Table of Content

    30 May 2020, Volume 40 Issue 3
    A study on morphological variation and geographical range of Anderson's white-bellied rat
    LI Feihong, YANG Qisen, WEN Zhixin, XIA Lin, ZHANG Feng, ABRAMOV Alexei, GE Deyan
    2020, 40(3):  209-230.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150243
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    Niviventer andersoni (Thomas, 1911) is an endemic species of China. This taxon has the largest body-size when compared with congeneric species of the genus Niviventer Marshall, 1976. Fossil records showed this species extended to the low altitude regions of Southeast China during the late Quaternary in Chongqing and Guizhou, suggesting its potentiality of southward expansion during the cold climate. However, historical resources suggested that N. andersoni is mainly confined to the Southwestern mountainous region in China. A comprehensive study on its morphological differentiation is also lacking. Our study is intended to explore the intraspecific morphological variation among different populations and revise the distribution range of this species by integrating information from collection records, DNA sequences, and morphological data. Our databases were derived from specimens preserved in major zoological museums of the world, field work carried out in the last ten years, and fossil records compiled from all available historical publications. Phylogenetic structure analyses based on Cytochrome b displayed three genetic lineages within this species. N. andersoni andersoni is included in the lineage of Mountains around Sichuan Basin and Southeast and Central China, N. a. ailaoshanensis is included in the lineage of Southwest Yunnan and Southeast Tibet. Based on statistical
    analyses of craniodental measurements, significant morphological variation was presented beween different geographical populations of N. andersoni. Molecular voucher specimens and museum collections showed that N. andersoni is widely distributed in Central and Southern China, including southeastern Tibet region to the Hengduan Mountains, Qinling Mountains, and the southeast Wuling Mountains. However, when compared with the elevation of fossil sites, the distribution of extant populations showed clear trend of upward shift.
    Discussed and revised geographical distribution of Chimarrogale leander in China
    WANG Qiaoyun, XIAO Haoyun, LIU Shaoying, CHEN Shunde, YANG Li, XIAO Fei, ZHANG Lu, HE Kai
    2020, 40(3):  231-238.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150380
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    Chimarrogale himalayica was considered as widely distributed from South Himalaya, through southern China to eastern China, across Oriental and Palearctic Regions. Two subspecies including C. h. himalayica and C. h. leander were recognized, but the latter one was recognized as a distinct species genetically sister to C. platycephala from Japan. The distributional boundary between himalayica and leander remains unclear because of the lack of voucher specimen and genetic material. Chimarrogale specimens were obtained during recent fieldworks in Sichuan (32°35'45.6"N, 104°43'26.4"E), Zhejiang (29°12'17.9"N, 120°30'57.6"E) and Hunan Provinces (30°0'54.3"N, 110°46'58.8"E; 29°38'60"N, 109°40'48.0"E), and these specimens could be safely assigned to C. leander based on phylogenetic analysis using the complete cytochrome b gene. We examined specimens deposited in museums, compared the external morphology. Our revision suggested the distribution of C. leander in Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan and Zhejiang, most provinces in the southeastern China. The distribution of C. himalayica in China is only confirmed in Yunnan, although it may be distributed in southern Tibet. The distribution pattern is likely shaped by the topographic structure in China, which led to geographic isolation and allopatric speciation.
    Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Typhlomys in China based on karyotypic and phylogenetic analyses
    SU Weiting, CHEN Zhongzheng, WAN Tao, WANG Xia, ZHOU Hongyan, HU Yi, WANG Jinhuan, JIANG Xuelong, NIE Wenhui, HE Kai
    2020, 40(3):  239-248.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150365
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    Typhlomys is a relict genus of Platacanthomyidae. Typhlomys spp. are mainly distributed in the mountainous forests of southern China and northmost Vietnam. Although four species and one putative new species were recognized in a previous study, their karyotypes remain undetermined. In addition, a revision of taxonomic positions of several geographic populations were not determined. In the current study, we determined the karyotypes of Typhlomys cinereus and Typhlomys daloushanensis for the first time, and conducted molecular phylogenetic analysis to clarify the taxonomy and distribution of Typhlomys spp. in China. The diploid number of chromosomes in T. cinereus is 2n=36, with a karyotype of 14(M, SM) + 20 (A), XY (SM, A), and 6 Ag-NORs. T. daloushanensis has 2n=56, 2 (SM) + 52 (A), XX (SM, SM), and 4 Ag-NORs karyotypes. These karyotypes are distinct from that of T. chapensis (2n=38) from Vietnam and southern Yunnan, supporting the validity of each species. Phylogenetic analysis using three mitochondrial genes (Cyt b, ND2 and COI), suggested the Mts. Qinling and Nanling populations should be assigned to T. daloushanensis and T. cinereus, respectively. In addition, the populations from southern Yunnan and southern Guizhou represent distinct evolutionary lineages, implying unrecognized taxa may exist in the Karst mountains in Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan.
    Genetic diversity and molecular phylogeography of Sorex caecutiens in Northeast China
    LIU Zhu, JIANG Wenjing, WANG Aonan, YANG Xi, JIN Zhimin, TIAN Ximin, LI Dianwei
    2020, 40(3):  249-260.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150208
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    Eighty-one haplotypes were obtained from the complete Cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) of 99 Laxmann’s shrew Sorex caecutiens collected from three populations (Daxing’anling, Xiaoxing’anling and Changbaishan Mountains) in Northeast China. There was high overall genetic diversity (0.9940) and no significant variation in the genetic diversity of these three populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed that the differentiation among the three populations accounted for only 2.48% of total variation, that between sampling locations accounted for 0.34% of total variation, and that variation within sampling locations accounted for 97.19% of total variation. Genetic differentiation was not correlated with geographical distance separating populations. The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the Cyt b of S. caecutiens and on data downloaded from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree branched into three lineages. S. caecutiens from Japan's Hokkaido formed a small lineage.  S. caecutiens from Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, formed another small lineage. S. caecutiens from Northeast China and other regions of Eurasia formed a large lineage. There was no further obvious differentiation of the genetic structure on the Eurasian mainland. Median-joining network analysis showed results similar to the phylogenetic trees, which suggested there was no obvious genetic differentiation in S. caecutiens from the Eurasian continent lineages excepting the lineages from Hokkaido in Japan and Jeju Island in Republic of Korea. The correlation was weak between genetic
    differentiation and geographical distance. The analysis of population history showed that S. caecutiens in northeast China had experienced population expansion.
    A new record of a mammal in China and new provincial records in Xizang, Hubei and Sichuan
    LIU Shaoying, LIU Yingxun, MENG Guanliang, ZHOU Chengran, LIU Yang, LIAO Rui
    2020, 40(3):  261-270.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150354
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    Recent surveys of small mammals in China discovered national and provincial records. Taxonomic and phylogenetic studies based on morphological and molecular comparisons were used to assess the collections. Collected on the Pamir Plateau in Tashikuergan county, Xinjiang, Alticola albicauda is a new record for China. The tail of this species is wholly white ending in a white tuft. The belly is pure white. A phylogenetic analysis based on Cyt b places it together Alticola albicauda and forms the sister of Alticola argentatus. The K2P distance between them is 5%. Further, Phodopus roborovskii was captured in Xizang and it is a new record for Tibet Autonomous Region. It does not differ morphologically from conspecifics elsewhere in China and its Cyt b K2P distance from a population in Ningxia is 0.6%. Meanwhile, collections verify the presence of Eothenomys fidelis in Sichuan for the first time. The characters of its teeth and proportion of TL/HBL are the same as in topotypes from Lijiang, Yunnan, but the specimens are smaller than the topotypes and they belong to a different subclade in the Cyt b tree. An average K2P distance of only 1.1% separates the two populations, suggesting they are conspecific. Finally, collections verify the presence of Ochotona xunhuaensis in Hubei for the first time. All specimens have a congenial tragus and flattened skull, which are diagnostic characters of the
    species, and K2P distance of Cyt b between the Hubei population and topotypes is 1.9%.
    Multivariate similarity clustering analysis on zoogeographical distribution of mammals in China
    LIU Jiaheng, LU Jiqi
    2020, 40(3):  271-281. 
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    Diverse topography and complex landforms occurred China, and the geographical distribution of animal exhibits significant differences across geographical regions. Based on literature research, the latest species diversity data, 692 species (belonging to 13 Orders, 56 Families and 246 Genera) of mammals in China were obtained. By using multivariate similarity clustering analysis (MSCA) method, zoogeographical distribution of mammals in China was analyzed according to 639 species (13 Orders, 49 Families, 215 Genera). The results showed that: 1) current zoogeographical distribution of mammals in China was categorized into 176 investigated geographical units (IGUs), and then merged into 63 basic geographic units (BGUs); 2) when taking the similarity coefficients values of 0.31, 0.25, and 0.15, the basic geographical units of mammals in China could be clustered into 10, 7 and 2 groups of BGUs, respectively. Consequently, a 3-level zoogeographical division, 2 Realms, 7 Regions, and 10 Sub-regions, of mammalian distribution of China was established. The result from this study suggested that the boundary between the Palaearctic and Oriental Realms within China in the World zoogeographical distribution Division should be seated in line with western Namjagbarwa Peak - Maqinggangri - northern Qinling Mountains - southern margin of Loess Plateau - Dabie Mountains - southern Huaihe River
    area- middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River.
    A diagnostic complex of features used to identify voles Myodes (Rodentia, Circetidae) in their sympatric areas
    Sergey Gashev, Fania Betlyaeva, Natalya Sorokina, Elena Bykova, Juri Kurhinen
    2020, 40(3):  282-289.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150386
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    Currently, no features of Red-backed Voles allow to reduce the ambiguity in the process of species identification. In this regard, the aim of this study is to develop a method for reliable identification of three sympatric species of voles (Myodes rufocanus, M. rutilus and M. glareolus). For this, the following objectives were achieved: 1) identification of features for the diagnosis of species; 2) composition of discrimination equations for each species. The 35 features proposed by various authors were studied to classify three species of red-backed voles, which are sympatric in most of their range. The acquisition of the craniodental measurements showed to be time-consuming and the results were highly variable: 15 features were chose to be excluded in the present analysis. A diagnostic complex of the 20 most conservative (i.e. cranial, odontologic and others) features was used in the analysis. Out of the 20 features, eight were proposed with discriminant equations developed by the program Statistica 10, which made it possible to sort individuals confidently into their respective species.
    Review on the taxonomy of Microtini (Arvicolinae: Cricetidae) with a catalogue of species occurring in China
    LIU Shaoying, JIN Wei, TANG Mingkun
    2020, 40(3):  290-301.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150351
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    The speciose tribe Microtini has a very wide distribution. Much controversy exists on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships. Historically, ten genera and 81 species have been assigned to Microtini, among which 7 genera and 24 species were reported from China. Through extensive field collection and systematic studies, we revise the phylogeny of this tribe and its taxonomy of this taxon in China by integrating molecular and morphological data. Results confirm 8 genera in Microtini worldwide: Alexandromys, Chionomys, Lasiopodomys, Lemmiscus, Microtus, Neodon, Proedromys and Volemys. Blanfordimys was confirmed as a subgenus of Microtus, and Phaiomys as a junior synonym of Neodon and Alexandromys was elevated as full genus rank. Arvicola was excluded from Microtini. Thus, China has 6 genera and 26 species of Microtini. Lasiopodomys fuscus, Phaiomys leucurus and Microtus clarkei were reassigned to Neodon, and recent studies nominated recognition of Proedromys liangshanensis, Neodon linzhiensis, Neodon medogensis and Neodon nyalamensis.
    A new record of genus Pantherina in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China—Pantherina griselda (Thomas, 1912)
    PU Yingting, JIANG Haijun, WANG Xuming, TANG Keyi, WANG Qiong, LIAO Rui, CHEN Shunde, LIU Shaoying
    2020, 40(3):  302-306.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150358
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    In September 2011, two shrew specimens were collected with traps from Mt. Liupanshan, in Guyuan County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (35º22′03″ N, 106º19′40″ E, 2 000 m asl). Pelage, skull, and teeth morphologies of the two specimens are similar to those of Pantherina griselda from Gansu and Shaanxi Province. Phylogenetic analysis by Bayesian inference supported the two populations to be monophyletic (PP =1.0), and the K2P genetic distance of Cyt b gene between the two populations is only 0.7%. Thus, these two specimens were identified as P. griselda based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. This is the first recorded distribution of P. griselda in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.