Table of Content

    30 July 2023, Volume 43 Issue 4
    From Egypt to Kunming-Montreal—The shift of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework
    PING Xiaoge, ZHU Jiang, WEI Fuwen
    2023, 43(4):  357-363.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150816
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    The 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) adopted the KunmingMontreal Global Biodiversity Framework (hereinafter referred to as the Kunmeng Framework). This global biodiversity framework has gone through rounds of negotiation and consultation and the release of the zero draft, the first draft and the Kunmeng Framework. Some contents have been continuously adjusted, showing the compromises of parties on certain issues. This paper reviews in detail the indicators involved in the 2050 long-term goals and 2030 action targets in the zero draft, first draft, and the Kunmeng Framework, and proposes the following topics to be paid attention to: living in harmony with nature, genetic diversity conservation, protected area target, transformation and urgent actions, and the implementation of the framework. Future work should focus on urgent actions to translate global goals into national actions, providing financial support, and ensuring the effective implementation of the monitoring systems.
    Preliminary research on daily activity rhythm, habitat use and response to human activity of large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha) in Bayuelin Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province
    LIN Weiming, WENG Yue, A Jia, WANG Min, WANG Qi, WANG Fang
    2023, 43(4):  364-377.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150745
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    Large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha) is a small carnivore species of Viverridae. The species used to be widely distributed in southern China. However, its distribution range has rapidly decreased since the late 20th century and its population is believed locally extinct in many regions. The research gap in large Indian civet ecology leads to difficulties in conservation planning. Using infrared-triggered camera trapping techniques, we conducted field surveys in Bayuelin Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, for one and a half years. We deployed 100 camera traps and collected animal records of 19 912 camera days, among which large Indian civet was detected at 23 camera traps with 77 independent detections. Non-parametric circular kernel-density method is adopted to analyze the diel activity pattern of large Indian civet and sympatric small carnivores. Occupancy model is adopted to evaluate habitat use, with additional focus on species’response to human-related interference. The study suggests that large Indian civet has a strictly nocturnal activity pattern and high temporal overlap with masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) (Δ = 0. 88, P= 0. 290), hog badger (Arctonyx collaris) (Δ = 0. 80, P= 0. 056), leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) (Δ = 0. 73, P= 0. 002) and Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata) (Δ = 0. 72, P< 0. 001), but low temporal overlap with Chinese red panda (Ailurus styani) (Δ = 0. 19, P< 0. 001) and yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula) (Δ = 0. 16, P< 0. 001). Occupancy model reveals that the habitat use of large Indian civet is negatively associated with steep slopes, positively associated with relative abundance of potential prey and close to rivers. Large Indian civet is found mainly distributed in lower coniferous forest patches, but avoids bamboo understory. The species uses landscapes close to roads and abundant in human activities, but avoids free-ranging domestic dogs. The study fills the gaps in field research on large Indian civet ecology in China, supporting conservation planning in Bayuelin Nature Reserve as well as other regions where large Indian civet is considered a conservation target.
    The occupancy of six mammal species and the potential impacting factors in Jiulongshan National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province
    ZHENG Weicheng, ZHENG Zihong, LIU Julian, WANG Yu, YANG Xiaojun, HUANG Linping, DING Ping, ZENG Di
    2023, 43(4):  378-386.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150733
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    China is one of the countries with the most mammal species and threatened mammals in the world. It is essential to understand the spatial distribution of threatened mammals and the underlying impacting factors to enhance the protection efficiency of the natural reserves. Although mammal surveys have been conducted in most nature reserves in China, many researchers have focused on basic data collection. The local distribution of mammals and the potential impacting factors in nature reserves are still unclear, especially for some threatened mammal species. We used camera trap data of six mammal species in Jiulongshan National Nature Reserve to assess the occupancy of these species and the potential impacting factors by the Bayesian single-species occupancy models. The results indicated that the Macaca thibetana had the highest occupancy probability (48. 62%), and Prionailurus bengalensis had the lowest occupancy probability (2. 14%). For detection probability, P. bengalensis was the highest (22. 95%) and M. thibetana was the lowest (1. 75%). Furthermore, altitude was the most important factor in determining the occupancy of M. mulatta, Capricornis milneedwardsii, and P. bengalensis. The probability of water in one hundred meters significantly affected the detections of Muntiacus crinifrons, C. milneedwardsii, and P. bengalensis. The present study reveals that altitude and water are essential environmental factors that affect the occupancy and detection probability, respectively. In the future, nature reserve managers could adjust the monitoring and protective strategies according to our results.
    Sensitivity and elasticity analyses of population parameters and their application for pest management in Mongolian gerbils
    LIU Wei, YANG Xinzhi, YANG Zhong, YUN Shutian, SONG Libiao, ZHONG Wenqin, WANG Dehua
    2023, 43(4):  387-397.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150792
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    Sensitivity and elasticity analyses are part of perturbation analyses that aim to quantify the effect of absolute and proportional change in variables related to population growth rate (λ). The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is one of the dominant rodents widely distributed in semi-arid, typical steppes, and desert grasslands in north China. It exhibits temporal scale demography variation and even extensive numerical outbreaks. To better understand the consequence of monthly demographic structure, based on the data from population dynamics of capture-mark-recapture (CMR) of female gerbils under semi-natural conditions from October 2000 to 2004 in agro-pastoral ecotone of south-central Inner Mongolia, China, we used statistical multistate models (MS) in MARK software to estimate the following demographic variables: apparent survival probability of sub-adults (sy) and adults (sa), the transition and maturation rate from the sub-adult stage to the adult stage (ψy), and survival and transition from newly born to sub-adult (ψnb), which is assumed to be fully dependent on the mother’s survival (sa). We also calculated the monthly female fecundity (fa), which is the recruitment of female pups per reproducing adult female. Then we investigate the effects of various demographic variables on monthly population growth rate (λ) with sensitivity and elasticity analyses using the stage-structured (i. e. Lefkovitch) matrix model constructed by the above demographic variables. Our results showed that the sensitivity of λ to ψy change is the highest (Sψy = 1. 295 ± 0. 289) during the breeding period (before September), followed by sy (with Ssy = 0. 400 ± 0. 044), and sa (with Ssa = 0. 462 ± 0. 052). The effect of absolute change in fa on λ was more prominent only during overwintering and the early breeding period after overwintering (October to March). Through elastic analysis, we found that the effect of proportional change (elasticity, eij) in survival parameters on population growth rate (λ) was on average high (76. 1 ± 3. 3%), in which the elasticity of sub-adult survival in autumn feeding period (September to October) played a decisive role in population growth (accounting for 90. 6%). The average elasticity coefficient of the growth and development (eψy) and reproduction (efa) to population change was 0. 30 ± 0. 02 (that is, the contribution ratio is 30%). Overall, sa had the greatest influence on λ during the middle and late breeding period, while the survival and sexual maturity rate of sub-adults and female fertility impacted on population growth rate (λ) more prominently during the overwinter or the early breeding period in the following spring. Consequently, management efforts that aim at decreasing the survival rate of gerbils throughout the year, as well as controlling the reproductive capacity of female gerbils from August to March, are likely to yield the best results with regard to reducing the growth rate of Mongolian gerbils.
    Dietary composition and seasonal changes of the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata)
    ZHENG Jiaxin, ZUO Qingqiu, WANG Gang, WEI Xu, WENG Xiaodong, WANG Zhenghuan
    2023, 43(4):  398-411.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150794
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    The Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) is a crucial predator in the food chain in the stepper area of the Tibetan Plateau. Studies about its diet have important theoretical significance to understand its relationships with prey species, ecological adaptation strategies, and the transmission mechanism of parasitic zoonosis mediated by the food chain. In this study, 30 and 28 fecal samples of Tibetan foxes were collected from Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, during the warm season (July and August) and cold season (November) in 2019, respectively. Meta-barcode sequencing and microscopic observation were performed to analyze the dietary composition of the Tibetan fox and its seasonal differences. Results showed that the Tibetan fox mainly fed on pikas, rodents, birds, ungulates, fishes, and also insects and plants. Pikas represented by the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) and the Phasianidae birds had the highest detection rates in the feces of the Tibetan fox, representing thus its main prey. Their detected rates in fecal samples did not change significantly between the cold and warm seasons. The Chi-square test showed that the frequency of Procypris (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and insects in the fecal samples of Tibetan foxes in the warm season were significantly higher than that in the cold season. The α diversity and evenness of food composition in the feces of Tibetan foxes in the cold season were higher than that in the warm season, but there was no significant difference. Linear discriminant analysis effect size revealed that DNA reads of Procypris spp. in the fecal samples of the Tibetan fox in the warm season were significantly higher than that in the cold season. The principal coordinate analysis showed that food items and their sequence abundance in various fecal samples of warm season were more similar than those in samples of cold season. These results indicated that Tibetan foxes tend to prey on prevailing prey species in the warm season when food resources are more abundant, while in the the cold season, when prey resources are relatively scarcer, they increase the width of feeding niche to obtain more edible food items. This study provided fundamental information about the feeding ecology of the Tibetan fox, and its significance in the conservation and prevention of zoonotic diseases transmitted along the food chain was discussed.
    High temperature during lactation shortens the thermoneutral zone in the F1 generation of Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    LI Hongjuan, WANG Dehua, WANG Zhenshan, ZHANG Xueying
    2023, 43(4):  412-421.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150779
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    Lactation is a key period which may influence the development of small mammals. However, how a combination of lactation and high ambient temperature (Ta) exposure affects the metabolic plasticity of offspring remains unclear. In order to investigate the effects of high Ta (30 ± 1) oC experience of lactating mothers (F0) on the metabolic traits of their offspring (F1 and F2), we measured the body mass and body temperature (Tb) of F1 and F2 generations in adult Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). The metabolic rate in response to different Ta exposure (for 3 hours) was measured via an open-flow respirometer, and the thermal conductance (C) and respiration quotient (RQ) were calculated. The adult body mass of F1 generation with high Ta experience during lactation was significantly lower than that of normal Ta (23 ± 1) oC group and the F2 generation with high Ta experience during lactation. The Tb of normal Ta group, and F1 and F2 generations remained stable in the Ta range from 5 oC to 33. 5 oC, but decreased significantly at 35 oC. The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) in the normal Ta group is 27. 5-33. 5 oC, but the lower critical temperature point of F1 generation is 30 oC and thus the TNZ is shifted to 30-33. 5 oC. The F2 generation’s TNZ did not differ from that of the normal Ta group. Above the TNZ, the C increased with the rise of Ta, and the initial temperature point, at which the C rose, increased in both F1 and F2 generations with high Ta experience during lactation. The RQ rose with the increase of Ta and it was not affected by high Ta experience during lactation. The results indicated that the high Ta experience in lactating mothers led to a reduction in adult body mass and a narrowed TNZ in the F1 generation, associated with high metabolic plasticity under high Ta exposure, but this effect did not transfer to F2 generation. These findings imply the longterm effects of maternal high Ta (heat wave) experience on the body mass and TNZ of adult offspring, and the consequent potential impacts on population dynamics in small mammals.
    Discussion on subspecies differentiation of Crocidura lasiura based on Cyt b gene and morphology
    LIU Zhu, QIAN Hongan, WANG Zaishan, HAN Meifeng, CAI He, ZHANG Chunfeng, SHI Yanjing, JIN Zhimin, CHEN Huan, ZHANG Junsheng
    2023, 43(4):  422-429.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150746
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    In order to clarify the subspecies differentiation of Crocidura lasiura, this study analyzed 13 specimens of this species collected from Northeast China together with morphological data and Cyt b gene sequences. Morphological results showed that C. lasiura from Northeast China—Far East Russia is larger than that from South Korea (head-and-body length: > 82 mm vs. < 82 mm, tail length: > 39 mm vs. < 39 mm, condylobasal length of skull: > 20 mm vs. < 20 mm) in the majority of individuals. The dorsum of the body is darker in individuals from Northeast China-Far East Russia, while it is grayer in South Korean shrews. Specimens from East China exhibit a longer tail (the tail is more than half the headand-body length) in the majority of individuals. On the other hand, the tail length of C. lasiura from Northeast China, Far East Russia, and South Korea is less than half of head-and-body length in the majority of individuals. The analysis of genetic distance, phylogeny, and median-joining network based on Cyt b gene all supported that the samples of C. lasiura were divided into three geographical lineages: one from Northeast China-Far East Russia, other from South Korea, and the third from East China. The results supported that C. lasiura can be divided into three subspecies: C. l. lasiura in Northeast China and Far East Russia, C. l. thomasi in South Korea, and C. l. campus-lincolnensis in East China.
    Epidemiology and antibiotics resistance of Escherichia coli from wild animals and their environment in Guangyuan area of Giant Panda National Park
    SU Xiaoyan, YANG Mei, YAN Xia, HOU Rong, XIAO Mei, WANG Jinsong, LIU Sheng, WANG Lucai, ZHANG Wenping, HUANG Hongxiu
    2023, 43(4):  430-442.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150761
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    To prevent Escherichia coli from causing epidemic disease in the newly established Guangyuan area of the Giant Panda National Park (GAGPNP), located in Sichuan China, an investigation was conducted to explore the epidemiological characteristics of E. coli from wild animals and their environment as well as the antibiotic resistance of wild animals in the area. A total of 124 fecal samples from wild animals, 49 water and 70 soil samples were collected from the GAGPNP from August to September 2022. 16S rRNA, the K-B method, high-throughput fluorescent quantitative PCR and PCR technology were used to isolate and identify the E. coli, perform antibiotics sensitivity test, and for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes and virulence gene, respectively. The results showed that 86 strains of E. coli were identified, and the isolation rate was 35. 39%. The E. coli isolated from the GAGPNP had a high resistance rate to amoxicillin (52. 33%) and a low resistance rate to streptomycin, gentamicin and other antibiotics (1. 16% — 9. 30%), and were sensitive to ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, florfenicol and trimethoprim. A large number of antibiotics resistance genes were carried, including multiple antibiotics resistance genes (83. 14%), sulfonamides (55. 52%), and tetracyclines (48. 52%), resistace genes with a high carrying rate, while the other antibiotics resistance genes were 26. 16% — 35. 72%. E. coli isolates carried 1 — 6 virulence genes, and the detection rate of irp2 was the highest (91. 86%), followed by ompA, ibeB, and tsh, with the detection rates of 55. 81%, 69. 77%, and 52. 33% respectively. The detection rates of FyuA, fimH, and PapA were lower (17. 44%, 19. 77% and 1. 16% respectively). None of the 86 strains of E. coli detected 5 types of diarrhoeal E. coli. This study provides an scientific data reference for the prevalence of E. coli in wild animals in GAGPNP, and provides an ecological basis for the prevention and control of zoonosis.
    Effect of steroid hormones on osteoprotegerin expression in antler mesenchymal stem cells of the sika deer
    XING Baorui, ZHAO Haiping, LI Guangyu, SUN Hongmei, MA Zefang, TAN Zhanqing, HU Xiao, LI Chenying, WU Jianhua, LIU Zhen
    2023, 43(4):  443-449.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150758
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    The upregulation of Osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression could improve the dynamic bone homeostasis by inhibiting bone loss. During the pre-OPG expression assay, OPG showed an upward trend during osteogenesis of Antler mesenchymal stem cells (RMCs), but there was no significant difference in There was no significant difference between RMCs and control group after osteogenesis. Since peripheral blood levels of steroid hormones (Estradiol, E2; Parathyroid hormone 1-34, PTH 1-34) are closely related to antler osteogenesis, and the molecular mechanism of osteogenesis in RMCs is unknown, it is speculated that the OPG expressed by RMCs may be regulated by steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of steroid hormones (E2 and PTH 1-34) on OPG expression levels. The experiment explored the effects of steroid hormones on the proliferation, OPG expression and osteogenesis of RMCs using CCK-8 cell proliferation assay, qRT-PCR, Western Blot, osteogenesis induction, and alizarin red staining. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the effects of PTH 1-34 on the proliferation of RMCs during osteogenic differentiation, which could significantly promote the expression level of OPG protein to inhibit osteolysis and promote osteogenesis by upregulating the mRNA expression of osteogenic transcription factors SP7 and BGN; E2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of RMCs and could inhibit osteogenesis of RMCs by downregulating the expression of OPG and SP7. In conclusion, PTH 1-34 could upregulate the expression of OPG protein to promote osteogenesis of RMCs; E2 could downregulate the expression of OPG protein to inhibit the osteogenesis of RMCs.
    Evolution of animal numerical cognition
    LIU Siyi, SU Yanjie
    2023, 43(4):  450-464.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150755
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    Numerical cognition, an innate important cognitive ability for many species of animals, is of great adaptive significance to individuals’survival and reproduction. This article reviews recent studies about animal numerical cognition. It compares interspecies similarities and differences based on object file system (representations of small numbers) and approximate numerical system (representations of large numbers). It also reveals the adaptive significance of numerical cognition by combining behavioral and neuroscientific research evidence. Meanwhile, we focus on the potentially important role of continuous quantity information closely related to numerosity. Finally, this article suggests some urgent issues and possible future directions in animal numerical cognition.
    A comparative study on fecal sample pretreatment and hormone extraction methods in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
    YAN Zheng, LIU Haoqiu, LIU Xiaoyan, XU Haihong, LIU Yanhui, LI Changqing, WANG Bo, LIU Xuefeng, CUI Shengnan, JIA Ting, YANG Di, ZHANG Chenglin, LIU Dingzhen
    2023, 43(4):  465-471.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150712
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    It is a common protocol to monitor and detect the estrus and pregnant state in captive animals and evaluate their stress level and welfare using non-invasive sampling methods and fecal hormone assay. The current methods for the treatment of fecal samples and extraction of fecal hormones in captive wild animals, however, are highly debated and the results are inconsistent in different studies. In this study, we collected fecal samples from 10 captive giant pandas (male∶female = 1∶1) and used two different fecal sample treatment methods, freeze-drying sifting and freeze-drying crushing, to treat those fecal samples. Next, we used three fecal hormone extraction methods, i. e., 80% methanol, 90% ethanol, and 95% ethanol extraction. Last, we compared the concentration of progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol in each sample treated and extracted by different methods and solutions. The results show that estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol extracted by freeze-drying sifting method combined with 80% methanol solution, and testosterone extracted by freeze-drying crushing method combined with 80% methanol solution had the highest hormone content among all the treated fecal samples. The results of cortisol detection showed that the concentration of cortisol obtained by freeze-drying crushing method combined with 90% ethanol extraction and freeze-drying sifting method combined with 80% methanol solution extraction was higher, and the difference between the two methods was not significant. Considering methanol is highly toxic and difficult to obtain and the crushing method is convenient and fast to treat feces, it is suggested that the pretreatment of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone in feces should be carried out according to the method of maximum hormone detection, and pretreatment of cortisol in feces should be carried out by freeze-drying crushing method combined with 90% ethanol extraction. This study provides technical guidance for obtaining more accurate and effective physiological indicators for captive and wild animals. It can be applied to broad taxa of wild animals and biodiversity conservation.
    New records of two tube-nosed bats (CHIROPTERA: Vespertilionidae: Murina) from Fujian Province, China
    HUANG Zefeng, LIAO Yaqing, WANG Xiaoyun, ZHANG Huiguang, CAI Bin, YONG Fan, CUI Peng, YU Wenhua, WU Yi
    2023, 43(4):  472-478.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150776
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    In 2020 and 2022, eight Murina bats were captured in Wuyishan National Park, Fujian Province, China using harp traps. All specimens are small-sized with tubular nostrils and smooth auricles with elongated and pointed tragus. Two of the bats have gray-black dorsal fur and slightly swollen skulls exhibiting a well-defined concavity in the interorbital region and an underdeveloped sagittal crest, which are consistent with those of Murina feae. The other bats have brown dorsal fur with gold-tipped guard hair and inflated skulls, showing a distinct concavity in the interorbital region, which are characteristic of Murina eleryi. The identification of the bats was confirmed through phylogenetic inferences based on nuclear gene recombination activation gene Ⅱ (Rag2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ gene (COI) fragments. Our records represent the first discovery of M. feae and M. eleryi in Fujian Province, China. M. feae is thus recorded in Guangxi, Guizhou, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Yunnan, and Fujian provinces, while M. eleryi is found in Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Guangdong, Yunnan, Hainan, and Fujian provinces.