兽类学报

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江源国家公园雪豹和岩羊生境适宜性分析

迟翔文1,2 江峰1,2 高红梅1,2 覃雯1,2 吴彤1,2 张婧捷1,2 蔡振媛1,2,3 张同作1,3   

  1. (1中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,高原生物适应与进化重点实验室,西宁 810001) (2中国科学院大学,北京 100049) (3青海省动物生态基因组学重点实验室,西宁 810001)
  • 出版日期:2019-07-30 发布日期:2019-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 张同作 E-mail: zhangtz@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0506405);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA2002030302;XDA23060602);青海省重点研发与转化计划(2019-SF-150)

Habitat suitability analysis of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and bharal (Pseudois nayaur) in the Sanjiangyuan National Park

CHI Xiangwen 1,2, JIANG Feng 1,2, GAO Hongmei 1,2, QIN Wen 1,2, WU Tong 1,2, ZHANG Jingjie 1,2, CAI Zhenyuan 1,2,3, ZHANG Tongzuo 1,3   

  1. (1 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Xining 810001, China)
    (2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China)
    (3 Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Ecological Genomics, Xining 810001, China)
  • Online:2019-07-30 Published:2019-07-25

摘要:

雪豹是青藏高原生物多样性保护的旗舰物种,主要以岩羊为食,研究两者在三江源国家公园的生境适宜性可为其种群保护提供科学依据。基于在国家公园区域内广泛调查获得的岩羊和雪豹分布位点数据,利用最大熵生态位(MaxEnt)模型,评价三江源国家公园内岩羊和雪豹的生境适宜性及其食物链空间分布模式,探讨生境与主要环境变量之间的相关性。结果显示,海拔、最干月降水量和温度年较差是影响岩羊和雪豹空间分布的主要环境变量;海拔最适区间在4660 ~4730 m重叠,最适最干月降水量在2 ~4 mm重叠,温度年较差在33.7℃ ~37.0℃重叠。雪豹和岩羊在国家公园内的适宜栖息地面积分别为19246 km2和39977 km2,分别占公园总面积的15.63%和32.47%;两者重叠的适宜栖息地面积为16621 km2,占公园总面积的13.50%,主要位于澜沧江源园区东北部、中部和东部区域以及长江源园区的东南区域。本研究可为制定三江源国家公园内岩羊和雪豹的协同保护管理措施提供理论依据。

关键词: 雪豹, 岩羊, 三江源国家公园, MaxEnt模型, 生境适宜性

Abstract:

Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is the flagship species of biodiversity conservation on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. They feed mainly on Bharal (Pseudois nayaur). Study of the habitat suitabilities of the two species can provide a scientific basis for their population protection in Sanjiangyuan National Park. Based on our extensive survey of Pseudois nayaur and Panthera uncia distributions in the national park, we used a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model to evaluate Pseudois nayaur and Panthera uncia habitat suitabilities and their spatial distribution patterns in the food chain, and to investigate the relationship between habitat and the main environmental variables. The results showed that altitude, the precipitation during the driest month, and the annual temperature range were the main environmental factors affecting the spatial distributions of Pseudois nayaur and Panthera uncia. The optimum altitude ranges of the two overlapped in the range of 4660 ~4730 m, and the precipitation during the driest month and the annual temperature range of the two overlapped in the range of 2 ~4 mm and 33.7℃~37.0℃, respectively. The areas of high- and medium-level suitable habitat for Panthera uncia and Pseudois nayaur in the national park were 19 246 km2 and 39 977 km2, accounting for 15.63% and 32.47% of the total area of the park, respectively. Meanwhile, the areas of overlap for high- and medium-level suitable habitat was 16 621 km2, accounting for 13.50% of the total area of the park. These were mainly located in the northeast, central and eastern regions of
Lancang river source park and the southeast region of Yangtze river source park. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the formulation of protection and management measures for Pseudois nayaur and Panthera uncia in the Three-River-Source National Park.

Key words: Panthera uncia, Pseudois nayaur, Sanjiangyuan National Park, MaxEnt model, Habitat suitability