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圈养小熊猫遗传多样性与种群遗传结构分析

修云芳 刘国伟 郑舒桓   

  1. 海峡(福州) 大熊猫研究交流中心
  • 出版日期:2018-07-30 发布日期:2018-07-18
  • 通讯作者: 刘国伟 E-mail:35203518@qq.com

Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of captive red pandas (Ailurus fulgens)

XIU Yunfang,LIU Guowei ,ZHENG Shuhuan   

  1. Strait (Fuzhou) Giant Panda Research and Exchange Center
  • Online:2018-07-30 Published:2018-07-18

摘要: 小熊猫是亚洲特有的珍稀濒危动物,目前受到栖息地减少、片断化和人类活动干扰等威胁。中国圈养小熊猫已经有60 多年历史,约55 个机构曾经饲养过小熊猫,现今圈养数量有400 多只,评估小熊猫圈养种群的遗传多样性和遗传结构对科学维持圈养种群和保存遗传种质资源意义重大。本研究利用19 个微卫星座位,对中国境内11 个小熊猫圈养种群的116 只个体进行了遗传多样性评估及遗传结构分析。结果显示11 个种群都具有较高的遗传多样性,平均基因丰富度3.505 ± 1.033 (北京)至4.026 ± 1.219 (冕宁),期望杂合度0.631 ± 0.225(黄山)至0.782 ±0.171 (温岭)。其中福州和无锡种群极显著偏离Hardy-Weinberg 平衡。整个圈养群体内各个种群遗传分化系数为0.055,呈显著分化,表明11 个种群遗传分化水平较高。Bayesian 遗传聚类分析将11 个种群聚为三个遗传簇,与野生种群的遗传聚类结果一致。结论:小熊猫圈养种群与野生种群相比,同样具有较高的遗传多样性。因此,圈养小熊猫遗传管理的重点不再是引进野生个体充实圈养种群,应制订科学的繁殖计划,避免近交,从而维持圈养种群的遗传多样性。

关键词: 圈养小熊猫, 微卫星, 遗传多样性, 遗传结构

Abstract: The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species that is indigenous to Asia. This species is currently under serious threat due to habitat loss and fragmentation as well as to human activities. In China, red pandas have been raised in zoos for 60 years, and more than 400 individuals live in approximately 55 zoos today. Therefore, the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of captive red pandas must be understood. The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 116 captive red pandas from 11 captive populations in China were investigated on the basis of 19 microsatellite loci. Our results revealed a high genetic diversity among the populations, with mean allelic richness varying from 3.505 ± 1.033 (Beijing) to 4.026 ± 1.219 (Mianning), and expected heterozygosity varying from 0.631 ± 0.225 (Huangshan) to 0.782 ± 0.171 (Wenling). In particular, significant deviation from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was found in populations from Fuzhou and Jiangsu. The genetic differentiation index across all populations was 0.055, indicating significant genetic differentiation among the 11 populations. The 11 populations investigated were categorized into three genetic clusters through a microsatellite-based Bayesian clustering analysis, and they were consistent with the clustering results of wild populations. Overall, the genetic diversity among captive red pandas is as high as that of the wild population. Thus, to avoid inbreeding and maintain high genetic diversity among captive red pandas, more attention should be paid to developing a suitable, scientific breeding program, rather than introducing additional wild individuals into captivity.

Key words: Captive red panda, Genetic diversity, Genetic structure, Microsatellite