structure did not have an effect on habitat use by the gibbons in the primary forest, but they showed significant preferences in different fragments.There was remarkable variation in the floristic characteristics between the four habitat sites used by the western black crested gibbon in Bajiaohe, Dazhaizi, Pinghe and Tea-horse Ancient Road.The gibbons’behavioral adaptation or flexibility in relation to this environmental variation requires more detailed studies at a larger temporal and spatial scale.
      Diet and seasonal changes in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecusroxellana) in the southern Qinling mountains in China
    ZHAO Haitao, DANG Gaodi, WANG Chengliang, WANG Xiaowei, GUO Dong, LUO Xi, ZHAO Jianqiang, HE Zhengbing, LI Baoguo
    2015, 35(2):  130-137. 
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    To ascertain the dietary composition and seasonal changes in the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys and to determine the feeding strategy adopted in response to seasonal changes in the availability of preferred foods,we studied a group of monkeys in the Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in the southern Qinling mountains, Foping, China, from March 2013 to February 2014,using the instantaneous scan sampling method.The results revealed that the monkeys fed on 53 plant species, including 34 species of trees,13 shrubs, 6 vines, and 4 fungi, and these species accounted for 64.3%, 25.3%, 8.0%, and 2.2% of their diet, respectively.During each season (spring, summer, autumn, and winter), the monkeys consumed 20, 19, 21, and 25 plants species, respectively, while the values of the food diversity index (FDI) were 3.93, 3.73, 3.87, and 4.12, respectively.Lichen constituted 22.0% of the monkeys’diet, while leaves contributed to 20% of the diet (9% and 11% young and mature leaves, respectively).The seed, bark, buds, fruits, and petioles contributed to 16% ,15% ,11% ,9% ,and 7% of their diet, respectively.The various parts of the plant consumed by the monkeys showed significant seasonal variations. In spring, their diet consisted primarily of bark (28%)and buds (25%).The consumption of mature leaves increased significantly (29%)in summer,while the consumption of buds decreased to 5%.The monkeys primarily consumed seeds and fruits, when in abundance, in autumn; these comprised 48% and 16% of their diet, respectively.In winter, consumption of dietary lichen increased to 41%.A positive correlation was observed between the dietary composition and food availability (R = 0.984, P < 0. 01).Similar to other leaf monkey species, the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys adopted a feeding strategy involving the consumption of bark and lichen in response to winter, when the availability of preferred foods is less, with increase in plant species and a higher diversity in their diet.
    Seasonal variations in activity budget of adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at Mt. Taihangshan area, Jiyuan, China: effects of diet and temperature
    CUI Zhenwei, WANG Zhenlong, ZHAO Guoliang, LU Jiqi
    2015, 35(2):  138-146. 
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    Activity budget,referred to time cost and adjustment in activities of animals,is adjusted by animals according to environmental variables and seasonal changes. From March 2013 to February 2014,a free-ranging troop (Wangwu -1, WW -1) of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta),inhabiting the Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve (TMNNR), Jiyuan, China, was selected as our target troop. Seasonal variations in activity budget of adult female Taihangshan macaques (M. m. tcheliensis) and the factors influencing it were investigated. The results showed that: (1)there were significant seasonal variations in activity budgets in adult female macaques. In spring, adult females spent 52. 9% , 19. 5%, and 11. 8% of total acting times on resting, feeding and traveling, respectively; in summer, they respectively spent 53.4% , 18.0% , and 11. 3% time on resting, feeding and traveling; in autumn, they spent 35.9%, 30.0% , and15. 9% of time on feeding, resting and traveling; in winter, adult females spent 35.4%, 39.7%, and 8.0% of time on feeding, resting and traveling;(2)in spring, adult females mainly fed on seeds (35.4% )and leaves (34.3% );while in summer, leaves (73.5% )served as their main food items; in autumn, female macaques mainly fed on seeds (98.1% ), and more bark (82.1% )was consumed in winter;(3)adult female macaques increased feeding time and reduced traveling time when feeding on grass and leaves with lower energy, while reduced feeding time and increased travelling time when feeding on plant seeds with higher energy; and (4)adult females increased feeding time and reduced traveling time with increasing ambient temperature. We conclude that adult female Taihangshan macaques had obvious seasonal variations in activity budgets that were mainly affected by changing food resources and ambient temperature.
    Research on behavior and abundance of wild boar (Sus scrofa)via infrared camera in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in Qinling Mountains, China
    WANG Changping, LIU Xuehua, WU Pengfeng, CAI Qiong, SHAO Xiaoming, ZHU Yun, Melissa Songer
    2015, 35(2):  147-156. 
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    In July 2009,eighteen infrared cameras were installed in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in Shaanxi Province, located in the Liangfengya area (middle and high altitude)and the Xigou area (low altitude).We collected a total of 1 195 photos of wild boar during the 45 months from August 2009 to April 2013.We defined 9 types of wild boar behavior: standing, walking, running, feeding, drinking, preening, rutting, rooting and sitting/resting. Each of 1 195 photos was examined carefully and we summarized the percentage of each type of behavior in each season. We introduced two indices as monthly relative abundance index (MRAI) and time - period relative abundance index (TRAI ) to discuss annual activity and daily activity of wild boar respectively. A simple model was used to estimate the change of population density of wild boar yearly. The results show that (1) in spring, behaviors with the great majority of wild boar are walking, feeding and standing (36% ,25.6% and 17.4% respectively);in summer, walking, standing, feeding and running are the most common behaviors (35.7% , 23.6% ,17% and 16.5% respectively);in autumn, proportions for feeding, walking and rutting are 50.3% ,19.3% and 17.8% respectively; and in winter, the behaviors of feeding, walking and standing are dominant having proportions of 53.7% ,26.7% and 11.9% respectively. (2)The activities of wild boars are more frequent in August, September and December based on the MRAI values, and wild boars are more active during the daytime according to the TRAI values. Especially, we got peak values at the period of 14:00 -16:00,and low values at the period of 22:00 -04:00 at the year scale. The activity patterns across the four seasons are different. (3)Finally, the population density of wild boar increased from 2009 to 2012. All of these results can help us to know population dynamics and activity patterns of wild boar,and then we might manage to take effective measures to reduce kinds of damage.
    Primary investigation on the conditioned place preference to parents and cocaine in pre-weanling mandarin vole pups
    WANG Jianli, FANG Qianqian, SONG Shufang, TAI Fadao
    2015, 35(2):  157-163. 
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    Social interaction is a substantial natural reward. Similar to drug-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), social reward-CPP is established via a Pavlovian association between the environment and the rewarding effects of social interaction. Socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) engage in a suite of close social interactions that include parent-offspring bonding; like females, males also provide high levels of parental care to pre-weanling pups. The reinforcing property of pups in parents is known. However, it remains unclear whether parents could become reinforcing to pre-weanling pups. To evaluate the reward associations that pre-weanling pups formed with their parents, the CPP response to dams, sires and a pharmacologic reinforcer (cocaine, 20 mg/kg) was assessed in postnatal day (PND) 13-17 and PND 19-23 mandarin vole pups. We found that the time that the pups spent in the reinforcing agent-paired chamber and opposite chamber of the apparatus was not statistically differences whether conditioned to dams, sires or cocaine respectively. These results indicate that pre-weanling mandarin vole pups failed to form place preferences to their fathers, mothers, or cocaine (at the doses tested).
    Effects of fertility control in plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) on diversity of native birds on Tibetan Plateau
    QU Jiapeng, LIU Ming, YANG Min, ZHANG Zhibin, ZHANG Yanming
    2015, 35(2):  164-169. 
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    An overabundance of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)populations along with increased numbers of livestock was suspected to have caused degradation of the alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. In April 2007,we conducted fertility control of plateau pika populations in Guoluo District, south of Qinghai Province, China.We investigated abundances of pika and bird species observed at the study sites during August and September 2007 and 2008 in order to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, levonorgestrel and EP -1 on plateau pikas, avian diversity and abundance. The results demonstrated that quinestrol reduced pika abundances significantly compared with control in the second year after delivering the baits, while bird diversity and species richness did not decline significantly Abundances of white-rumped snowfinch were significantly lower in quinestrol group compared with control, while abundances of rufous-necked snowfinch were significantly higher in quinestrol groups compared with EP -1 group.Quinestrol reduced pika population abundances, but had limited effects on avian diversity.Therefore, it was a potential approach that could be applied in the management of plateau pika on the Tibetan Plateau.
    Observations of activity patterns and behavior of Dryomys nitedula pups
    AN Ran, LIU Bin, XU Yimei, LI Ge, LIAO Lifu
    2015, 35(2):  170-175. 
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    In order to understand energy storage of Dryomys nitedula before winter, and provide information for artificial feeding, behavior and activity pattern of D. nitedula pups were observed indoors by infrared motion sensor cameras. Specifically, from June to September, cameras which can collect the activity data of the animal for 24 hours continuously were fixed on the tops of cages.Results showed that,the pups of D. nitedula spend about 70% of a day in the nest, where they huddle together with rare activities, Most play-behavior occurred outside the nest - for example, climbing on the cages.The time spent on feeding activity was no more than 2% of the whole day.The major activity time of the pups happened between 21:00 pm to 07:00 am, and reached its peak at 21:00 pm to 03:00 am.Three weeks after birth, the pups starts to play outside the nest; after 30 days they start to eat food;and after 5 weeks play and mating behaviors of emerged.Along with increased day-length, the activity peak was changed from 23:00 pm to 21:00 pm, the total activity time also increased gradually, but the activity time then gradually shortened after 9 weeks of age, and the time of feeding behavior on food and water were consistent with other activities.The body weight at 10 weeks age was almost 70% of that of the adults.The results revealed that D. nitedula is a nocurnal animal during the summer and autumn.Light is one of the important factors that can influence the outside activities of D. nitedula.The amount of food and water consumed by the D. nitedula pups at 6 weeks of age was more than of the adults, which indicates that supplemental food and water should be added at this period.
    The effect of levonorgestrel-quinestrol on female fertility in Microtus fortis
    ZHOU Xunjun, YANG Yuchao, WANG Yong, ZHANG Meiwen, LI Bo, PENG Zhen
    2015, 35(2):  176-183. 
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    Our laboratory study evaluated the effects of a contraceptive compound EP - 1 (levonorgestrel - quinestrol) on fertility in female Microtus fortis calamorum, as measured by changes in hormone levels, reproductive organs, litter size, pregnancy rate and reproduction interval. Some dosages of EP -1 significantly affected uterus coefficient, follicle - stimulating hormone (FSH)levels, ovary coefficient and ovarian tissue morphology, but didn’t obviously affect uterus length or estradiol levels. A dose of 60 mg/kg EP - 1 significantly increased FSH levels and ovary coefficients, however doses of 10 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg EP -1 had no obvious effect on either measurement. Litter size and pregnancy rate were significantly reduced at different dosages of EP -1. The effective sterilization periods following dosage with 10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg of EP -1 were approximately 16, 38 and 52 days respectively.The time taken for measurements to return to pre-dosing conditions was related to the dose of EP -1. Our results indicate further potential of EP -1 in reducing fertility for the control of Microtus fortis populations in field conditions.
    Effects of cabergoline on germ cells and enzymes in testis of male Rattus losea
    QIN Jiao, SU Qianqian, LIU Quansheng
    2015, 35(2):  184-189. 
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    To investigate the effects of cabergoline dosage and duration on the reproductive system of normal male animals, forty male rats were randomly divided into five groups and treated with cabergoline for 3 consecutive days at varying doses (0, 50μg/kg, and 100μg/kg). Rats from T750 and T7100 were sacrificed by decapitation on 7 d after cabergoline administration, and those from T2450 and T24100 were sacrificed by decapitation on 24 d after cabergoline administration We then observed changes in testicular tissue cells and examined the activities of enzymes in testis such as acid phosphatase (ACP),alkaline phosphatase (AKP),lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)by colorimetry. Results showed that endogenous germ, stromal and supporting cells in seminiferous tubules were damaged, or even fell off and disintegrated. Cabergoline treatment at 100 μg/kg decreased the ACP enzyme activity,but it was restored on 24 d after cabergoline administration. Cabergoline did not affect AKP levels. The dose increased will decreased the amount of increasing of LDH enzyme activity, and recovery on 24 d after cabergoline treatment. The activity of GSH-Px was significantly increased at 24 d at 100 μg/kg cabergoline compared with the control group, and more than those in 50 μg/kg group. Hence,cabergoline has some influence on the reproductive system of males, and can significantly affect the activities of enzymes in the testis.
    Investigation of the effect of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)on the oviductin produced by oviduct epithelial cells in Bos grunniens
    YANG Rong, PAN Yangyang, CUI Yan, FAN Jiangfeng, HE Junfeng, YU Sijiu
    2015, 35(2):  190-195. 
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    To examine the effects of gonadotropin on the development of embryos this study investigated the effect of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)on the glycoprotein produced by oviduct epithelial cells. Cultured bovine oviduct epithelial cells were treated for 6 hours with different doses of FSH, and oviductin expression was analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT - qPCR)and immunohistochemistry. Results showed the effective range of FSH (0.5 -5.0 μg/mL),and quantitative PCR showed the highest oviductin mRNA copy numbers at 5.0 μg/mL,and reduced mRNA expression during all others. However mRNA expression was decreased when FSH concentration over 10.0 μg/mL. So, FSH can promote the secretion of oviductin in bovine oviduct epithelial cells at this range of concentrations and 5.0μg/mL is the optimal concentration, and it showed a dose-dependent effect. Meanwhile, oviduct protein was secreted in cytoplasm.
    Identification and pathogenicity test of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from mink
    CHEN Chen, LI Peng, HAN Kaiyi, ZONG Xiaochen, WANG Guisheng, XIE Zhijing
    2015, 35(2):  196-202. 
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    To clarify the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mink,bacteria isolation was performed from 43 lung tissue samples which were collected from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia from Zhucheng, Wendeng and Linyi in 2013. The isolates were identified by morphological observation, physicochemical tests, drug susceptibility tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. The 5 isolates were all Pseudomonas aeruginosa, named F1, F5, F6, F8 and F10, and the isolating rate was only 11.6%. The nucleotide homology of the 5 strains was 98. 9 % -99. 7 % by 16S rDNA sequence homology analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that F5、F6、F8、F10 and F1 were clustered in the same branch. F1 was selected as a representative strain for challenge tests on mice and mink, respectively and animal models of pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa to mice and mink were established. Pathogenicity tests showed that the LD50 for mice was 1.6 ×106 CFU/mL and the bacterial content in the lung was higher than in other organs, which indicated that strain F1 had a stronger pathogenicity in mice. The LD50 for minks was 3.2 ×107 CFU/mL and the mink which were inoculated with bacteria solution with 3.2 ×108 CFU/mL were all dead within 20 -44 h,however,the minks in other artificial infection groups only showed transient depression andAnepithymia. It suggests that P. aeruginosa has a certain degree of pathogenicity in mink.
    A review on anti-fertility effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP -1) compounds and its components on small rodents
    Zhang Zhibin
    2015, 35(2):  203-210. 
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    Fertility control is attracting high attention in rodent pest control due to problems of traditional culling. Since the first report by Zhang in 2004,the anti-fertility effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP -1)on small wild rodents have been tested in several laboratories independently. Much progress has been achieved in fields of anti-fertility efficiency, dosage, baiting techniques, environmental safety and behavioral or molecular mechanisms of EP -1 and its compounds. Theseresults further revealed that EP -1 and its compounds were highly efficient and cost-effective in sterilizing both male and female rodents with a very low dosage, one pulse baiting, an across-year effect and relative environmental safety. The effective dosage of EP -1 and its components is about 10 -50μg/mL (0.001% -0.005% )or even lower; their half-lives are about 5 -16 days in soil and less than 3 days in water. One single baiting in the early breeding stage can effectively depress reproduction of wild rodents for the whole year, and the anti-fertility effect can be extend to next year. Thus, EP -1 and its components are very promising for practical use in the future. It is recommended that future studies should be directed at testing the current and across-year effects of EP -1 on more rodent species in the field, assessment of environmental safety, optimal baiting techniques and behavioral or ecological anti-fertility mechanisms of these compounds.
    Using mtDNA sequences and morphological characters to re-identify stranded beaked whales in Fujian Province, China
    WANG Peilie, YAO Chiouju, HAN Jiabo, MA Zhiqiang, Lu Zhichuang
    2015, 35(2):  211-223. 
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    We reexamined two mysterious beaked whale specimens stranded in Changle city of Fujian Province for species identification based on mtDNA sequences and morphological characters.By using DNA sequence similarity, genetic distance comparisons, and phylogenetic reconstruction analysis, three species were identified based on mtDNA fragments of control region and cytochrome b gene of different skeletal elements.They were Mesoplodon ginkgodens, M. densirostris and Physeter macrocephalus. Among the skeletal elements,we found that mandibles of the two Mesoplodon specimens had been exchanged during specimen preparation. In addition, teeth of both Mesoplodon specimens were lost and two teeth located inthe mandible of M. densirostris were identified as P. macrocephalus.After removing the Physeter teeth from the specimenand setting the mandibles to right positions, we describe the morphological characteristics of the two beaked whale skulls. Based on molecular evidence,skull characters and photos/ videos of the two stranding events, we conclude that the Mesoplodon stranded in Jiuzhamen beach of Changle city on 28th Sep. 2008 was a female M. densirostris, and the other onebeached at Shiqikong, Wenwusha county, Changle city on 12th Nov. 2008 was one male M. ginkgodens. Our study alsoconfirmed the first record of M. ginkgodens in Mainland China.
    Urinary volatile constituents of the leopard (Panthera pardus)
    Liu Haibin, Huang Yan, Liu Yang, Li Desheng, Zhang Hemin
    2015, 35(2):  224-228. 
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    Urine from three female and three male leopards between 2 -3 years of age were investigated by using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry to determine the volatile components, as well as differences between male and female urine.The experiment has important significance for increasing revealing mechanisms and protection of individual chemical communication between leopards.Twenty compounds were found in the urine samples, including alkanes, sulphur compounds, alcohol,phenol, acid and ester.The hydrocarbon proportion accounted for more than 50% of the total volatile matter, and the amount of sulfur-containing compounds or proportion in the total volatile matter is lower, only 1.12% -1.89% in the volatile component.The components of urine among different individual leopards were almost the same but the relative contents were slightly different.The 3 -4-enethioic Hydroxyhex-acid, S-t-butyl ester was only found in the urine of female.The content of Sulfurous acid, hexyl pentadecyl ester and Sulfurous acid, 2 - ethylhexyl isohexyl ester in the male samples was higher than in the female samples (P <0. 05).The content of Ditertdodecyl disulfide and Sulfurous acid, hexyl tetradecyl ester sulfate in the male samples was higher than in the female samples (P <0. 01).