ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA ›› 2023, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 533-543.DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150770

• ORIGINAL PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of mammal diversity in alpine ecosystems: a case study in Xuebaoding area of Giant Panda National Park

ZHANG Rumei1, ZHANG Qing2, YANG Xiao2, ZHANG Farui1, ZHAO Ding3, PANG Dehong3, YANG Kong1, GUAN Tianpei1   

  1. 1 Institute of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu 610225, China;
    2 Forestry and Grassland Bureau of Pingwu County, Sichuan Province, Pingwu 622550, China;
    3 Sichuan Xuebaoding National Nature Reserve, Pingwu 622550, China
  • Received:2022-12-29 Revised:2023-05-29 Online:2023-09-30 Published:2023-09-22


张如梅1, 张庆2, 杨逍2, 张发瑞1, 赵定3, 庞德洪3, 杨孔1, 官天培1   

  1. 1 西南民族大学, 青藏高原研究院, 成都 610225;
    2 四川省平武县林业和草原局, 平武 622550;
    3 四川雪宝顶国家级自然保护区, 平武 622550
  • 通讯作者: 杨孔,;官天培,
  • 作者简介:张如梅(1999-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事动物生态学研究;张庆(1986-),女,本科,主要从事林业研究.
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: The alpine ecosystem has nurtured special biodiversity due to its unique geographical conditions and is one of the important ecosystem types in the Giant Panda National Park. We summarized data from 83 infrared cameras deployed in Xuebaoding area (3 300 - 4 500 m above sea level) of Giant Panda National Park from April to October 2019 and 2021, and analyzed the diversity and spatio-temporal characteristics of alpine mammals to fill knowledge gaps on alpine ecosystems and support conservation management and scientific research. A total of 2 365 independent photos of mammals were taken, recording 16 species in 9 families and 5 orders. Among the detected species, two are classified as first-class National Protected Wildlife, and 7 are listed as second-class National Protected Wildlife. Of the 16 mammal species, one, four, and two are categorized as Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), and Nearly Threatened (NT) by the IUCN Red List, respectively. The results show significant spatial and temporal dynamics of mammal diversity in alpine ecosystems. The number of species recorded by a single infrared camera in the growing season (2.80 ±0.16) was significantly higher than that at the start of the growing season (1.15 ±0.14, P < 0.01) and at the end of the growing season (1.51 ±0.13, P < 0.01). Similarly, the relative abundance index of mammals in the growing season (23.52 ±3.05) was significantly higher than that at the start of the growing season (4.75 ±0.74, P < 0.01) and at the end of the growing season (6.56 ±0.98, P < 0.01) according to the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The cumulative number of species ceased to increase after 4 100 m and remained at 16 species. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') for the whole monitoring area was 2.13, and both the diversity index and relative abundance index (RAI) decreased gradually with increasing altitude. Six mammal species (Ochotona thibetana, Ochotona erythrotis, Marmota himalayana, Pseudois nayaur, Vulpes vulpes, Mustela altaica) were only recorded in the area above the forest line during the survey compared with the data recorded at 1 800 - 3 200 m, implying that these species are more dependent on the alpine environment. The seasonal utilization of alpine environment by five mammal species, including Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), indicates spatio-temporal heterogeneity on species diversity in Xuebaoding area and likely reflects the effects of resource seasonal variation. The use of alpine habitats by forest-dwelling and domesticated animals during the growing season will reduce the habitat suitability of Bharal and threaten the maintenance of endemic biodiversity. Therefore, the Giant Panda National Park should strengthen the protection and management of the alpine ecosystem.

Key words: Species diversity, Infrared camera, Survival strategy, Giant Panda National Park

摘要: 高山生态系统因其特有的地理条件,孕育了独特的生物多样性,是大熊猫国家公园内重要的生态系统类型之一。为提高对大熊猫国家公园高山生态系统生物多样性的掌握水平,支撑保护管理和科学研究,本文归纳了2019年4―10月及2021年4―10月布设在大熊猫国家公园雪宝顶片区(3 300~4 500 m)的83台红外相机数据,分析了高山哺乳动物多样性及时空特征。结果显示:(1)基于拍摄到的2 365张哺乳动物独立有效照片,共记录到哺乳动物16种,分属5目9科,包括国家一级和二级重点保护野生动物2种和7种。其中被IUCN红色名录评估为濒危(EN)、易危(VU)和近危(NT)的哺乳动物分别有1种、4种、2种。(2)高山生态系统哺乳动物多样性存在明显的时空动态:Wilcoxon秩和检验显示单台红外相机记录到的物种数在植物生长期显著高于返青期(P < 0.01)及枯黄期(P < 0.01),哺乳动物相对多度指数在植物生长期同样显著高于返青期(P < 0.01)和枯黄期(P < 0.01);物种累积数在海拔4 100 m达16种且不再增加;整个监测区域的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')为2.13,多样性指数和相对多度指数(RAI)均随海拔梯度上升逐渐降低。(3)与海拔1 800~3 200 m的数据相比,在研究周期内以岩羊(Pseudois nayaur)为代表的6种哺乳动物均仅见于林线以上区域,意味着这6种哺乳动物对高山环境的依赖性较强;川金丝猴(Rhinopithecus roxellana)等5种哺乳动物对高山环境的季节性利用,是资源丰富度和空间异质性对物种多样性影响的综合体现。林栖动物和家养动物在植物生长期对高山生境的利用将降低岩羊等高山动物类群的栖息地适宜性,并危及特有生物多样性的维持,故大熊猫国家公园应加强对生态系统的完整保护和高山生态系统的管理。

关键词: 物种多样性, 红外相机, 生存策略, 大熊猫国家公园

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