Table of Content

    30 January 2020, Volume 40 Issue 1
    A new species of the genus Crocidura (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae) from Zhejiang Pvovince, eastern China
    LIU Yang, CHEN Shunde, LIU Baoquan, LIAO Rui, LIU Yingxun, LIU Shaoying
    2020, 40(1):  1-12.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150340
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    Five specimens of the genus Crocidura were collected from the Moxinjian Provincial Nature Reserve of Chun’an city in Zhejiang Province and from the Dongjiangyuan Provincial Nature Reserve of Dongyang city in August 2017. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) revealed that the unidentified specimens collected from Zhejiang Province forms a distinct clade, which is close to C. lasiura and C. dsinezumi. The genetic distances among them range from 0.101-0.155. Large genetic distances were identified between the unidentified specimens and species from southern China, C. indochinensis and C. wuchihensis, and species from the northeast, C. shantungensis and C. suaveolens. K2P distances among the unidentified species and C. indochinensis, C. wuchihensis, C. shantungensis, C. suaveolens were 0.114, 0.124, 0.139 and 0.144, respectively. The diagnostic characteristics of the unidentified genetic lineage are as follows: body small, head-body 48-61 mm(mean: 55.60 mm), tail length 35-49 mm (mean: 43.14 mm); and the tail is relatively short (72.92%-80.36% of head-body length), almost bare, and long sparse hairs are present only along the basal third to the second of the tail, with a short terminal pencil. Tail is bicolor, black brownish above, and paler beneath. Skull is shorter,Condylo-incisive length 15.60-17.16 mm (mean: 16.46 mm). Results from the combined molecular and morphological analyses indicated that the undefined specimens should be a new species, Crocidura dongyangjiangensis Liu Y, Chen SD, and Liu SY, sp. nov.. Detailed description of this new species is given in the present study.
    The activity patterns of salt-licking behavior differ with gender and seasons in free-ranging sambar deer
    WANG Pan, LIU Mingchong, LUO Huan, WANG Pengyan, HONG Mingsheng, TANG Zhuo, ZHOU Caiquan, ZHANG Jindong, BAI Wenke
    2020, 40(1):  13-18.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150309
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    Salt-licking is a unique behavior of many herbivorous mammals to replenish salt and minerals by licking salt soil or salt well. The salt-licking behavior is an important component of the activity budget of herbivorous mammals. An in-depth analysis of the behavior and activity budget of wild animals is conducive to understanding the characteristics of resource selection and prey aversion strategies. It can also provide a scientific basis for the formulation of policies for the conservation of rare wildlife populations and habitats. Using a remote video surveillance system, we monitored salt-licking activity of sambar deer in Wolong Nature Reserve. The results show that: (1) The visitation frequency of female sambar deer to natural salt well areas is higher than males, and frequency of adult is significantly higher than that of the sub-adult (fawn); (2) The salt-licking frequency of sambar deer is the highest in autumn and the lowest in winter among all deer. The salt-licking activity of sambar deer mainly takes place at nighttime. Sambar arrive at salt well areas earliest during autumn (18: 00), and latest during spring and summer (20: 00). (3) The frequency of salt-licking is different among different genders, females have the highest frequency of salt licking in autumn, while males have similarly high frequency of salt-licking in spring, summer and autumn. (4) Adults have the highest frequency of salt-licking in autumn, while the licking frequency of sub-adults (fawn) decreases from its peak in spring gradually to winter. The peak time of salt-licking among sub-adults (fawn) is earlier than that among adults. Salt well is an area of frequent sambar activity. Protection of special habitats such as salt wells should be considered in conservation planning and practices.
    Behavioral adaptability for maintaining consortship in male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)
    FANG Xingli, ZHANG Qixin, XIA Dongpo, LI Jinhua
    2020, 40(1):  19-26.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150296
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    In primates, consortship is an intersexual relationship in multi-male and multi-female groups, it is usually observed when an estrous/ receptive female is followed by an adult male, especially in the mating season among seasonally breeding species. Consortship is one of the behavioral strategies for males to improve their mating success. In order to investigate the constraints of energetic costs on this behavior, we studied 8-10 adult male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) of YA1 group at Mt. Huangshan, Anhui. We used focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling and all occurrence recording to record adult male Tibetan macaque’s social behavior from August 2017 to January 2018. Here, we studied how male individuals maintain consortship by analyzing moving time, feeding time, mating frequency and urinary C-peptide levels (UCP: physiological indicator of the individual energy state) by using noninvasive measuring method . The results showed that there is no significant difference in moving time, but when males were in consortships, the feeding time and mating frequency increased significantly; when facing potential male-male competition in consortships, males’ feeding time was significantly decreased. In addition, there was no significant difference between consortships and non-consortships in UCP levels. These results suggest that male Tibetan macaques may adjust their behaviors according to energetic consumption situation and social environment surrounding females, this change can cause reduction in energetic cost in consortship and improve
    the behavioral adaptability for maintaining consortships.
    Differences in exploration and resting metabolic rates of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) at different altitudes
    TAN Chuntao, YU Yibo, JIANG Zhanping, ZHONG Liang, ZHANG Yanming, QU Jiapeng
    2020, 40(1):  27-36.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150288
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    Environmental differences affect the evolution of animals’ life history strategies. For animals with wide distributional ranges and the corresponding habitat diversity, life history strategies of different populations can differ notably. Personality, as a part of the life history, reflects the adaptation patterns of animals to the environment. Previous studies showed that there were significant differences in life history strategies of plateau pikas at different altitudes. However, it remains unclear whether there were differences in the personality and the correlations between personality and energy metabolism of plateau pikas at different altitudes. Between September and October 2018, exploration and resting metabolic rates (RMR) of plateau pikas were measured in Guinan County at an altitude of 3268 m and in Maqin County at an altitude of 3980 m, respectively. The results showed that, compared with low altitude pikas, high altitude male pikas had lower exploration while high altitude female pikas had higher mass-corrected RMR. For high altitude plateau pikas, we found significantly positive correlations between exploration and mass-corrected RMR in females, but negative correlations between exploration and body mass in males. However, for low altitude plateau pikas, no significant correlations were detected between exploration and mass-corrected RMR or body mass. The results suggested that, adjusting of personality and energy metabolism and their correlations may be one of the life history strategies of plateau pikas to adapt to the distinct environmental conditions at different altitudes regions.
    The morphological and mtDNA molecular identification of Fin whale and Omura’s whale
    ZHU Lin, LI Ting, CHEN Bingyao, YANG Guang
    2020, 40(1):  37-46.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150349
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    It is difficult to morphologically identify large whale carcasses because they were highly decomposed or damaged. In November 2018 and January 2019, two dead decomposed baleen whales were found respectively in Nantong, Jiangsu Province and Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. Their morphological features were checked, and molecular biology technique was used, 903 bp and 972 bp of mtDNA control region sequences as well as 467 bp and 438 bp of Cyt b sequences were obtained, respectively. After GenBank alignment, the samples from Nantong and Ningbo had the 99%-100% and 97%-99% similarity respectively and with the Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and the Omura’s whale (B. omurai). The phylogenetic tree constructed by the maximum likelihood method in MEGA 7.0 software was consistent with the GeneBank alignment results. Based on two methods, the baleen whales in Nantong and Ningbo were respectively identified as Fin whale and Omura’s whale. The study confirmed the new distribution information of Fin whales in Nantong, Jiangsu Province and Omura’s whale in Xiangshan, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province.
    Functional research and expression analysis of BMPs during the scarless wound healing process of pedicle stump
    LIN Shanshan, GUO Qianqian, CHEN Yiqi, ZHENG Huijie, ZHENG Meixia, CHU Wenhui
    2020, 40(1):  47-53.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150343
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    The aim of this study is to find out the functional roles of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) during the scarless wound healing of pedicle stump at the early regeneration stage of antler. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to analyze the expression and localization of BMP 2 and BMP 4 in the pedicle and the antler skins. BMP 4 was added to the culture medium of dermal papilla cells and fibroblasts of deer skin to see if the protein was playing an essential role during trans-differentiation and gathering. The results showed that: (1) Nearly 100% of the fibroblasts harvested from the primary culture of pedicle skin tissue expressed vimentin: a marker of dermal fibroblasts; (2) BMP 2 and BMP 4 were strongly expressed in the newly formed hair matrix cells in the antler skin; (3) BMP 4 promoted the trans-differentiation of fibroblasts into adipocytes; (4) BMP 4 also facilitated the degree of agglomeration of dermal papilla cells in vitro. Based on these observations we speculated that BMPs played an important role in the process of trans-differentiation of fibroblast and gathering of papilla cells which could accelerate the process of scarless wound healing.
    Photoperiod-melatonin signal regulates seasonal spermatogenesis in plateau pikas(Ochotona curzoniae
    WANG Yujun, JIA Gongxue, WANG Ting, WANG Xiurong, LIU Zhonghao, DU Yurong, MA Jianbin
    2020, 40(1):  54-63.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150315
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    The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a small mammal native to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Pikas breed in summer and become reproductively dormant in winter. Long-day stimulation (16h∶8h) induced spermatogonial differentiation and the resumption of spermatogenesis, while short-day treatment (8h∶16h) resulted in spermatogonial differentiation arrest. Melatonin content was significantly increased in short-day adapted animals and injection of melatonin inhibited the spermatogonial differentiation and development of advanced germ cells, while treatment with a melatonin receptor antagonist stimulated spermatogonial differentiation and spermatogenesis in the reproductively dormant animals. Levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly increased in reproductively active males while follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) did not differ. Functional experiments revealed that GnRH injection stimulated germ cells development and initiation of spermatogenesis in non-breeding season. Furthermore, GnRH content in brain was decreased by melatonin administration. Together, data from the present demonstrated that the seasonal spermatogenesis of plateau pikas was directed by photoperiod-melatonin signal. These findings revealed a key mechanism underlying seasonal reproduction in Plateau Pikas and likely other animal species.
    Expression of MTNR1a and MTNR1b in different tissues and localization in testes of yak (Bos grunniens)
    CHEN Jiannan, ZHANG Quanwei, WANG Qi, WANG Yuanyuan, MA Youji, ZHANG Yong, ZHAO Xingxu
    2020, 40(1):  64-70.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150313
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    Melatonin plays an important role in regulating the reproduction of seasonally propagated mammals. Its receptor MTNR1a (Melatonin receptor 1a) is mainly involved in circadian rhythm and reproductive regulation, and MTNR1b (Melatonin receptor 1b) is closely related to a variety of diseases. In order to investigate the biological function of melatonin receptor gene, the expression patterns and localization of MTNR1a and MTNR1b in different yak tissues were clarified in this study. The expression patterns of MTNR1a and MTNR1b in different tissues of adult male yak and in testes at different developmental stages (30 days old, 2, 4, 6 and 8 years old) was detected by qRT- PCR. Furthermore, the MTNR1a and MTNR1b in testes of yaks of different ages were localized by immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that the expression of MTNR1a mRNA was highest in pineal gland, followed by lung, muscle and testis. The expression of MTNR1a mRNA in the testes was gradually increasewith age, and tended to be stable after 4 years old. The MTNR1a protein is expressed in the testis tissue of yak at different developmental stages, and round spermatozoa showed strong immunolocalization, followed by primary spermatocytes. MTNR1a protein was expressed in pineal gland. The expression of MTNR1b mRNA was highest in pineal gland (P<0.05), followed by kidney, liver and hypothalamus. MTNR1b mRNA was expressed in yak testes of different ages, and the expression level increased with age, highest at 8 years old. The
    immunohistochemistry result showed that the MTNR1b protein is mainly localized in round spermatids. The extensive expression of MTNR1a and MTNR1b genes in different tissues and testes of yaks at different developmental stages reveals their important roles in male yak reproduction and other physiological processes.
    Conservation status of otters in China and a discussion on restoring otter populations in the Pearl River Delta
    ZHANG Lu, FAN Pengfei
    2020, 40(1):  71-80.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150345
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    Apex predators play important roles in ecosystems and are therefore of great interest to researchers. As apex predators in many freshwater ecosystems, however, otters are largely disregarded in China. Three otter species – Eurasian otter, Asian small-clawed otter, and smooth-coated otter had been found in China, distributing widely across central, southeast, and northeast China, including the Pearl River Delta. All of them have experienced severe population decline and local extinction during the last century. Among the 13 extant otter species found worldwide, three species – sea otter, North American river otter, and Eurasian otter have been successfully restored through reinforcement and/or reintroduction, thus providing guidelines and suggestions for the future restoration of other otter species. Otter populations in the Pearl River Delta have also undergone dramatic declines during the last century. There are only a few remnant populations of Eurasian otter found in restricted areas of the Delta, whereas no recent records of Asian small-clawed otter or smooth-coated otter were reported. Restoring otter populations in the Delta has important ecological and social significance. We discuss related issues regarding future otter population restoration in the Pearl River Delta.
    Standardized terminology in primatology: an example of α-male replacement
    LU Jiqi, TIAN Jundong
    2020, 40(1):  81-86.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150359
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    Expression and utilization of standardized terminology is critical for scientific communication, and it is also beneficial for supporting discipline construction, ensuring the coordinated development of modern science and technology, maintaining the health of national language, inheriting Chinese culture, and promoting social progress, etc. Though Primatology in China has been developing rapidly though it has started late. Remarkable progress have been made after the 19th Congress of the International Primatoligical Society held in Beijing, China in 2002. Many terminology in primatological field have been introduced to China with wide and deep cooperation and communication with international colleagues. We introduced, taking an example of α-male replacement, the standardized expression in Chinese of 5 types of α-male replacement: (1) Takeover, (2) Rank reversal, (3) Succession, (4) Waltz-in, and (5) Fission. These terms were suggested to be used by researchers in China. We aimed to enhance the awareness of expression and utilization of standardized terminology, and to suggest gradually establishing the theoretical system of primatology in China.
    Spatial and temporal pattern of mammal diversity in Hupingshan National Nature Reserve
    TIAN Shurong, LI Hewen, JIANG Bowen, CHEN Yiming, LI Xin, LI Diqiang
    2020, 40(1):  87-95.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150295
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    The monitoring and research of biodiversity pattern in protected area is very important not only to understand the protected objects of protected area, its roles in protected area network and regional ecological security, but also to enhance the function of protected areas. The routine patrolling and monitoring data from 2016 to 2017 was used to assess mammal diversity of Hunan Hupingshan National Nature Reserve in this paper. Hupingshan Reserve set 25 investigating transects with average 7 km length at 8 monitoring stations. Each transect was investigated 3 times per month. During these two years, 25 mammal species were recorded in total, accounting for 26.31% mammal species of Hunan Province. We calculated the alpha diversity index of each monitoring station and beta diversity index of whole reserve, and compared the Hellinger distance of species composition among stations in different seasons. The results showed that there was significant difference among mammal diversity in different inter-areas and monitoring stations. The mammal diversity level in core zone and relatively well-protected areas was significantly higher than that in other areas. The species compositions were significant different seasonally among different monitoring stations. The abundance of ungulates was relatively high because of lacking large predators. It is necessary to improve the methods and efficiency of routine monitoring for Hupingshan Nature Reserve. The ungulate control predetermined plan should be based on the monitoring results in order to stabilize the structure and function of reserve ecosystem.
    First record of genus Mesechinus (Mammalia: Erinaceidae) in Anhui Province, China— Mesechinus hughi
    CHEN Zhongzheng, TANG Xiaofan, TANG Hongyi, ZHAO Hantao, MIAO Qiaoli, SHI Zifan, WU Hailong
    2020, 40(1):  96-99.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150318
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    Two specimens of Mesechinus hughi were collected from Pingshan, Yi County, Huangshan (29°56'23"N, 117°58'48"E) and Xikou, Xuanzhou, Xuancheng (30°34'42"N, 118°41'47"E) in Anhui Province, in July and September 2018, respectively. Ears of the two specimens are similar, in length, to the surrounding spines. The two specimens have few wholly white spines, and most spines (>95%) have four sections; white constituting the basal two-thirds, followed by a black ring, narrow light ring, and black tip. These characters are similar to those of the specimens from the type locality (Baoji, Shaanxi Province). The P-distance of Cyt b between the population in Anhui and that of Shaanxi is from 4.9% to 5.3%, and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support the two populations as monophyletic (BS = 95%). This was the first recorded distribution of Mesechinus in Anhui Province and Mesechinus hughi south of the Changjiang River.
    Determination and analysis of trace elements in serum of captive giant pandas
    YUE Mengjia, WANG Chengdong, WANG Tianzhen, YANG Mingxian, DENG Linhua, LI Desheng, ZUO Zhicai
    2020, 40(1):  100-108.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150286
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    The background values of trace elements are used to evaluate the levels in giant pandas, also provide a scientific basis for the prevention, diagnosis of diseases and rational feeding methods. To establish the background values and further improve the database of trace elements in serum of giant panda, this paper presents results from 97 blood samples collected under non-anesthesia condition by caring rearing and medical training of captive giant pandas from CCRCGP. The contents of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and Cd in serum determined by atomic absorption spectrometry were 4830 μg/L, 1000 μg/L, 3220 μg/L, 38.37 μg/L, 4.79 μg/L, 23.49 μg/L, 4.76 μg/L, 3.02 μg/L and 1.47 μg/L, respectively. This paper analyzes the micronutrient levels in different sex and age groups by two-factor variance analysis. It is shown that the contents of essential Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni were normal, stable, and no significant difference between sex and age. The contents of harmful Pb, Cd were similar in different gender, but there was an accumulation trend with age within the safe range. The trace elements nutritional status in captive giant pandas is comfortable, furthermore, the feeding management and habitat environment suit for giant panda protection.