Table of Content

    15 February 2017, Volume 37 Issue 1
    Phylogenetic study of Ochotona based on mitochondrial Cytb and morphology with a description of one new subgenus and five new species
    LIU Shaoying, JIN Wei, LIAO Rui, SUN Zhiyu, ZENG Tao, FU Jianrong, LIU Yang, WANG Xin, LI Panfeng, TANG Mingkun, CHEN Liming, DONG Li, HAN Mingde, GOU Dan
    2017, 37(1):  1-43.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701001
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    of the new subgenus includeyarlungensis sp. n. were identified in addition to the 3 assigned to Alienauroa. The identifying characteristics of O. huanglongnensis (collected at the Huanglong National Scenic Reserve; Sichuan) include: front part of incisive foramen parallel; skull flat, the height of skull (SH) only 33.5% of the greatest length of skull (GLS); ears large averaging over 20 mm; congenial tragus triangular and the distal part circular; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 20 mm; the ventral hairs gray white; the back of the palms gray white; the ventral palm gray black; finger and digital pads large and orange, exposed out of hairs, and claws translucent. The identifying characteristics of O. flatcalvariam (collected from the Longmen mountains, Sichuan province) include: skull very flat, average SH 11 mm, SH only 31% of GLS; eye sockets very small, only 6.7 mm in length and 5.6 mm in breadth; body length less than 140 mm; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 22 mm; ears small averaging over 17 mm, congenial tragus triangular and small, the distal part of congenial tragus broad-round; dorsal pelage sandy yellow, ventral pelage yellow white. The identifying characteristics of O. dabashanensis (collected from Dabashan Mountains, Sichuan province) include: congenial tragus sickle-liked; ear small, less than 17 mm on average, which is similar to O. sacraria and O. flatcalvariam, but less than O. huanglongensis and O. xunhuaensis; SH relatively large and bulged, posing the largest SH and eye sockets in Alienauroa, average SH 12.45 mm; eye sockets 8.52 mm×7.13 mm. O. yarlungensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the middle of the Yarlung Zangbo River; Xizang) has its closest relationship with O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis. Its characteristics include: margin of lips lined with very narrow gray black hair, surrounding with gray white hair; soles and palms covered with dense black hairs, long hairs cover the claws, the digital pads and claws hidden in the hairs; head and body length average 150 mm, much less than that of O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis; skull flatter than that of O. curzoniae; dorsal pelage gray brown. O. qionglaiensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the Qionglai Mountains; Sichuan) has its closest genetic relationship with O. curzoniae, although its measurements and appearance are close to that of O. thibetana. Compared with O. thibetana, O. qionglaiensis has a very narrow interorbital width (4.05 mm on average; range: 3.64 - 4.19 mm), while that of O. thibetana is >4.2mm (4.45 mm on average). O. qionglaiensis is covered with sandy yellow, coarse and long hairs, while O. thibetana is covered with black brown and relatively short hairs. The backs of the palms and feet of O. qionglaiensis are a withered grass yellow, while those of O. thibetana are yellow white.
    Molecular identification of voles in the east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    ZHAO Xianxian, LI Bang, LIN Gonghua, MA Wanjun, JU Hailan, SU Jianping, ZHANG Tongzuo
    2017, 37(1):  44-52.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701002
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    Using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) as the molecular marker combined with phylogenetic methods (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference) and genetic distance statistics (Jukes and Cantor's distance), we analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of voles in the east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We sampled 189 voles from 16 localities and sequenced the complete Cyt b sequences (1 143 bp) of these individuals. A total of 248 variable sites and 65 haplotypes were detected. The topology of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference trees were basically consistent, clustering the 65 haplotypes into three groups (G1-G3), respectively forming three monophyletic groups with known Microtus limnophilus, Neodon fuscus and N. Irene, and with very high bootstrap support values (100%). The haplotype based pairwise genetic distances within G1, G2, G3 were respectively 0.09%-3.04%, 0.09%-0.70% and 0.18%-1.95%; while between G1 and M. limnophilus, between G2 and N. fuscus and between G3 and N. Irene were 0.61%-2.49%, 0.53%-0.97% and 1.77%-2.22%, respectively. Based on phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses, these voles were identified as three species: M. limnophilus (n = 135), N. fuscus (n = 30) and N. irene (n = 24). M. limnophilus was most widely distributed (10 localities) while N. fuscus (4 localities) and N. irene (3 localities) were confined to small ranges. The overlapping area of these three species was small. Only one locality (HN) was inhabited by M. limnophilus and N. fuscus at the same time. Our results showed that there were at least three vole species distributed in the study regions. They were well defined by molecular marker and had certain regularity in the geographical distribution patterns. Our results provide fundamental information of vole distribution in the east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as well as an example for molecular identification of rodents in the study regions.
    Do social rank and food supplementation affect grooming behavior? A test in Père David’s deer
    SHI Xiaolong, LI Zhongqiu
    2017, 37(1):  53-58.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701003
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    Previous studies have shown that several factors including sex, age, tick density, and season affect oral grooming behavior of reintroduced Père David’s deer in Dafeng Nature Reserve, China, and reintroduction of wild animals should consider if they retain regular grooming patterns thus to control ectoparasites, especially the ticks. In this study we further examined two more factors, social rank and food availability, which might influence grooming behavior of Père David’s deer. Harem masters, who usually have a higher level of testosterone, are predicted to groom less than bachelors during the rutting season. However, we did not find any differences in rate of grooming behavior between the harem master and bachelors probably due to the late rutting season when the testosterone levels have fallen off. Food supplementation might affect grooming behavior since released foraging pressure would provide much more time for other behaviors such as grooming. However, we did not find an effect of food availability, probably due to an increase of vigilance instead of grooming in the pavilion population. Our results suggest that more explorations are needed such as changing observation time and excluding the interference of visitors.
    Preliminary study on social structure of Indochinese gray langurs (Trachypithecus crepusculus) in Wuliang Mountian, Yunnan
    XIONG Weiguo, HUANG Zhipang, YIN Longyun, MA Chi, LUO Xu, CUI Liangwei, FAN Pengfei
    2017, 37(1):  59-65.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701004
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    Species of the genus Trachypithecus normally live in groups of less than 20 individuals composed of only one adult male and several adult females (one-male unit). While Indochinese gray langurs (T. crepusculus) live in one male group and multi-male group with less than 30 indiviudals in northeastern Thailand, the conspecific populations in Wuliang Mountain, Yunnan live in large group with up to more than 100 individuals. So far, little is known on detail of the social structure of Indochinese gray langurs in Wuliang Mountain. We studied the social structure of a large habituated group (>70 individuals) of Indochinese gray langurs in Dazhaizi, Wuliang Mountain between September 2012 and July 2015. We selected adult males as focal animal randomly, and then recorded the behavior for other individuals who proximity to the focal male within 5m by 10 minutes interval scanning. Restricted by difficulty of individuals identification, we could only accurately identify age-sex classes of all members staying within 5 m with the focal male in 594 scans in which at least one individual was observed. In 44.2% scans, there was at least one adult male remaining within 5 m to the focal male, with an average of 0.62 ± 0.85 adult males. In 32.5% scans, there were both adult male(s) and adult female(s) remaining within 5 m to the focal male. Most notability, higher frequency (60.0%) and more males (0.93 individuals) were observed surrounding the focal male within 5 m during feeding compared to moving and resting. Our results suggested that the study group did not live in multi-level society that composed of several one-male units and all male units, but live in multimale-multifemale group. Our results also demonstrated that tolerance between adult males in this group was high, especially during feeding. Up to 18 individuals feeding within 5 m to the focal male suggested that food resources were abundant in Wuliang Mountain, at least during certain seasons, which partly explained why Indochinese gray langurs could live in such large groups in the area. We provided preliminary results of social structure of Indochinese gray langurs in Wuliang Mountain which will benefit to better understanding of diversity and evolution of social system of langurs in the future.
    The influence of ecotourism on the gastrointestinal parasites of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)
    ZHANG Bo, YE Pingjing, LU Lang, YAO Hui, YANG Wanji, QIN Jianyong, XIANG Zuofu
    2017, 37(1):  66-77.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701005
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    Non-human primates contacted by humans or disturbed by humans cause unbalance between gastrointestinal parasites and the host, resulting in gastrointestinal parasites infection, which further increases species and load. To identify if eco-tourism influences gastrointestinal parasites species and load, we screened fecal samples from one provisioned group and wild-foraging groups of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia national nature reserve, China. We found 5 gastrointestinal parasites: Amoeba, Trichuris sp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis and Hookworms by formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation. The results showed that the load of Amoeba and Enterobius vermicularis in the provisioned group is significant higher than those in the wild-foraging groups, while there is no significant difference in load of roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) although they are also found in both groups. Hookworms and whipworm (Trichuris sp.) only are recognized in the provisioned group. The addition of two species and high load of some parasites in the provisioned group is due to direct or indirectcontact by non-human primates with humans (ecological tourism, etc.).
    The oral microbiome diversity base on 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technique in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)
    RAN Yalan, XIA Dongpo, SUN Binhua, WANG Xi, LI Jinhua
    2017, 37(1):  78-86.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701006
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    The structure of oral microbiome is vital to health maintenance, so the study of oral microbial diversity is helpful to understand the ecology adaptive characteristics of animals. In this study, 19 oral samples were collected noninvasively from Yulingkeng YA1 Tibetan macaque group in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, and DNA was extreact by a modifed high-salt DNA extraction method. Using Illumina Miseq sequence platform, two-terminal sequenceing of V3- V4 regions of 16S rDNA was carried and the diversity of community structure was analysis. There are 206 533 reads, 4 685 different OTUs, representing 310 genus from 20 bacterial phyla. Result show that: the phyla Proteobacteria (44.58% of the total), Firmicutes (30.28%), Bacteroidetes (12.27%), Fusobacteria (7.72%) and Actinobacteria (3.70%) were predominated. Twenty-four genus were present in all samples, which means that a stable core microbiome existing in Tibetan Macaques. Besides there is a large number of microbiome associated with oral disease and a variety of potential pathogens with low abundance in Tibetan Macaques. The study provides certain reference for further study of oral microbial community structure and its adaptive mechanism in Tibetan Macaques. Further, more attention should be paid to the spread of zoonosis in the conservation and management of wildlife.
    The relationship between the reproductive characteristics of plateau zokor(Eospalax baileyi) and its rangeland habitat condition#br#
    ZHOU Yanshan, HUA Limin, CHU Bin, LIU Li, JI Chengpeng, TIAN Yongliang
    2017, 37(1):  87-96.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701007
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    The population dynamic changes of plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi) is closely related to its reproductive performance that is influenced by the habitat condition. For clarifying the relationship between the reproductive performance of plateau zokor and its rangeland habitat condition, we selected two pastures with different zokor population densities to investigate the monthly changes of the botanical composition, total biomass, aboveground biomass, underground biomass, polysaccharide content of plant root, soil compaction, soil moisture as well as the zokor population density during the breeding season. Based on the Multi-way ANOVA and Independent sample T test analysis, the results showed that the may is breeding peak, the june is end of breeding. There was no significant difference in the reproductive performance between male zokors during the breeding seasons and female zokors during the breeding peak (P>0.05), there was significant difference in the reproductive performance in the end of breeding. The sex ratio of the zokor in the pasture with higher population density was greater than that in the pasture with lower population density during their reproduction peak. However, the sex ratio of the zokor in the pasture with lower population density was greater than that in the pasture with higher population density during the early and final breeding period. There was no significant difference in the botanical composition, total biomass, aboveground biomass, underground biomass between the two pastures with higher and lower zokor population density(P>0.05), however, the polysaccharide content of plant root had significant difference in the soil depth (0-30 cm) between the two pastures (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the soil compaction except in the soil depth (0-20cm) between the two pastures with different zokor population densities (P>0.05), the soil moisture had significant difference in the soli depth from 0 to 30cm(P<0.05). The results indicated that the changes of the zokor reproductive performance was related to the polysaccharide content of plant root and soil moisture and unrelated to the botanical composition, total biomass, aboveground biomass, underground biomass, soil compaction and moisture.
    Molecular evolution of the vomeronasal receptor V1R gene in bats
    HAN Baoyin, WANG Kai, WU Jinwei
    2017, 37(1):  97-103.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701008
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    The vomeronasal olfactory system (VNS) in mammals mainly detects pheromones, which play a crucial role in mammalian reproduction and social behavior. To investigate the molecular evolution of vomeronasal receptors, a comparative genomics approach was employed to analyze the vomeronasal receptor V1R genes from the published genomes of ten species of bats. Results showed that V1R genes are present in all ten species. However, V1R genes in most species are pseudogenes, although intact V1R genes were identified in Megaderma lyra and Pteronotus parnellii. Further analysis showed that the intact V1R gene in M. lyra is under neutral selection, indicative of vomeronasal insensitivity in this species. We observed significant purifying selection acting on three intact V1R genes in P. parnelli, suggesting that the function of vomeronasal organ in P. parnelli is retained. These results are consistent with morphological data from the bat VNS  and TRPC2 analysis of bat . Together, our study suggests widespread losses of vomeronasal olfactory function in bats, and the reasons underlying the vomeronasal insensitivity are complicated. We call for an in-depth investigation in the future.
    The population of Rhinopithecus brelichi in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve,Guizhou,China
    GUO Yanqing, ZHOU Jun, SONG Xianhua, DENG Huaiqing, QIU Yang, SHI Lei, ZHOU Jiang
    2017, 37(1):  104-108.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701009
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    From January 25th to August 24th, 2013, the population size of Rhinopithecus brelichi was investigated by the method of sampling line survey by setting up 30 sampling lines in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve. The survey results show that the Rhinopithecus brelichi is only distributed in the nature reserve currently with the altitude 900 to 2180 meters above sea level, and the population size is 661 to 710. A total of 94 "family groups", 94 adult males, 315 adult females, 74 sub-adults, 83 young individuals and 95 infants were enumerated when they were clearly enumerated. The Rhinopithecus brelichi acts as a group structure, mainly active in four regions in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve. Each group consists of 2 to 10 family groups with the smallest family size consisting of 1 male and 1 female. The common family group consists of 1 adult male and 2-4 adult female individuals, and Sub-adult individuals, young individuals and infants. During annual April to May and September to October, the fusion group gathering activities will appear with more than 300 individuals for short-term activities, indicating that these time periods could provide the best opportunities to study the Rhinopithecus brelichi.
    Analysis of mammalian responses to climate change based on Zoology Record Database
    CHEN Chun, LUO Xiaoyan, LIU Ming
    2017, 37(1):  109-114.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701010
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    Journal articles on research field of mammals respond to climate changewere analyzedusing the Thomson Data Analysis based on Zoology Record Database. Development trajectory of research on the field from different mammalian species, different geological times, research hotspot distribution and evolution of research focus of difference periods were analyzed. The field of mammals respond to climate change is rapidly developingfrom 2000y.There is strong response relationshipbetween the research hotspot and species of mammals. Different species of mammals corresponding geological timewere showed subtle changes. Some new research hotspot presented frequently are population dynamics, conservation, arctic ecology instead of fossil assemblages and evolution in last 5a.