Table of Content

    30 July 2020, Volume 40 Issue 4
    The relationship between hoarding behavior and personality and metabolism in Mongolian gerbils(Meriones unguiculatus
    TIAN Shuangjie, ZHANG Xueying, LIU Wei, WANG Dehua
    2020, 40(4):  307-316.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150407
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    Food hoarding is an adaptive strategy in animals to cope with the seasonal and unpredictable changes of food resources. In group-living animals, the siblings usually show different food hoarding behaviors, but the relationship between food hoarding behavior and personality and metabolism has not yet been studied. In this study, we selected Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) with high and low food hoarding behavior, and compared the personality (boldness and exploration), resting metabolic rate, serum thyroid hormones, locomotion distance during food hoarding and average daily metabolic rate after food hoarding of these two groups. Our results showed that the amount of gerbils with high and low food hoarding behavior accounted for 49% (22/45) and 47% (21/45), respectively. Results of this study did not show significant differences in personality, resting metabolic rate and serum thyroid hormones between these two groups. Moreover the movement distance of the high food-hoarders was significantly longer than that of the low food-hoarders during the hoarding period, and the average daily metabolic rate after hoarding in the high food-hoarding group was significantly lower than that in the low food-hoarding group. These findings indicate that the food-hoarding behavior of gerbils in the laboratory condition did not related to the personality and resting metabolic rate, and the high food hoarders would reduce the total energy consumption after food hoarding to compensate the high energy cost during the food hoarding period.
    Potential habitat suitability assessment of Amur tiger(Panthera tigris altaica) in Lesser Khingan Mountains based on MaxEnt model
    ZHU Shibing, QU Yi, Yachmennikova Anna, Kotlov Ivan, Sandlerskiy Robert, Rozhnov Viatcheslav, Hernandez-Blanco Jose Antonio, ZHANG Shifang, LIU Yingzhu, ZHANG Hongqiang
    2020, 40(4):  317-328.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150413
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    Lesser Khingan Mountains territory is situated in the areas of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) historical distribution. In recent years, Amur tiger individuals have been registered in Lesser Khingan Mountains several times. That indicates the possibility of population restoration exists. To check the suitability of Lesser Khingan Mountains as the habitat for Amur tiger, this research has been developed. We investigated region of Lesser Khingan Mountains (PRC), Amur Region and Jewish Autonomous Region of Russian Federation as the research area. As the base for modeling we’ve used the GPS coordinates that were received from tagged reintroduced Amur tigers during the project of tiger recovering organized by Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences at 2013-2015 on the territory of Russia. Here we adopted point data to the MaxEnt model, and included the environmental data of vegetation, climate, terrain and snow cover as factors, to analyze the suitability and distribution of the potential habitat of Amur tiger in Lesser Khingan Mountains under the natural environment conditions. The results show that the potential suitable habitat area of Amur tiger in Lesser Khingan Mountains is 9600-10300 km2, and it is mainly located in the North and East part of Lesser Khingan Mountains, with a small amount of scattered suitable habitat in the middle, west and southeast part. The sub suitable habitat area is 24600-27600 km2, and is mainly located in the surrounding area of suitable habitat. The difference between leaf and shrub layer, evapotranspiration, normalized vegetation index, leaf area index, precipitation seasonality and precipitation in the coldest season are the main environmental variables affecting the habitat suitability of Amur tiger. The Lesser Khingan Mountains still have the natural conditions for the existence of Amur tiger population.
    The finding of a Bryde’s whale with abnormal upper jaw and baleen near Weizhou Island in the Beibu Gulf: implication for conservation
    WU Caiwen, JIANG Huiping, ZHANG Di, ZHU Lin, HAO Xiuqing, ZHANG Hongke, ZHOU Yu, QIAO Ying, ZHANG Xuelei, SUN Lu, YANG Guang, CHEN Bingyao
    2020, 40(4):  329-336.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150377
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    In the early 2018, the Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera edeni) began to appear around Weizhou Island in the Beibu Gulf. A Bryde’s whale with abnormal upper jaw and baleen had attracted public’s wide attention, its videos went viral on the internet. The individual had been sighted for ten times by our team, mostly (90%) occurred alone. It mainly occurred in the waters between Weizhou Island and Xieyang Island, ranging 14.0 km2 in minimum convex polygon, and 166.9 km2 in kernel density estimator. Unfortunately, this individual was found to be dead floating on the sea in March 30, 2019. According to the carcass sighting date of March 30, and its highly decomposed status, the death date of this whale was probably between March 25 and March 27, and the cause of death was unknown. Based on analyses of photos and anatomy, the reason for its abnormal upper jaw and baleen were possibly deduced to the damage by fishing nets or cord strangle. Subspecies status of this Bryde’s whale individual cannot be identified only by morphology, thus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop and cytochrome b (Cyt b) were used to do the moleclar identification. Two sequences of 909bp and 395bp were obtained, respectively. Sequence blasting and phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that this individual belonged to the coastal Bryde’s whale subspecies (Eden’s whale, B. e. edeni). Because the species migrate long distance seasonlly, it was not confirmed whether this Bryde’s whale got injured by the fishing net or cord strangle in Chinese waters. Even though, the local authorities are supposed to strengthen the publicity of whale protection and reduce the disposal of marine litter, such as fishing net, and create safe habitat for Bryde’s whales.
    Niche differentiation between giant pandas and its sympatric species in altitude distribution
    LUO Lianlian, ZHOU Hong, TANG Junfeng, WEI Wei, HAN Han, ZHANG Zejun, HONG Mingsheng
    2020, 40(4):  337-345.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150355
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    The giant panda(Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an vulnerable species endemic to China. Captive pandas are sometimes released into the wild for conservation purposes. The success of such reintroductions may be affected by the characteristics of the release site, such as climate, habitat, and the presence of sympatric animals. Based on field investigations and niche theory, this study explored the spatial relationships between giant pandas and other medium-to-large-sized sympatric animals in Liziping National Nature Reserve. Some 20 sympatric species were found in the reserve, belonging to two classes and five orders. Oriental species were predominant (30%). The elevational distributions of sympatric animals were significantly lower than that of giant pandas (P < 0.05). All five orders had significant niche differentiation from giant pandas in terms of altitudinal distribution (P < 0.001). Primates had different spatial distributions to giant pandas, while other orders had similar ones. Artiodactyla comprised the greatest proportion of documented animal traces (54.14%). The transect co-occurrence rate of red panda and giant panda was 43.75%. The results indicate that there are abundant sympatric animals in this reserve and that they have significant altitudinal niche differentiation from giant pandas. This study provides an important reference for programs intending to release captive giant pandas into the wild.
    Population and distribution status of the Tibetan argali (Ovis hodgsoni) in the Shiqu County, Sichuan Province
    ZHOU Huaming, WU Meng, LI Jing, LI Zhiming, WANG Jie
    2020, 40(4):  346-354.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150389
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    Tibetan argali (Ovis hodgsoni) was suspected to be extinct in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture for a long time. No living individuals were found in the field surveys until the end of last century. We surveyed 12 counties and 34 rural towns in the Ganzi Prefecture by questionnaire and line transects in 2013-2018. We found 321 argali in 24 herds in the Shiqu County. The herds averaged 13.4 ± 11.4 (SD, range 1-41) individuals. Altogether we counted 45 lambs, 38 sub-adults, 110 adult males and 128 adult females. There were 14 herds comprised of only rams (7.4 ± 4.6) (range 1-15) individuals, 8 herds comprised of only females and juveniles (24.6 ± 13.0 ) (range 9-41) individuals, and 2 herds that were a mix of males, females and juveniles (8 and 12 individuals, respectively). The threats to the Tibetan argali include over-grazing, shepherd dogs, wolves (Canis lupus), snow leopards (Panthera uncia), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We conservatively estimate argali density to be 0.33-0.57 ind./km2. We suggest a more thorough survey be conducted to understand the distribution, habitat, and population status of argali within Shiqu County. Furthermore, we believe there is a need to develop programs to educate the public about the regions’ ecological needs and expand the ecotourism industry.
    Temporal and spatial distribution of anthropological disturbance in sika deers’ habitat of Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve
    LIU Zhou, ZHOU Hu, GUO Rui, ZHANG Shusheng, XU Lijuan, LUO Yuan, XU Aichun
    2020, 40(4):  355-363.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150396
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    It is important to quantify anthropological activities to threatening species in nature reserves. The application of infrared camera-trapping provide sufficient data to assess anthropological human activities. We set up 57 camera traps to survey and monitor the impact of anthropological disturbance to sika deer(Cervus nippon kopschi)in Qianqingtang area of Zhejiang Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve from November 2014 to December 2017. A total of 152 independent photographs of disturbance were recorded and classified into seven categories, including walking disturbance, gathering disturbance, logging disturbance, poaching disturbance, cattle disturbance, goat disturbance, and dog disturbance. Our results show that anthropological disturbances were overlapped with the sika deer distribution pattern over time and space. Human direct disturbances (including walking, gathering, logging, poaching) play the most important role of all. The most disturbances occurred in spring and autumn, as well as walking, gathering, logging, and dog disturbance mainly occurred from January to June, respectively in terms of season and month. The disturbances of cattle mostly observed on April and November, and goat on April and September, respectively. Most disturbances happened at 07: 00-18: 00, and the highest disturbance intensity happened at 08: 00-10: 00. The main distribution areas of sika deer (Daochangping, Lailijian, Luoshijian) and its water sources (Qianqingtang Lake) suffered high interference. Human and dog disturbances happened in the western part of the Qianqingtang area, while cattle and goat disturbances commonly in the eastern part. This study provides a case for the use of camera-trapping in quantifying the anthropological disturbance in nature reserves and contributes a scientific basis for conservation strategies on wildlife management.
    The research on the time continuity and space popularization of the control measures of wild boar
    CUI Shuang, LIU Bingwan
    2020, 40(4):  364-373.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150372
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    In recent years, the conflict between human beings and wild boar (Sus scrofa) has increased due to the growth of wild boar population and the change of land use. From August to October 2018, in the Hunchun area of Jilin Province, the effect and spatial characteristics of wild boar damage control were studied in the sample plots where the prevention and control measures had been used and not used. Techniques applied include playing the voice of the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), playing the scream of wild boar, playing the voice of wolf (Canis lupus), using vision equipment including solar blinkers, as well as deploying of anti-animal ribbons, electronic fences, and feces the Amur tiger’s, especially comprehensively using the sounds and feces of Amur tiger’s. Based on the data of wild boar damage control in 2018, combined with the published data from 2011 to 2017, we further analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of wild boar control measures. The validity period is the interval between the beginning of the experiment and the beginning of the damage when the wild boar enters the sample plots. The results are as follows: (1) There is a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group (P<0.001). The validity period of the control group is (1.33±0.58)d. For the experimental group, the validity period of wild boar control measures between the used and unused groups are (16.25±9.00)d and (20.58±9.61)d. There is no significant difference (P=0.127);(2) The study on the effect of the same wild boar damage control measure in 2011, 2013, 2016, 2017 and 2018 showed that there is no significant change (P=0.200; P=0.295; P=0.221; P=0.080; P=0.090; P=0.050) among the validity period of control measures, such as playing Amur tiger sounds for 1 min plus blank for 5 min, placing feces in rain proof devices, using of Amur tiger’s voice plus feces, and placing red, yellow and green solar blinkers. And there was a significant downward trend with the adult wolf sounds group (P=0.003). There was an upward trend with the Amur tiger sounds and wild boar scream group (P=0.001), but the short validity period is (13.67±2.62) d, which had no significance of popularization. Therefore, playing the sounds of Amur tiger, comprehensively applying the sounds and feces of the Amur tiger, solar blinkers in the control measures of wild boar damage has space popularization and time continuity.
    Relationships between stereotypical behavior and fecal steroid hormone in captive Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster)
    QIN Yuhong, WANG Mengyang, LI Yong, ZHOU Mi, BAI Shoulin, MENG Xiuxiang
    2020, 40(4):  374-379.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150390
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    During July-August 2017 and June-July 2018, we studied the relationships between stereotyped behavioral development and fecal steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone and estradiol) in captive Alpine musk deer. The research took place at the Musk Deer Breeding Center of Xinglong Shan Nature Reserve, in Gansu Province. We collected stereotypic behavior data using focal sampling and all-occurrence recording, while radioimmunoassay was used for fecal steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone and estradiol) determination. We found cortisol level to be higher in Alpine musk deer with stereotyped behavior (111.099 ± 16.231) ng/g than in Alpine musk deer without stereotyped behavior (95.640 ± 9.738) ng/g (P > 0.05). There was no difference in testosterone level between male Alpine musk deer with (135.900 ± 21.582) ng/g or without (108.182 ± 9.689) ng/gstereotyped behavior (P > 0.05). However, there was significantly less estradiol in female Alpine musk deer which showed stereotyped behavior (0.445 ± 0.116) ng/g than in females not showing stereotyped behavior (10.843 ± 1.142)ng/g (P < 0.05). Finally, we found the relationship between expression of stereotyped behavior and hormone level to be sex-specific, showing a negative correlation in females but no correlation in males Alpine musk deer, which might be related to females’ reproduction and health. In musk deer farming, fecal steroid hormone levels (especially estradiol) can be considered an appropriate monitoring index reflecting the stress and health of captive musk deer.
    Preliminary investigation on mammals and birds using infrared cameras in Chongzuo White-Headed Langur Nature Reserve, Guangxi
    DUAN Xiaomin, LIU Jia, LIN Jianzhong, LI Jiaqi, ZHOU Qihai
    2020, 40(4):  380-389.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150301
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    Chongzuo White-Headed Langur National Nature Reserve is a typical karst landscape with abundant wildlife. In order to assess the status of large and medium-sized mammals and forest birds in the reserve, 60 infrared camera traps were set in the Tuozhu area of the reserve for continuous monitoring. Based on 4848 independent photographs collected from January 2017 to January 2018, we identified 16 mammal species and 29 bird species,including two Class Ⅰ and four Class Ⅱ state key protected animals. Based on a relative abundance index, Leopoldamys edwardsi , Melogale moschata, Tupaia belangeri, Sus scrofa and Herpestes urva were ranked as the five most abundant mammal specices.Lophura nycthemera, Pitta soror, Myophonus caeruleus and Gorsachius melanolophus were ranked as the four most common bird species. Leopoldamys edwardsi and Melogale moschata were predominantly nocturnal, while Sus scrofa , Herpestes urva , Lophura nycthemera and Pitta soror were mostly diurnal. There was no significant difference in species number and species diversity index between core zone, buffer zone and experimental zone. Our results provide preliminary data for species composition of large and medium-sized mammals and forest birds, their relative abundances, and spatial distributions in Chongzuo Reserve. This data is important for future research and protection management.
    Differences in feeding and hoarding behaviors between intact and weevil-infested seeds of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata by Apodemus draco and Niviventer confucianus under enclosure conditions
    HOU Xiang, ZHANG Bo, HAN Ning, FENG Tuo, WANG Jing, CHEN Xiaoning, CHANG Gang
    2020, 40(4):  390-397.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150331
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    Seed hoarding by seed-eating rodents is a critical strategy for survival during periods of food shortage. Rodents are believed to modify their hoarding behavior when seeds are infested with weevils (Curculio spp.). Here we investigated the effects of intact and insect infestation of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata on the hoarding behavior of two sympatric rodent species (Apodemus draco and Niviventer confucianus) under semi-natural enclosures in Foping National Nature Reserve, Qinling China, during September-November 2016. The results showed that: 1) A. draco and N. confucianus could distinguish intact and insect-infested seeds, and preferred to eat and hoard intact seeds. 2) Some of insect-infested seeds still were eaten and hoarded by both rodent species. 3) N. confucianus only larder hoarded intact and insect-infested seeds, whereas A. draco performed both larder hoarding and scatter hoarding intact seeds only. These results suggested that A. draco and N. confucianus can discriminate between infested and non-infested seeds but they showed different hoarding strategies for the infested and intact seeds, and such differences were largely affected by infested with weevils seeds of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata.
    Seasonal changes of physiological and blood indices of captive giant panda
    DENG Linhua, CHEN Yan, WEI Rongping, WANG Chengdong, HUANG Shan, WEI Ming, XU Yalin, WANG Qun, LI Desheng, ZHANG Zhizhong
    2020, 40(4):  398-406.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150347
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    In order to explore the influence of season, age and gender on the physiological and blood indices of captive giant panda, the blood indices of 18 individuals, including sub-adult, adult and aged, were monitored dynamically. The results showed that WBC, NEU, LYM, MON, BAS, RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCHC, PLT and MPV were significantly affected by the three factors(P<0.05),among which the interaction of age and season, gender and season had a significant effect on MON(P<0.01).In terms of blood biochemical indices, there were significant effects on TBIL, IDBIL, TP, ALB, GLO, A/G, AST, ALT, ST/LT, GGT, ALP, LDH, PA, ADA, 5-NT, AFU, TBA, BUN, UA, BMG, Na, CL, TG, HDL, APOA1, APOB, GLU(P<0.05).The interaction of age and season had significant effects on PA(P<0.05),and the interaction of gender and season had significant effects on PA and BMG sound(P<0.01).In addition, the content of Zn, Ca, Fe in blood trace elements was significantly affected by season and age(P<0.05).In conclusion, in addition to gender and age factors, seasonal changes have a significant influence on physiological and blood indices of giant panda .
    Use of Large Animal Immobilon and M99 for general anesthesia in Asian elephants
    BAO Mingwei, ZHOU Fangyi, XIONG Chaoyong, LI Derong, XU Dingze
    2020, 40(4):  407-412.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150383
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    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are the largest endangered land mammals in Asia. General anesthesia is required for their treatment, rescue, and live capture. From 2005 to 2019, using an anesthetic rifle and blow dart, 9 Asian elephants were anesthetized 12 times with 2.09±0.10 μg/kg (mean±standard error) etorphine hydrochloride and (8.54±0.40)μg/kg acetopromazine maleate compound (Large Animal Immobilon), or (3.47±0.15)μg/kg etorphine hydrochloride (M99); diprenorphine hydrochloride was used as an antagonist. In all cases, the animal was immobilized successfully, and no elephant died. The induction period lasted (11.00±0.71)min (Large Animal Immobilon) or (14.12±4.46)min (M99), and this was not significantly influenced by sex or age. During the induction period, the elephants were not excited. Activity and response to stimulation were gradually weakened, and the elephants fell to the side after losing consciousness. During the maintenance period, the vital signs of the elephants were monitored. The rectal temperature was found to be in the normal range, but tachycardia occurred occasionally. After the injection of the corresponding antagonist, the recovery period lasted 1-6 min, and the elephants might enter sleep after the recovery period.