Table of Content

    30 November 2019, Volume 39 Issue 6
    Study on polymorphisms of microsatellites DNA of Chinese captive forest musk deer(Moschus berezovskii
    WANG Dou, XU Guan, WANG Hongyong, HE Sen, BU Shuhai, ZHENG Xueli
    2019, 39(6):  599-607.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150323
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    The genetic diversity and genetic structure of captive forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) were investigated using 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers in three core provenances (Bashan, Qinling, and Western Sichuan Plateau). A total of 142 alleles were detected in 167 individuals, and there were 10.92 alleles and 6.373 effective alleles per locus in average. The observed heterozygosity(He)and expected heterozygosity(Ho)were 0.8302 and 0.3897, respectively. The above three populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity, but still existed the inbreeding phenomenon according to lower observed heterozygosity. It suggested that no significant genetic differentiation existed among populations by the Pairwise Fst and AMOVA analysis. Moreover, these individuals were clustered to three categories by structure analysis (the best K value = 3), which were consistent with their geographical origins, although there were small fractions of introgression among the populations. In conclusion, the Qinling population may be used as a gene pool for idioplasmic improvement due to its high genetic diversity.
    Occurrences of Xiamen Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis Osbeck, 1765), in waters of Weitou Bay, China
    WU Fuxing, WANG Xianyan, DING Xiaohui, DAI Yufei, ZHAO Liyuan, ZHU Qian
    2019, 39(6):  608-613.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150308
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    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis Osbeck, 1765, hereafter referred to as humpback dolphin) in Xiamen waters, South China Sea, is a threatened population. Previous field surveys on this population have been conducted in Xiamen waters, as well as adjacent waters of Zhangzhou in the south. Supplementary, the present study expanded boat-based surveys and photo-identification of humpback dolphin to the east, including waters of Weitou Bay, Jinjiang City as well as Xiaodeng and partial Dadeng Island, during June to August, 2013, to obtain the basic information on distribution and abundance of humpback dolphin in this region. A total of 26 independent humpback dolphin sightings were encountered and 27 individuals were identified. All the individuals identified in Weitou Bay were matched in the photo-identification database of Xiamen humpback dolphin, indicating that humpback dolphin in Weitou Bay is a partial expand to Xiamen waters. The overall encounter rates in the present study area were 5.8 sightings/100km and 24.8 individuals/100km, which were higher than those in other waters in Xiamen, indicating this area is a critical habitat for humpback dolphins, and deserves high priority for conservation and management.
    Embracing behavior in male Tibetan macaques(Macaca thibetana)at Mt. Huangshan
    LIU Yiming, WANG Xi, ZHANG Qixin, FANG Xingli, LI Jinhua
    2019, 39(6):  614-622.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150297
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    Social primates display affiliative behaviors like embracing which is also considered a reconciliatory behavior for repairing inter-individual relationships during post-conflict events. We studied embracing behavior in one group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, Anhui Province. Our results showed that embracing in male Tibetan monkeys included three forms: embrace without touching genital (EWG), embrace with genital touching (ETG) and embrace with genital licking (EGL). Both EWG and ETG occurred more frequently than EGL. These three types of embracing behaviors mainly occurred in non-conflict contexts, but ETG occurred more often in the context of conflict. The frequency of EWG decreased but the frequency of ETG increased, with increased age of individuals. In adult males, embrace often occurred between individuals with similar social rank, the frequency of embrace acceptance was also positively correlated social rank. Higher ranked individuals received embraces more frequently. The frequency of embrace initiation was also positively correlated with their social bonds. Based on these results, we suggest that embracing behavior could reflect a self-recognition of social rank and it serves an important function of increasing social bonds among adult male Tibetan macaques.
    Current status and conservation of François’ Langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) in Encheng National Nature Reserve in Guangxi, China
    LI Wenhua, SONG Qingchuan, HUANG Rong, ZHAO Jiaxin, LI Youbang, ZHOU Qihai
    2019, 39(6):  623-629.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150289
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    François’ langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) is a rare and endangered primate species, restricted to habitats characterized by karst topography. As a result of illegal hunting and habitat loss, populations of this species have decreased dramatically. From October to December 2017, we conducted a survey on the population status and distribution of Fran?ois’s langurs in Encheng National Nature Reserve (NNR) using partition-spot surveys. We evaluated the conservation status and threat factors, which are needed for developing conservation strategies. Overall, we found 89 sleeping sites, including 43 sites with fresh feces. Combining this survey and interviews with local people, we detected 18 groups, with an estimated total population of 100-105 individuals, including one albino adult female. There were 11 groups within the reserve, and 7 groups outside the reserve; group size ranged from 3 to 12 individuals. The primary threats are habitat fragmentation and degradation in Encheng NNR, which must be mitigated to ensure the survival of this imperiled species.
    Population dynamics of semi-free-ranging rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) in Qianlingshan Park, Guizhou, China
    ZHU Yuan, LU Zhiyuan, LI Da, WANG Qi, SU Haijun
    2019, 39(6):  630-638.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150281
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    Scientifically analyzing the population growth dynamics and determining its environmental carrying capacity for controlling the population?explosion?caused hazards, and it is very important for management of urban semi-free-ranging animals.In this article, the present population characteristics, population growth, environmental capacity, and the threat or hazards with respect to the semi-free-ranging rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) in Qianlingshan Park, Guiyang, Guizhou province, China, were all collected as follows.1) comparing the wild population, there are an over-crowed macaque population inhabited in a narrow area in this park with over-sized groups.Totally 1067 individuals belongs to 8 stable groups (group size:Min:47; Max:226,Mean±SD:133±67)
    with 1.33 sex radio (♀/♂).The population density of whole park was 251 individuals per Km2, but it can reach to 2134 individuals per Km2 within the tourist routes and surrounding areas where the macaque inhabit.2) the population is grown rapidly with high reproductive potential.An exponential curve (annual growth rate is 8.08%; formula of exponential curve is ( y=30.6789*exp[(x-1987)/8.7894+ 64.0193) illustrated the population growth since 1992.The age structure of present population showed as Adults>Juveniles>Infants, but among them, there is a large amount of sexual maturity individuals, namely large effective population size, with 1.50 sex radio (♀/♂), so which means high reproduction potentiality of the entire population.3) The environmental capacity of population is 792 individuals according to the K-value calculated from Logistic curve of population growth  ( y=792/(1+2.8495E+183*exp-0.2104x), which is approximately approaching to a specific range of population size that will lead the frequency curve of injury accident caused by macaques into a stable duration at a high level.Additionally, the influence on floristic diversity caused by macaque was investigated. The field survey and monitoring of population showed that, the bio?diversity loss, conflicts between human and macaques, and public health risk could emerge frequently due to the over?sized population and its inhabitation at narrow areas. According to results, we can suggest that the population sized should be control under the value of K/2, namely 400, by the ways of birth control or macaques deliver in to other places, which would be reasonable for minimizing the relative hazards. This paper could be helpful for the macaque’s conservation management of Qianlingshan Park, as well as a useful reference for urban wildlife-human conflict management in other cities.
    Preliminary studies on the home range and diurnal behaviour of Callosciurus erythraeus in an urban garden
    YUAN Yaohua, LIU Qunxiu, ZHANG Xin
    2019, 39(6):  639-650.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150298
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    From Dec 2015 to May 2016, nine Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) were radio tracked at Shanghai Zoo. Home range sizes, spatial shapes and overlaps between individuals were inferred via minimum convex polygon (MCP) and 95% kernel-based estimators. Behaviour was also observed and recorded from line transect surveys. The average home range size was found to be 12376㎡ (MCP)-18146㎡ (95%Kernel). The home range size of male individuals was not significantly larger than females (Independent-sample t test,t=-0.101,P=0.922). There is no significant difference between the overall ranges in winter and those observed in spring (One way ANOVA,MCP:F=3.900,P=0.070;95%FK:F=3.566,P=0.081). There were overlaps between home ranges of different individuals with OI 0.36-0.63 in winter and 0.02-0.43 in spring. The diurnal behaviour of Callosciurus erythraeus was observed to comprise travelling (29.4%), feeding (25.1%) and resting (24.7%), though in winter, time spent feeding (33.3%) was significantly higher than that observed in summer (16.4%) (One way ANOVA,F=119.268,P<0.001). Territorial behaviour also varied significantly between different seasons (One way ANOVA,F=140.416,P<0.001). The diurnal activities of Callosciurus erythraeus showed a “U” pattern with active periods from 05:00-08:00 and 15:00-18:00, and a primary resting period from 12:00-13:00. 
    Rodent diversity and its relationship with environmental factors in Mt. Helan, Inner Mongolia
    SHI Rui, LI Zongzhi, GAO Hui, PANG Bo, YAN Yongbin, TENG Liwei, LIU Zhensheng
    2019, 39(6):  651-661.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150322
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    Structure of rodent community reflects the characteristics of ecological environment. This study systematically analyses species distribution patterns and community diversity of the rodents in the Mt. Helan National Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia, an "isolated island" in Alashan desert area. The reserve is divided into five habitat types, with a total of 18,748 effective clip days in spring, summer and autumn in 2013. Our project captured two hundred-thirty-five rodents, belonging to 13 species, 11 genera, 5 families in 2 orders, in the area, among them Spermophilus alashanicus is the dominant species. The results indicate that the taxa favored for moisture environment and habitat are the main composition of the community, accounting for 54% of the rodents captured, echoing the unique geographical location and environment of the Mt. Helan, where proportion of moisture environment and habitat increases following increased altitude in the middle and low elevations. According to indices of "edge effect", rodents in the deserts of mountain and grassland, and mountain grassland shrub exhibit a higher density of the community than those in other habitats. In addition to environmental factors, such diversity pattern may have been shaped by the two factors: the increasing number of species, and the evenness of species distribution. The results of redundancy analysis show that vegetation height and coverage, shrub (tree) height and altitude, are the most important environmental factors driving the formation of rodent community. Interestingly, different from the others, vegetation coverage is negatively correlated with community diversity index decreases following the increased vegetation coverage.
    Comparative studies on food habit analysis of gastric contents and colon contents of plateau pika(Ochotona curzoniae
    HOU Chu, SHANG Guozhen, WU Xueqin, CAO Yifan, CHEN Jiahui, BIAN Jianghui
    2019, 39(6):  662-669.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150290
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    Food habit of small mammals is an important component in the study of population ecology. In this study, gastric contents and colon contents of 12 plateau pikas(Ochotona curzoniae)were tested through microhistological analysis in The Haibei Resrarch Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem under Chinese Academy of Sciences during July to June, 2018. The results showed that a total of 16 species(genus)of plants from 7 different families were identified in the gastric contents, including 15.07% of Elymus nutans, 9.07% of Oxytropis spp., 7.38% of Kobresia spp., 7.11% of Potentilla anserine. In contrast, only 6 species(genus)of plants from 3 different families were identified in the colon contents, including 21.99% Kobresia spp., 13.68% of Elymus nutans, 5.04% of Poa spp., 2.00% of Potentilla anserine. According to the microhistological results of contents of gastric and colon, through analyzing Simpson diversity index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index and niche width index of the food composition of plateau pikas, it shows that Simpson diversity index, Shannon diversity index and niche width index were higher in gastric contents than in colon contents, however, Pielou evenness index was not. The recognizable rate in gastric contents was significant higher than in colon contents(χ 2=8.619,df=1,P<0.01). The results indicated that the contents of gastric and colon observed in food habit were obviously different from each, the food preference indices were different, microhistological analysis of gastric contents can more accurately responds food composition and food selectivity of plateau pikas than colon contents.
    Effects of changing nutrients content on ingestion and digestion of Mus caroli and Rattus losea
    YIN Fei, QIN Jiao, CHEN Yi, SU Qianqian, LEI Ting, ZHANG Chunlan, LIU Quansheng
    2019, 39(6):  670-677.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150330
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    The ability to obtain sufficient nutrients and energy from the environment determines the survival and reproduction of animals. To clarify the digestive strategies of changing nutrient contents for sympatric rodents with different body sizes, the Mus caroli and Rattus losea were fed with three diets with varied nutrient content. On the 10th and 20th day, the food intake, fecal output, net food intake and apparent digestibility were determined using the food balance method. The results showed that there was no significant change in body weight between the three food groups of M. caroli and R. losea during experiments, indicating that they were able to adapt to changes in food quality. In M. caroli, the daily intake of high-protein group on the 10th day was no different from that of the normal group, but significantly higher than the high starch group; the fecal output of the high protein group was significantly higher than that of the high starch group and the normal group. The apparent digestibility of the high starch group and the normal group was significantly higher than that of the high protein group. On the 20th day, there was no difference in daily food intake among the three groups of animals; the daily fecal output in the high protein group was higher than that in the high starch group and the normal group. The Rattus losea showed only 10 days when the high starch group and the normal group had higher apparent digestibility than the high protein group. This study revealed that M. caroli and R. losea can be adapted to changes in the nutrient composition of the food through different feeding and digestion strategies, although the difference in body size are large between the two rodents.
    Analysis of urinary volatile constituents of wild Anourosorex squamipes
    ZONG Hao, HU Tao, DU Rong, LI Jialing, FENG Dan, WANG Qian, LEI Ziyong, LI Qi, FU Changkun
    2019, 39(6):  678-687.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150277
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    Urine plays an important role in chemical communications among mammals. In this study,headspace-soild phase microextraction(HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were used to analyze the urine compositions in Anourosorex squamipes. Our reserach showed that 1) Through searching the mass spectrometry library of the National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST),we found that the 86 chemical compounds of their urine mainly included toaldehydes,alcohols,ketones,heterocycles,esters,hydrocarbons,aromatic hydrocarbons,sulfurcompounds,olefins,phenols,etc,and different individual odors contained unique volatile compounds. 2) Ten volatile compounds in urine were specific to male and female individuals. Six volatile compounds in urine were found only in females while four compounds were found only in males.This indicates that there are significant sexual differences in the chemical compositions of urine.There are 76 volatile substances in the urine of the female while only 33 in the urine of the male,also indicating that females had more chemical signals in urine than males. 3)The relative contents of different chemical components in urine were different,and the relative contents of the same component among different individuals were different. By analyzing the chemical composition of the urine of Anourosorex squamipes,This study will further our understanding of the chemical communication function of volatile components in the urine of Anourosorex squamipes,and to provide basic information for the development of attractants.
    A new record of mammals in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region—Reeve’s muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi Ogilby, 1839)
    LUO Juanjuan, QIN Jiahui, LI Jiaqi, LAN Guangcheng, GUO Zhihong, XU Yongheng, SONG Sen
    2019, 39(6):  688-693.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150262
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    During the camera-trapping survey at Wanghuannan, Erlonghe and Hongxia Forest Farms in the Liupan Mountain National Nature Reserve in Guyuan City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, 49 independent detections of Reeve’s muntjac, Muntiacus reevesi were captured by eight infrared-triggered camera-traps with 274 photographs and 12 video clips from July, 2017 to August, 2018. The Reeve’s muntjac is an endemic species of China and mainly distributed in south China, such as Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou and Taiwan Provinces, and also distributed in Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces adjacent to Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. This species was for the first time recorded in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, so its distribution range has been expanded in China. This discovery has enriched the distribution information of Reeve’s muntjac. This discovery will also play an important role in the study of biodiversity and species integrity in the area of Liupan Mountain.