Table of Content

    30 March 2022, Volume 42 Issue 2
    Phylogeny and distribution patterns of Dipodoidea in China
    SUI Lulu, CHENG Jilong, XIA Lin, YANG Qisen
    2022, 42(2):  131-143.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150616
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    There are 22 species representing 12 genera and 3 families of Dipodoidea in China,which is one of the countries with the most species richness of Dipodoidea worldwide.Given the recent discovery of new species and the changes in taxonomic status,the phylogeny and species distribution patterns of Dipodoidea in China need to be updated.In this paper,we used Bayesian inferences and maximum likelihood methods to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of Dipodoidea in China with 12 concatenated genes downloaded from GenBank.In addition,598 georeferenced points for 21 species (except Chimaerodipus auritus) and 10 environmental variables were used to generate species distribution models (SDM) in Maxent.The results showed that areas with higher species richness and habitat suitability of Dipodoidea in China were concentrated in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia.Annual mean temperature,annual precipitation,temperature seasonality,precipitation seasonality,and solar radiation in August were the main influencing factors of SDM in different species.We clarified the phylogenetic relationships and the species distribution patterns of Dipodoidea in China,which serve as important baselines for future studies.
    Analysis of human-tiger conflict pattern based on the occupancy model in Hunchun, China
    ZHANG Ri, JIN Yongchao, ZHU Shibing, LI Dongwei, SUN Quan, ZHANG Minghai
    2022, 42(2):  144-151.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150607
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    Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is an urgent global issue for the conservation and population restoration of tigers (Panthera tigris).Understanding the associated factors related to human-tiger conflict is an important reference of HTC management.Hunchun is an important region for Amur tiger (P.t.altaica) population exchanging between China and Russia,and with the increase of tiger population,it is increasingly urgent to study the correlated factors of HTC in Hunchun.Based on the HTC cases from 2016 to 2020 in Hunchun,we used the occupancy model to analyze the effects of 12 factors related to HTC in the region,such as aspect,altitude,and distance to prey.The results showed that all 259 HTC were caused by tigers preying on livestock,approximately 90% of which are Amur tigers preying on cattle,and most of HTC occurred from May to July every year.The main important factors on HTC were aspect (∑wi=0.44), prey distribution (∑wi=0.28),altitude (∑wi=0.18),and distance to the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (∑wi=0.13).Human-tiger conflict is more likely to occur on shady slopes,mixed broadleaf-conifer forest,and areas with frequent prey activities.Therefore,to mitigate the HTC in the region,we recommend strengthening management of grazing in the forest,mapping the different regions of management strategy for HTC,and increasing the conservation awareness of local communities.
    Comparison of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) clustering in different flow patterns
    WANG Zixuan, CHEN Minmin, WANG Kangwei, LIAN Yuxi, YU Daoping
    2022, 42(2):  152-158.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150593
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    The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) is distributed in patches along the mainstream of the Yangtze River and has clear habitat selection.The flow pattern is the core content of the habitat hydrological environment.To study the Yangtze finless porpoise selectivity for different flow patterns,we analyzed the individual habitat activity of 1 117 dolphins based on 412 observations recorded along 15 transect surveys on Yangtze River between 1993 to 2021.The results showed that the sightings and cluster scale of the Yangtze finless porpoise have no significant difference in the branching channel (P > 0.05).The sightings in the bifurcation upon bar were significantly lower in the low discharge than in the high discharge (P < 0.05).On the contrary,the sightings and cluster scale in the estuary confluence area were significantly higher in the low discharge than in the high discharge (P < 0.05).These results indicated distinct habitat activities of the Yangtze finless porpoise in partial flow patterns between the low and high discharge,which provide a reference for the management and conservation of important habitats in nature reserves,especially the protection of estuary confluence area during the low discharge.
    The relationship between boldness and aggression coupling and the fluctuation of rank in male Père David's Deer (Elaphurus davidianus)
    MENG Qinghui, SONG Yuan, SHAN Yunfang, LI Junfang, BAI Jiade, MENG Xiuxiang, BAI Chao, ZHANG Chenglin
    2022, 42(2):  159-167.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150473
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    In estrus,male Père David's Deer (Elaphurus davidianus) are divided into three ranks:king,challenger and bachelor.The order change was an intuitive performance of males'face to pressures.In this paper,the coupling degree of boldness and aggression in different stages of the life history of Père David's Deer was used to explain the rank development of Père David's Deer when they were young,the rank formation when they were sub-adults,and the rank fluctuations of the challenger during estrus.The behavior sampling method combines focus sampling and scanning sampling. Boldness was judged as the un-synchronization level of the behavior sample flow,and the early occurrence and low presynchronization rate of the same type of behavior.Aggression was judged by combination of aggressive behavior and winning index.Fecal testosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay.The results showed that there was a negative correlation between boldness and aggression coupling and grade development (r=-0.111 8,P=0.018 3) in young Père David's Deer.There was a positive correlation between boldness and aggression coupling and rank fluctuation (r=0.917 9,P=0.002 6) in sub-adults Père David's Deer.From sub-adult to adult estrus stage,four Père David's Deers achieved rank rise (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.852 3,P=0.000 3),and a Père David's Deer became the king.Four Père David's Deers did not change (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.482 9,P=0.006 3).Three Père David's Deers rank decreased (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.251 7,P=0.003 5).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of young Père David's Deer (r=0.860 7,P=0.005 5).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of sub-adult Père David's Deer (r=0.8457,P=0.004 4).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of adult Père David's Deer in rut (r=0.954 6,P=0.001 8).Con- clusion:The coupling strength of boldness and aggression is positively correlated with the rank fluctuation of male Père David's Deer during estrus.Elevated rank is associated with raised secretion of testosterone levels.
    Distribution and activity patterns of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province
    XIE Peigen, HU Juan, LI Tingting, GUO Rui, XU Lijuan, SONG Xiao, LI Jiaqi, XU Aichun
    2022, 42(2):  168-176.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150534
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    To study the distribution and activity patterns of wild boar (Sus scrofa),a grid-type infrared camera method was employed in the Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province.From March 2018 to February 2019, a total of 109 cameras were deployed in Qianqingtang and Longtangshan areas of the reserve,with a total monitoring time of 39 240 camera-days.Wild boar tended to select deciduous broad-leaved forest (capture rate=5.33 ±5.64) and coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest (3.75 ±3.46) in Qianqingtang,while in Longtangshan,it selected mainly coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest (4.32 ±5.21).There was a significant difference (P < 0.01) in daily-discrepancy index α in different months,and the average value of α in winter was significantly higher than that in the other seasons.In addition,the average value of diurnal-nocturnal index β was 0.870 in Qianqingtang and 0.768 in Longtangshan,which are significantly higher than the theoretical value of 13/24(P < 0.01).These results indicated that the wild boar is a diurnal animal and its activity pattern in winter is not consistent with the other seasons.The Kernel density estimation showed that the daily activity patterns of wild boar varied among seasons with two apparent activity peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00) and dusk (17:00-19:00) in spring,one apparent peak in winter afternoon (13:00-17:00),and no obvious peak in the other seasons.This study will help to deepen the understanding of the ecological habits of wild boar and contribute to the wildlife management in the reserve.
    Adolescent predatory risk alters the antipredator behavior and basal HPA axis activity of future offspring in Brandt’s voles
    PANG Jinyue, LI Shan, LIU Yuan, YANG Shengmei, WU Ruiyong, WEI Wanhong
    2022, 42(2):  177-188.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150586
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    In this study,28-day-old female Brandt's voles (Lasipodomys brandtii) were exposed to distilled water,rabbit urine,and cat urine for 60 min daily for 18 consecutive days,and paired with normal males when they became adults. The behavioral responses to these three odors and basal HPA axis (including hypothalamus corticotropin-releasing hormone,and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone) activity were measured in their offspring at 28 or 90 days old,respectively.The results showed that there was no significant difference in the behavioral responses to acute distilled water exposure between the offspring of cat odor (CO) group and distilled water (DW) group.When exposed to rabbit odor,adult offspring of CO group showed less head-out behavior than those of DW group.When exposed to cat odor,the adolescent offspring of CO group displayed more concealment,less head-out,sniffing and self-grooming,and the adult offspring showed more vigilant rearing when compared to the offspring of DW group.In addition,the basal CORT levels were increased in adolescence but not after adulthood when compared with the offspring of DW group. These results indicate that the offspring from the mothers repeatedly exposed to predation risk during adolescence tended to use passive avoidance strategies in adolescence and to adopt an active defense approach after adulthood to cope with this predatory risk.The adoption of different anti-predatory strategies in different development periods may be related to the basal levels of HPA axis activity.Maternal predation risk during adolescent period can promote the expression of anti-predatory behavior in offspring,reflecting a ‘cross-generation transmission' effect.
    Distribution of wild boar and risk analysis of African swine fever in Shennongjia forestry district, Hubei Province
    RAO Jing, XU Rujie, YU Huiliang, LI Juping, YE Jing, CAO Shengbo, LI Xiang
    2022, 42(2):  189-195.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150575
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    Wild boar is an important vector for the spread of African swine fever (ASF).The wild boar population in Shennongjia forestry district is high and widely distributed.It is of profound significance to investigate the distribution of wild boar in Shennongjia forestry district for the prevention and control of ASF.In this study,117 infrared cameras and 287 line transects were used to record the individuals and trace sites of wild boar in Shennongjia forestry district.In addition,the distribution of wild boar in Shennongjia forestry district was predicted by using the Maximum Entropy Model,which was then combined with residential areas and traffic arteries in Shennongjia forestry district.We further applied the Kernel density estimation method to analyze the risk of ASF spread by wild boar in Shennongjia forestry district.Field investigation recorded a total of 2 070 wild boars,droppings,footprints,nests,and other traces throughout Shennongjia forestry district,with an estimated population of 18 424 wild boars.In Shennongjia,the areas with high wild boar density,such as Songbai Town,Yangri Town,Xinhua Town,provincial highway S307,and national highway G209,had an extremely high risk of ASF spread by wild boar.The areas about 4 km away from the extremely high-risk areas had high risk,while the risk of ASF spread by wild boar in other areas was medium or low.This study shows that Songbai Town,Yangri Town,Xinhua Town,provincial highway S307,national highway G209,and surrounding regions are key areas in the prevention and control of ASF in Shennongjia.Active monitoring and prevention should be done in these key areas to monitor the dynamic changes of ASF in real-time.
    The prokaryotic expression and vitro activity of yak B cell lymphoma 2 related protein A1
    MEI Qundi, WANG Haipeng, WANG Li, FU Fang, LI Juan, ZHENG Yao, ZHANG Ling
    2022, 42(2):  196-203.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150560
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    The aim of this study was to explore the expression and vitro viability of Bos grunniens B cell lymphoma 2 related protein A1(BCL2A1).To this end,prokaryotic expression vector construction,cell scratch test,CCK-8 kit,transmission electron microscope (TEM)and RT-qPCR were used in this experiment.The results showed that recombinant plasmid pET-32a-BCL2A1 was successfully constructed and a 33 kDa protein was expressed.The viability of HepG2 cells was significantly decreased after treating with BCL2A1(0.02 μg/mL,0.2 μg/mL,and 2.0 μg/mL)(P < 0.05),and cell migration was inhibited to some extent.HepG2 cells that were treated with BCL2A1(2.0 μg/mL)showed karyopyknosis,the electron-dense nuclear material characteristically aggregated in cytoplasm,and lysosome phagocytic organelles formed apoptotic bodies.In addition,the mRNA level of apoptosis-related gene CASP9 was significantly upregulated by 2.0 μg/mL BCL2A1(P < 0.05),mRNA level of CASP8 was significantly upregulated by 0.2 μg/mL and 2.0 μg/mL BCL2A1(P < 0.05),mRNA level of CASP3 and Cyt c were significantly upregulated at different concentration treatment groups (P < 0.05).It is indicated that BCL2A1 may affect the viability of HepG2 cells through the apoptosis pathway.These results benefit for further study of the function of yak's BCL2A1.
    Influence of topographic position on GPS collar performance in a mountainous region
    WEN Hui, YUAN Xuelin, CAO Yindi, REN Guopeng, HUANG Zhipang, XIAO Wen
    2022, 42(2):  204-210.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150594
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    Global Positioning System (GPS) collars have been widely used to monitor the movements of large mammals in the field.However,data collected by GPS collars are subject to two types of error:one is the location error,and another is the missing data bias.Therefore,the positioning performance of GPS collars should be evaluated and accounted for when designing relevant ecological studies such as habitat selection.To test the hypothesis that the positioning performance of the GPS collar is better on mountain ridges than that in valleys,we set two stationary points on the ridge and another two stationary points in the valley of Cangshan Mountain,Dali,Yunnan.All these four points were set up at the same altitude above sea level (approximate 2 600 m).In addition,to measure the performance of GPS collars under ideal conditions,we also placed two GPS collars over an open site.The positioning performance varied according to different topographic positions.First,the fix success rate ranged from 21.7% to 21.9% in the two valley points,increased to 29.2%-37.8% on the ridge points,and reached 79.2% in the open site.Second,the location errors of the valley points were much larger than those of the ridge points.The 50% circular error probable (CEP) of the 3D fixes were 21 m and 28 m at the valley points,13 m and 20 m at the ridge points,and 5 m at the open site.However,the 90% CEP of the 3D fixes were 843 m and 2 837 m at the valley points,95 m and 690 m at the ridge points,14 m at the open site.Third,the precision of GPS collars in the valley was 56.5 m and 106.3 m,while on the ridge of the mountain it was 21.6 m and 40.9 m,and only 7.3 m in the open site.Our results suggest that the performance of the GPS collar was severely influenced by the rugged terrain.Thus,it is essential to evaluate both the missing data bias and the location error of GPS fixes in mountainous regions before performing ecological analysis with the obtained GPS data.
    Using camera traps to survey mammals and birds in Zhejiang Jiangshan Xianxialing Provincial Nature Reserve
    JI Yunrui, YU Zhucheng, YU Jie, CHEN Zhuo, TONG Zhe, LI Diqiang, LIU Fang
    2022, 42(2):  211-218.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150620
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    To investigate the diversity and spatial distribution of mammals and birds in Zhejiang Jiangshan Xianxialing Provincial Nature Reserve,camera traps were set in 1 km×1 km grids at 89 sites from December 2018 to October 2019.A total of 4 778 independent photographs were obtained from 14 906 camera-trapping days.A total of 50 species were identified from camera trapping images,including 19 mammal species belonging to 5 orders and 12 families and 31 avian species belonging to 4 orders and 12 families.Of these,three species (Tragopan caboti,Syrmaticus ellioti and Muntiacus crinifrons) are listed as Class Ⅰ national protected animals of China,and 10 species are listed as Class Ⅱ,including Macaca thibetana,Ursus thibetanus and Prionailurus bengalensis,etc.The top five mammalian species with the highest photograph rate (PR) were Muntiacus reevesi,Arctonyx collaris,Melogale moschata,Sus scrofa,and Paguma larvata.The top five avian species with the highest PR were Lophura nycthemera,Bambusicola thoracicus,Tragopan caboti,Pucrasia macrolopha,and Myophonus caeruleus.This was the first study that assessed the diversity of mammals and birds based on camera trapping in Xianxialing Nature Reserve.The results of this study can provide baseline data for long-term monitoring of wildlife resources and provide the scientific basis for the design of biodiversity conservation programs.
    New records of Chodsigoa hoffmanni from Sichuan and Chongqing in China
    FAN Ronghui, LI Jing, PENG Buqing, WAN Tao, TANG Keyi, FU Changkun, CHEN Shunde, LIU Shaoying
    2022, 42(2):  219-222.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150564
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    In November 2020,three shrew specimens were collected from Mt.Laojunshan,Pingshan County in Sichuan (28°42'08″ N,109°01'58″ E,1 500 m asl) and Shiruguan,Fengjie County in Chongqing (30°38'42″ N,109°29'31″ E,1 857 m asl).Based on morphological characteristics,skull measurement comparison,Kimura-2-parameter distance,and Bayesian phylogenetic tree analysis,these specimens were identified as Chodsigoa hoffmanni,a species previously only known from Vietnam and the Chinese provinces of Yunnan and Hubei.This is the first time that Chodsigoa hoffmanni has been discovered in Sichuan and Chongqing.These records expand the distribution range of Chodsigoa hoffmanni.
    Investigation on Leptospira infection of captive South China Tiger
    ZHU Xianglei, YU Jianyi, ZHOU Lichen
    2022, 42(2):  223-226.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150550
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    Leptospira,which is susceptible to cats,poses a threat to the health of the South China tiger.In this study,we performed PCR and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the pathogen and antibody of 119 tiger blood samples from 11 zoos.The results showed that no Leptospira-positive samples were detected in 119 whole blood samples,and 50 positive samples were detected in serum samples.The positive rate of antibody was 42.0%.In different zoos,the positive rate of antibody ranged from 0 to 100%,and the median was 22.2%.There was a significant difference in the infection among different zoos (χ2=19.851,P=0.002).We also detected a significant difference in the in-fection between adults and juveniles (χ2=9.233,P=0.006).The positive rate was 26.1% in infancy and 45.8% in adults.On the other hand,we detected no significant difference in the positive rate of Leptospira between different gen-ders (χ2=0.006,P=0.941).The positive rate of Leptospira was 41.4% in males and 42.6% in females.Therefore,the infection of Leptospira in South China tigers was affected by age and zoo (different locations).This survey found that leptospirosis antibodies were prevalent in zoo-housed South China tigers,which provided background epidemiologi-cal data for the prevention and control of leptospirosis in South China tiger population.