兽类学报

• 论文 •    下一篇

高原鼠兔个性特征的地理变异及其对环境的适应

程琪 曲家鹏 张贺 张堰铭   

  1. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所
  • 出版日期:2017-04-20 发布日期:2017-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 张堰铭E-mail:zhangym@nwipb.cas.cn

Personality variation and adaptation to the environment of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)

CHENG Qi, QU Jiapeng, ZHANG He, ZHANG Yanmin   

  1. Northwest Institute of Plateau Biolog
  • Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-04-20

摘要: 个性特征是指动物稳定且可遗传的综合行为特征,反映出其对特定环境的适应。限制性假说认为个性特征主要受遗传因素制约,个体间行为的表达差异不以环境条件而发生随意性改变;然而,适应性假说则认为个性特征主要由环境因素决定,生活于相同环境中的物种,其个性特征将产生趋同现象。本研究通过比较2个高原鼠兔地理种群的个性特征,检验适应性假说和限制性假说的相关预测。结果表明,刚察县高原鼠兔野外种群个体的行为特征聚为3类,玛沁县则为2类。实验室内驯化2-3个月后,两个地理种群个体行为特征聚为1类。两地理种群个体的观察、攀爬行为及边缘区域活动、移动累计时间均无显著差异,但静止累计时间存在明显地理差异。个体的中心区域活动累计时间在野外和驯化后均存在明显差异,且与地理空间的交互作用不显著。两地理种群之间个体的温顺性无明显差异;心率亦无显著差异。高原鼠兔个性特征中主要行为参数无显著的地理差异,主要由遗传因素决定,验证了限制性假说的相关预测。

关键词: 高原鼠兔, 个性特征, 环境, 遗传

Abstract: Personality reflects an individual’s set of typical behavioral tendencies exhibited in various situations and refer to animal’s stable and heritable behavioral characteristics. The constraint hypothesis assumes that personality is heritable, is determined by genetic factors, and does not evolve easily. In contrast, the adaptive hypothesis assumes that personality is mainly affected by environmental factors. Personality traits of different species in the same environment will produce convergence. To examine the predictions of the constraint hypothesis and adaptive hypothesis, we compared personality differences in plateau pika(Ochotona curzoniae) between two different regions. The results of cluster analysis show that the personality of wild plateau pika populations from Gangcha County clustered into 3 categories, Maqin County clustered into 2, and after rearing 2-3 months in laboratory, personality of plateau pika from both counties clustered into 1 category. Scanning, climbing, centrality, border behavior of two geographical populations showed no significant difference, but immobility between geographic populations still showed significant differences, the ambulation between two geographic populations and wild, interior populations both showed significant differences. No significant difference was found in docility between two geographic populations; there was no significant difference between geographical populations for heart rate. The results indicate that there are no significant geographical differences in major behavioral parameters of plateau pika personality traits. So personality is determined by genetic factors and confirmed the prediction of constraint hypothesis.

Key words: Environment, Genetics, Plateau pika, Personality