Table of Content

    30 January 2022, Volume 42 Issue 1
    The sex ratio, social structure and activity pattern of Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) in Minshan Mountains, Sichuan Province
    CHEN Erjun, GUAN Tianpei, LI Sheng
    2022, 42(1):  1-11.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150576
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    Reeves'muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) is distributed in the south of Yangtze River in East Asia, and is the Muntiacus species with the largest distribution range in China. In this study, we combined the data from camera-trapping surveys conducted from 2011 to 2020 in six nature reserves in the Minshan Mountains, Sichuan Province. With an extensive survey effort of 75 320 camera-days at 726 valid camera stations, we obtained 20 236 images and videos from 1 903 independent detections of Reeves'muntjac at 133 camera stations. Our results showed that the sex ratio of adults in this wild population of Reeves'muntjac was ♀:♂=1. 13:1. The majority of observed Reeves'muntjac were solitary individuals, accounting for 91. 97% of total independent detections, followed by male-female pairs, accounting for 6. 15% of the total detection times. Other group types included doe-fawn group, buck-fawn group, family group, two female group, two male group and one male with two female group, all together accounted for 2. 88% of the total independent detections. The Reeves'muntjac in Minshan Mountains had a bimodal daily activity rhythm, with one activity peak at 06:00-09:00 around dawn and another at 17:00-19:00 around dusk, showing a typical crepuscular pattern. Its daily activity pattern showed substantial seasonal variations, with the greatest difference between that in winter and summer. On the basis of extensive datasets from field camera-trapping surveys, our study determined the sex ratio, social structure and daily activity pattern of Reeves'muntjac in Minshan Mountains, which will provide reliable basic information to support and guide future studies on the wild populations of this small Cervidae species.
    Positional behavior of Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) living in the limestone forest of southwest Guangxi, China
    LIU Zheng, LIU Shengyuan, LI Youbang, HUANG Zhonghao
    2022, 42(1):  12-23.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150543
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    Positional behavior studies have vital importance for understanding the adaptation mechanism of primates to their habitat. To explore seasonal and daily variations of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) positional behavior and the influence of food composition and ecological factors on this type of behavior, we collected positional behavioral data via instantaneous scan sampling method from September 2012 to August 2013 at Guangxi Nonggang National Nature Reserve, located in southwest China. The quadrupedal walking (45. 3% ±7. 6%) was observed as the most frequently used locomotion mode, followed by leaping (28. 8% ±4. 8%), climbing (23. 9% ±6. 2%), quadrupedal running (1. 2% ±0. 7%) and bridging (0. 9% ±0. 6%), with a significant difference. Locomotion modes varied significantly between seasons. Assam macaques used bridging more frequently in fruit-rich season but used climbing less during the fruit-lean season. However, the other modes of locomotion did not significantly vary in the different seasons. Assam macaques were documented to climb more often in the afternoon than during the morning period. There were also significant variations in the macaques' postures. Specifically, sitting (91. 7% ±4. 1%) was the dominant posture, followed by standing-forelimb suspending (4. 2% ±3. 3%), suspending (1. 9% ±1. 6%), quadrupedal standing (1. 4% ±1. 8%), and lying (0. 8% ±0. 5%). In addition, we observed a variety of significant different postures during different activities. For instance, sitting (87. 3% ±6. 1%) and standing-forelimb suspending (7. 9% ±5. 5%) was the dominant postural modes for feeding, sitting (95. 6% ±2. 8%) and lying (3. 1% ±2. 2%) was the dominant postural mode during the grooming behavior; and sitting (97. 1% ±1. 4%) and quadrupedal standing (2. 2% ±1. 1%) was the dominant postural modes observed during the resting periods. There was no significant seasonal variation in observations related to the different postures of this group of macaques. Lying and suspending posture were more frequently used in the morning (06:00-11:59) than during the afternoon (12:00-19:00). Nevertheless, diet and ecological factors were important parameters that affected the positional behavior of macaques. We established both model I (including fruits) and model II (including immature leaves) to test the effects of diet composition on the positional behavior of Assam macaques. These results provided evidence of the effects of diet and ecological factors on the positional behavior of Assam macaques. This study highlights the necessity to increase the knowledge of behavioral ecology and to understand the influence of ecological factors on the survival of Assam macaque in the limestone forest.
    Personality assessment and sex differences of captive South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis)
    KONG Xuanmin, ZHANG Xueli, CHEN Siming, ZHANG Peng, DONG Guixin
    2022, 42(1):  24-33.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150573
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    Personality research plays an important role in the ecological adaptation and ex situ conservation of wildlife. Surprisingly, personality traits of South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), the most endangered tiger subspecies, have not been explored. In this paper, we used the personality characteristics evaluation method to assess 6 captive South China tigers, The diversity of personality characteristics of South China tigers of different genders was compared. and the novel object test was used to further verify the results of the personality characteristics evaluation method. The result showed three dimensions of personality traits. trusting-friendly, aggressive-dominant, and curious-adaptation. we also found that males had a higher score in aggressive-dominant than females. This study provides some research data for the delicate breeding management of South China tigers and provides references for the conservation and reintroduction of South China tigers.
    Effects of roads on the abundance and habitat of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle in the Yellow River Source Zone of Sanjiangyuan National Park
    Huangqingdongzhi, CHEN Liuyang, LI Shangpeng, SUN Zhangyun, YANG Mingxin, ZHANG Dexi, LI Chengxian, MAO Ruirui, LI Zeyu, ZHANG Lixun
    2022, 42(1):  34-48.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150567
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    We sought to understand the effects of roads on the populations and habitat of Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang) and Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata) in the Yellow River Source Zone of Sanjiangyuan National Park. We conducted a field survey to estimate population size, density and distribution of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle in the region in autumn 2020 using a line transect sampling method. We then used the MaxEnt to assess habitat suitability of the two species under four different scenarios of road density and road type. The total length of the survey line was 1 320. 63 km, along which 2 231 Tibetan wild asses and 822 Tibetan gazelles were observed. The density of Tibetan wild ass was (1. 18 ±0. 34) individuals/km2 and the estimated abundance ranged from 2 400 to 7 632. The density of Tibetan gazelle was (0. 94 ±0. 14) individuals/km2 and the estimated abundance ranged from 1 765 to 3 219. MaxEnt predicted that the suitable habitat areas of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle were 3 641. 34 km2 and 2 525. 18 km2, accounting for 19. 2% and 13. 3% of the entire Yellow River Source Zone, respectively. Distance to low-grade roads, annual precipitation, altitude and normalized difference vegetation index were the most important factors affecting habitat suitability for Tibetan wild ass.Distance to low-grade roads, altitude, aspect and slope were the most important factors affecting habitat suitability for Tibetan gazelle. The overlapping suitable habitat area of the two species was 2 240. 15 km2, accounting for 61. 5% and 88. 7% of the suitable habitat of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle, respectively. The suitable habitats of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle in autumn were mainly distributed in the central part of the Yellow River Source Zone. The road scenarios analysis indicated that:(1) the three scenarios including road variables resulted in varying degrees of habitat area loss and consequent population declines for both species when compared to the scenario with no roads. Scenarios with all road variables resulted in the smallest area of suitable habitat and the smallest populations for both species with 27. 2% and 42. 3% of suitable area lost for Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle respectively. (2) Different types of roads have different degrees of influence on the habitat area and populations of the two species. Low-grade roads cause greater habitat area loss and greater population declines for both species compared to highgrade roads. (3) The two species respond differently to road disturbance, with Tibetan gazelle suffering a greater loss of suitable habitat and experiencing a greater reduction in population size. This study provides evidence for ungulate conservation and roads managed on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau by quantitatively assessing the effects of different types of roads on the habitats and populations of two ungulate species.
    Impacts of a road on abundance of wild animals through infrared camera monitoring: a case study of road inside Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve
    SOO Yu Han, CAI Qiong, ZHU Ziyu, HE Xiangbo, LIU Xuehua, Melissa Songer
    2022, 42(1):  49-57.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150504
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    From July 2014 to October 2018, 20 infrared cameras were used to monitor the impacts of an internal road on the activities of wild mammals and birds in Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve in Shaanxi. A total of 16 168 pieces of photographs were obtained with 13 species of wild mammals and 14 species of wild birds. Among the detected species, 4 are listed as Class Ⅰ state key protected wild animals in China and 7 as Class Ⅱ. The result showed that the further away from the road, the more animal species appeared. 2 species of mammals only appeared in the area that is 100 m away from the road, which indicated that certain mammals showed an obvious avoidance effect on the road. As 8 species of birds only appeared in an area 50 m away from the road, birds showed a stronger avoidance effect than mammals. However, roads with fewer vehicles at night can provide easier night mobility for certain mammals, so the intensity of activity at night of takin (Budorcas taxicolor) near the road increased. Only the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the area 5 m away from the road showed a peak in night activity to avoid human disturbance during the day. Only golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) in an area 100 m away from the road have similar activity time as other studies in Qinling. This showed that golden pheasants near the road changed their activity time to adapt to road disturbance. Our study preliminarily proved that roads have a certain impact on wild animals. We suggest studies on road ecology in the whole Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve area.
    The energy budget of striped hamsters in response to food shortage at different temperatures
    Daliang HUO, Shasha LIAO, Jing CAO, Zhijun ZHAO
    2022, 42(1):  58-68.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150584
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    Food availability is one of the most important problems for animals in natural environments. The ‘metabolic rate conversion’ hypothesis suggests that animals can decrease their metabolic rate to reduce energy expenditure, which is an important energy strategy for coping with food shortage. However, the ‘metabolic rate conversion’ strategy of the non-hibernating small mammals to cope with food shortage at different ambient temperatures remains uncertain. To address this issue, adult male striped hamsters were deprived of food for 24 h, 36 h and 48 h, at cold (5.0℃), room (21.0℃) and high temperatures (32.5℃) and then refed ad libitum for 5 weeks. Abdominal temperature was measured using implanted i-button. The metabolic rate, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) were determined using open oxygen analysis system. Serum T3 and T4 levels were determined using radioimmunoassay technology. The results showed that body temperature significantly decreased at 5.0℃ and 21.0℃ following food deprivation compared to that at 32.5℃. The average metabolic rate over day and night, RMR, and NST significantly increased at cold temperature, and decreased at hot temperature, whereas they did not differ significantly between the groups of food deprivation and refeeding. The fat deposit significantly decreased following food deprivation, during which the rate of fat mobilization was higher at cold temperature than that at hot temperature. The fat deposit significantly increased following refeeding, which was considerably inhibited at cold temperature compared to that at hot temperature. The T3 and T4 levels did not significantly differ between the groups of food deprivation and refeeding. Consistent with the changes in metabolic rate, serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly affected by temperature, with increasing at cold temperature relative to that at hot temperature. It suggests that the striped hamsters have a similar metabolic rate at different temperatures during food shortage to that during refeeding period, inconsistent with the ‘metabolic rate conversion’ hypothesis. The food-deprived striped hamsters have higher metabolic rate at cold temperature to meet the energy requirements of body temperature regulation, within which the roles of thyroid hormones in stimulating heat production would be one of the most important mechanisms.

    Comparative on the expression of MC1R gene and the contents of UCP1, Hb and Mb of Eothenomys miletus at different altitudes from Hengduan Mountain region in winter
    HAN Chunyan, JIA Ting, WANG Yan, WANG Zhengkun, ZHU Wanlong, ZHANG Hao
    2022, 42(1):  69-75.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150562
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    In order to explore the variations of coat color, physiological and blood indexes in Eothenomys miletus at different elevations in winter, samples were collected from north to south of Hengduan Mountain region in Deqin (DQ), Shangri-la (XGLL), Lijiang (LJ), Jianchuan (JC) and Ailao Mountain (ALS) from north to south, Gene sequence of melanocortin receptor1 (MC1R) was amplified by PCR and the expression of MC1R gene in skin was determined by FQPCR. The contents of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue, hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). The results showed that the amplified MC1R fragment was a partial sequence of about 200 bp. MC1R gene expression in E. miletus from ALS and JC was significantly higher than from LJ, XGLL and DQ. Contents of UCP1 and Mb in E. miletus from DQ and XGLL were significantly higher than that those from ALS, JC and LJ. But Hb content showed no significant difference among the five regions. All of the above results showed that E. miletus could change the coat color by changing the expression of MC1R gene and increase the thermogenesis capacity by elevating the content of Mb and UCP1 in order to adapt to the environmental changes at different altitudes from Hengduan Mountain region.
    Effect of tannic acid on the antioxidant level and the expression of liver autophagy-related genes in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    FAN Ruiyang, WANG Huiyuan, WANG Daochen, DAI Xin, YANG Shengmei
    2022, 42(1):  76-84.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150577
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    Tannins are phenolic secondary metabolites that are present in various plants and have potential antioxidant properties. However, the effect of tannins on autophagy in animals remains unclear. In the present study, 4-week-old Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) were fed low and high doses of tannic acid (TA) solution for 9 weeks. The variations in serum antioxidant levels and the expression of liver autophagy-related genes in relation to the TA dose were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. TA had no evident effects on the rates of growth of body weight and liver index in the voles. The level of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in the high-dose TA group than in the control group, but the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and the expression levels of both Beclin1 and p62 in the liver were lower in the highdose TA group than in the control group. Levels of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the high-dose TA group than in the control group, but the expression level of LC3A in the liver was lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. In both the low-dose and high-dose TA groups, the serum GSH-Px levels were higher in male voles than in female voles, and in the high-dose TA group, the serum CAT levels were also higher in male voles than in female voles. Our research demonstrates that certain doses of TA could improve antioxidant levels and reduce autophagy in the liver, but the response of the antioxidant system to TA was stronger in male voles than in female voles. Our findings suggest that low consumption of tannin from plants could improve the antioxidant capabilities of wild Brandt's voles, thereby benefiting their population.
    Differential expression genes analysis of liver in Maiwa yak at different growth stages
    FU Fang, WANG Li, ZI Xiangdong
    2022, 42(1):  85-94.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150506
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    The study was conducted to detect the expression pattern of genes in yak liver growth. The transcriptome sequencing of 1-day-old (LD), 15-month-old (LM) and 5-year-old (LY) healthy Maiwa yaks were performed by using Illumina (HiSeqTM2500) high-throughput sequencing platform, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in livers of yaks at different growth stages were verified by qRT-PCR. The results indicated that 325, 85 and 84 significantly DEGs with higher expression levels in LD, LM and LY than the other two groups, respectively (P < 0. 05). The DEGs were significantly enriched in 102, 104 and 134 GO terms and 19, 13 and 19 KEGG pathways, respectively (P < 0. 05). The oxidation-reduction-related process, development process, and metabolic-related process were the largest proportion of GO terms. The PI3K Akt signaling pathway, focal adhesion and ECM receptor interaction were the largest proportion of KEGG pathways. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed that the expressions of CYP7B1, PGFS2, CYP1A1, UGT2C1-1, UGT2C1L, HSD11B1, CYP2C19 and UGT2C1-2 were consistent with those of RNA-Seq. In summary, this study provides powerful experimental data for further exploring the yak liver development at different growth stages and a reference for in-depth understanding of yak liver growth and development process.
    Review on embryonic diapause and its regulation mechanisms in mammals
    LIU Jun, ZHANG Peijun, LI Songhai
    2022, 42(1):  95-107.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150482
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    Embryonic diapause is a survival strategy and reproductive state that is widespread in mammals. It starts prior to implantation when embryo development is minimized or put on hold, and terminates when embryo development is reactivated. Embryonic diapause is supposed to be reversible and harmless to the subsequent embryo development and it has two types:facultative diapause and obligate diapause. Facultative diapause is activated by lactation whereas obligate diapause is activated by seasonal photoperiod. The entrance, maintenance, and reactivation of embryonic diapause are all regulated by the relative levels of prolactin, progesterone, or ovarian estrogen. In addition to hormone regulation, the molecular mechanisms of embryonic diapause have been studied in several mammal species. A large number of potential factors that could regulate embryonic diapause were reported, including nutrients, proteases, cytokines, growth factors and transcription factors. In the present study, we reviewed previous studies on embryonic diapause, summarized current knowledge, and then proposed some scientific suggestions for further research needed on this topic.
    Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Guizhou Dashahe National Nature Reserve
    LI Qiaoming, GOU Wei, JI Chengpeng, XIAO Wenhong, CHEN Sikan, XIAO Zhishu
    2022, 42(1):  108-117.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150536
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    From December 2016 to August 2019, we set up 85 grids (1 km×1 km) and 114 camera-trapping stations to investigate the wildlife resources of mammals and birds in the Dashahe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou province, China. Our survey included 19 950 trap days and 10 767 independent pictures. We identified a total of 86 species from 35 families and 12 orders, including 25 species of mammals belonging to 14 families and 5 orders and 61 species of birds belonging to 21 families and 7 orders. Among them, 4 species were listed as Class Ⅰ and 19 species were listed as Class Ⅱ National Protected Wildlife in China, and 24 species were recorded for the first time in the Dashahe reserve. The most abundant mammal species based on the relative abundance index and grid occupancy were Muntiacus reevesi, Paguma larvata, and Sus scrofa. In addition, the most abundant bird species were Chrysolophus pictus, Tragopan temminckii, and Leiothrix argentauris. Our results provide basic information on the relative abundance of terrestrial wild mammals and birds for protection management and long-term monitoring in this reserve.
    New records of Sorex cansulus Thomas, 1912 in Sichuan, Qinghai and Shaanxi provinces
    HUANG Yunjia, TANG Keyi, WANG Xuming, WAN Tao, FU Changkun, WANG Qiong, CHEN Shunde, LIU Shaoying
    2022, 42(1):  118-124.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150569
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    When examining the Sorex shrew samples collected between 2011 and 2018, we found 24 specimens from Sichuan (Shiqu, Jiuzhaigou, Pingwu, Heishui, Wenchuan, Maoxian, Kangding), Qinghai (Banma), and Shaanxi (Taibai Mountain) suspected to be a Gansu shrew Sorex cansulus. Based on morphological characteristics, skull measurement comparison, Kimura-2-parameter distance and Bayesian phylogenetic tree analysis, these specimens were confirmed to be Sorex cansulus. This is the first time that Sorex cansulus has been discovered in Sichuan, Qinghai, and Shaanxi provinces. This study further determines the distribution range and biological information of Sorex cansulus.
    New records of bat species and their conservation status in Macao, China
    WANG Junhua, WONG Kai-Chin, CHEK Si-Nga, VU Ka-Man, CHAN Hoi-Hou, LIANG Jie, HE Xiangyang, ZHANG Libiao
    2022, 42(1):  125-130.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150521
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    Between 2013 and 2019, we surveyed the bats of Macao aiming to shed further light on the local bat diversity and to evaluate the bat population size. By undertaking a roost survey, and recording bat morphological characteristics and echolocation calls, we were able to identify bat species and estimate their population size. We identified six previously unrecorded species for Macao belonging to 5 genera and 3 families. The newly recorded bats were Rhinolophus affinis and R. sinicus (Rhinolophidae), Chaerephon plicatus (Molossidae), Tylonycteris fulvida, Scotophilus kuhlii, and Vespertilio sinensis (Vespertilionidae). Together with the previously recorded species, the diversity of bats in Macao now totals 16 species (11 genera, 5 families). We describe the distributions, morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of the six newly added bats species. Finally, the population and conservation status of the bats in Macao are also discussed.