Table of Content

    30 May 2022, Volume 42 Issue 3
    Potential effect on migration of Asian elephants and human-elephant conflict by the Meng'a reservoir in Menghai County, Xishuangbanna
    LIU Jiaqi, WANG Yihan, ZHANG Lei, CUI Ning, LYU Ting, HUANG Yuan, DAI Rong, LI Zhengling, CHEN Mingyong
    2022, 42(3):  227-239.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150578
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    From January to December 2020, the population structure and migration routes of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the proposed Meng' a reservoir in Menghai County in Xishuanbanna were investigated by using semi-structured interview method, tracking survey method, and UAV tracking survey method. In addition, the edible plants and habitat suitability of Asian elephants in this region were investigated and analyzed by using the quadrat method and 3S technology, in order to explore the potential impact of the proposed Meng' a reservoir on the migration of Asian elephants and human-elephant conflict. The results showed that:(1) The small population of Asian elephants living around the proposed Meng' a reservoir area is named the western Lancang River Asian elephant population or Xishuangbanna Menghai-Pu' er Lancang Asian elephant population, which only consists of only 19 elephants (10 ♂, 9 ♀). And two migration routes were used by Asian elephants across this area; (2) A total of 33 species representing 32 genera, 19 families, and 12 orders of foraging plants of Asian elephants were identified in this area, which could basically meet the feeding needs of this Asian elephant population; (3) The results of suitability analysis of ecological factors, such as altitude, slope, vegetation concealments and food resources showed that most of the areas (14. 61% of the total area was optimal habitat and 82. 05% of the total area was relative suitable habitat) could meet the basic living needs of this small Asian elephant population; (4) One of the two Asian elephant migration routes will be blocked by flooding water of the reservoir construction, forcing the herd to change its original migration route; (5) An entire area of habitat will be further cut and compressed, and vegetation in flooded areas will be permanently destroyed; (6) When the food resources cannot meet the survival needs of Asian elephants, they may choose to enter the agricultural areas where they can obtain a large amount of food in a short time to get food crops and cash crops in a short time. With the increase of number of people and traffic flow, the chance for Asian elephants to meet people will also greatly increase. The analysis suggests that the Meng' a reservoir may not only block one of the two migration routes of Asian elephants but also lead to more serious human-elephant conflict. We suggest that effective conservation and management measures should be taken in the process of reservoir design and construction to reduce the negative impact on the Asian elephants and their habitat. Reservoir construction and management departments and forestry and grassland management departments should strengthen monitoring and early warning of Asian elephant activities to avoid casualties and greater economic and property losses caused by Asian elephant accidents.
    Winter diet of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus xanthopygus) in the forestgrassland ecotone in Inner Mongolia, China
    ZHOU Liangjun, WANG Lin, WEI Kaili, ZHANG Minghai, ZHANG Weiqi
    2022, 42(3):  240-249.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150596
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    Coldness and snow cover in harsh winters pressure red deer (Cervus elaphus xanthopygus) inhabiting the Inner Mongolia forest-grassland ecotone to balance their nutrient and energy requirements. The main dietary portion of twigs from woody plants in winter is inadequate in the forest-grassland ecotone. In the winters of 2019 and 2020, we respectively collected 33 and 65 fecal samples of wild red deer in Gaogesitai Hanwula National Natural Reserve, Inner Mongolia, constituting 98 individual samples for feeding habit analysis. The food composition of red deer was analyzed via fecal microscopic analysis, and the patterns of feeding similarity between individual red deer were determined through detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) applied to the food composition data. The red deer ate 22 species (family) of plants in two winters, mainly including Quercus mongolica, Armeniaca sibirica, Salix rosmarinifolia, and Poaceae spp. A large percentage (9. 88%) of plants consumed by red deer in the winter of 2020 consisted of Picea asperata, which was not found in the samples from 2019. During the two winters, most red deer mainly foraged for deciduous trees and shrubs, such as Quercus mongolica, Armeniaca sibirica, Salix rosmarinifolia, and Ulmus pumila, and a high proportion foraged for Poaceae spp. A few individuals fed largely on Picea asperata when there was a food shortage. The consumption of Poaceae spp. and Picea asperata were the factors contributing to the variation in food composition.These results provide fundamental data for research on the nutritional ecology of red deer.
    Preliminary report on ungulate diversity and spatial distributions in Baihe National Nature Reserve and its surrounding areas, Sichuan
    LIU Mingxing, REN Baoping, CHEN Xing, JIN Guixiang, LENG Zhicheng, YANG Kong, GUAN Tianpei
    2022, 42(3):  250-260.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150583
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    A variety of biodiversity distribution patterns are formed due to variation in the distribution of resources and gradation in environmental variables. Montane ecosystems often have highly heterogeneous habitats, distributing resources in discrete patterns that offer ideal natural experiments to study the spatial distributions of biodiversity. Our aim was to investigate the diversity of ungulates and their spatial distribution patterns and drivers in the northern Minshan mountains based on the analysis of field monitoring data in and near Baihe National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. In total, 160 infrared cameras were deployed from May 2017 to July 2020 within Baihe National Nature Reserve and its marginal forests. We calculated the relative abundance index (RAI) and species richness of the detected forest ungulates, classifying the cameras by vegetation (eight vegetation types) and elevation (five distinct elevation bands), which ranged between 1 700 m and 3 700 m asl throughout the study area. We adopted GLM and related statistical methods to identify the role of vegetation type and elevation in shaping ungulates diversity and distribution patterns. A total of six ungulate species were recorded in the study area. Tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) was the most abundant species with an RAI of 41. 12, followed by Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus; RAI=14. 10), wild boar (Sus scrofa; RAI=6. 76), takin (Budorcas taxicolor; RAI=0. 59), and forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii; RAI=0. 34). Species richness was highest in the Spruce forest and Fir forest (with all 6 species recorded), while the highest RAI (96. 86) was found in the evergreen rhododendron shrub habitat and both species richness and RAI (19. 66) were the lowest in the cypress forest. The six ungulate species were classified into three elevation ranges:forest musk and takin were restricted to high elevation (> 2 900 m asl); tufted deer and Chinese serow were present in middle and low elevations (< 2 900 m asl) and Chinese goral and wild boar were found across the entire elevation range. Species diversity and richness were the highest in the middle elevation range, generally presenting a bell-shaped distribution pattern. Based on the model, vegetation and the interactive effects between vegetation and elevation were the main factors shaping the spatial distribution of ungulates in the study area. Based on our study, there are two suggestions for future management and monitoring:(1) reduce anthropogenic disturbances and activities at the low-medium elevation range and control livestock populations in meadows, and (2) monitoring or surveys should increase sampling effort at extremely high altitudes (> 3 300 m asl).
    The effect of frozen semen of captive giant pandas on their population genetic diversity
    WANG Donghui, LIU Yuliang, SHEN Fujun, CAI Zhigang, AN Junhui, HOU Rong
    2022, 42(3):  261-269.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150627
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    In the past 34 years of captive giant panda population protection, we have successfully established the world's largest giant panda sperm bank, which has preserved a total of 50 giant panda individuals with more than 7 000 straws of from zen semen. On one hand, frozen semen can preserve the genetic resources of the species for a long time. On the other hand, it can promote population reproduction through artificial insemination (AI). However, the role of frozen semen of captive giant pandas in their population genetic diversity has not been clearly reported. This study firstly analyzed the frozen semen AI data from 2000 to 2014 in Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, and compared the genetic diversities of frozen semen individuals and the captive population. The results showed that the genetic diversities of frozen semen individuals were higher than the captive population in the same breeding year, indicating that frozen semen AI can significantly improve the genetic diversity of the captive giant panda population in the breeding year. Secondly, the mean kinship (mK) of all frozen semen individuals in the sperm bank were calculated and compared with the captive population to explore the potential effect of frozen semen on the genetic diversity of the captive population. The results showed that the sperm bank conserved 21 dead individuals, of which 66. 67% individuals had a lower mK than the captive population. There were 14 semen from surviving individuals over 20 years old, of which 50. 00% individuals had a lower mK than the captive population. There were 15 surviving individuals under 20 years old, of which 53. 33% individuals had a lower mK than the captive population. This result indicated that frozen semen has a great value in protecting the genetic diversity of the captive population. In conclusion, frozen semen not only effectively preserved the genetic resources of giant pandas but also played a positive role in protecting the genetic diversity of the captive population.
    Taxonomic and distribution revision of Rattus pyctoris in China
    XIE Fei, WAN Tao, TANG Keyi, WANG Xuming, CHEN Shunde, LIU Shaoying
    2022, 42(3):  270-285.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150589
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    The Himalayan rat (Rattus pyctoris) was named by Hodgson in 1845, and its type locality is Nepal. The taxonomic status of this species and its distribution in China is controversial. Some research suggested that Rattus pyctoris is not distributed in China. Recently, seven specimens of Rattus sp. were collected during a field survey in 2020 from Jilong and Zanda counties, Tibet, China. The Pelage, skull, and teeth morphologies of these specimens resemble Rattus pyctoris from Nepal. Bayesian phylogenetic inference supported these specimens are monophyletic (PP=1. 0). The Kimura 2-parameter model (K2-P) genetic distance of Cyt b gene between our collections and the topotype of R. pyctoris is less than 2. 8%. Thus, these specimens are suggested as Rattus pyctoris based on morphological and molecular evidence. This is the first record of Rattus pyctoris in China, the finding has enriched the biogeographic data of this species.
    Effect of feeding peanut on cellular immunity and hematological profiles in non-reproductive female striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis)
    YU Yi, ZHAO Mingxing, WANG Yuhui, ZHANG Xueying, XU Deli, WANG Dehua
    2022, 42(3):  286-294.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150606
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    Food quantity and quality are important factors that affect animals'immunity. Would wild animals select the food advantageous to their health when they are faced with different foods? To solve this question, striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) were fed with their favorite peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and then cellular immunity and hematological parameters indicative of health status were measured. Thirty adult female non-reproductive hamsters were randomly grouped into the normal fodder group (NF, n=10), the normal fodder plus peanuts group (NP, n=10), and the peanut group (Peanut, n=10). The feeding period lasted for 39 days. Feeding peanuts increased body mass in the Peanut group, while decreased food intake in the NP and Peanut groups. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) response after 12 h of PHA injection in the NP group was higher than that in the NF group. The number of white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes (LYMP) did not differ among the three groups. However, WBC in the NP and Peanut groups was 22. 9% and 25. 0% higher than that the NF group, respectively, and LYMP in the NP and Peanut groups was 15. 0% and 22. 5% higher than that the NF group, respectively. Red blood cell count and its specific volume (PCV) in the NP and Peanut groups were higher than that in the NF group. The number of platelets in the Peanut group was higher than in the NP and Peanut groups. Collectively, these results indicate that feeding peanuts could enhance cellular immunity, the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells and blood clotting capacity, which may be the physiological reason for the striped hamster to select peanuts as its favorite food.
    Molecular characterization of yak (Bos grunniens) DBI gene and its expression and localization in mammary tissue
    WANG Qianglong, ZHANG Tongxiang, GAO Zechuan, WANG Libin, YU Sijiu, PAN Yangyang
    2022, 42(3):  295-303.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150565
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    Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) has a high affinity with acyl-CoA and is widely expressed in animal tissues, which is closely related to fatty acid metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. In order to study the molecular characteristics of DBI gene and its role in the development of mammary gland, the coding region of DBI gene in yaks was cloned and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blotting (WB) and Immuno-histochemistry (IHC) assays were used to explore the relative expression level and expression sites of DBI in the mammary tissues of yak in the early lactation, lactation, and dry milk periods. DBI sequence analysis showed that the coding region of yak DBI gene is 264 bp long, encoding 87 amino acids, and the homology with Bos taurus is 99. 62%. qPCR data showed that the relative expression level of DBI gene in the mammary tissue of yak in early lactation was significantly higher than during lactation and dry periods (P< 0. 05). WB results showed that the expression of DBI protein in the mammary tissue of yak was the highest in early lactation, followed by dry period, and the lowest in lactation (P< 0. 05). IHC results showed that there was no significant difference in the expression sites of DBI in different development stages of yak mammary gland, and it is mainly expressed in acinar epithelial cells, ductal epithelial cells, and lobular mesenchymal cells. There were significant differences in the relative expression levels of DBI in different development stages of yak mammary tissue (P< 0. 05), suggesting that DBI may be involved in the development of yak mammary gland, which provides a theoretical reference for further exploration of the role of DBI gene in the organism.
    Observation on antinematode activity of the recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B against the giant panda Baylisascaris schroederi in vitro
    HUANG Wenjun, LUO Li, CHEN Xin, LIU Li, LIAO Lihui, WANG Xiaolan, LI Bi, LI Mingxi, CHEN Min, YI Dejiao, LI Han, ZHANG Hao, ZHUO Guifu, LIU Yunjian, LI Yingxin, CHEN Yijun, ZHOU Xuan, XIE Yue
    2022, 42(3):  304-311.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150643
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    The roundworm Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most serious intestinal parasitic nematodes found in the giant panda, a rare species endemic to China. Given the current situation of the long-term anthelmintic treatment-causing resistance and ecological pollution, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-producing crystal protein Cry5B is an ideal and novel antiascariasis drug candidate due to its specific antinematode activity. This study was designed to prokaryotically produce the recombinant protein Cry5B from the Bt YBT-1518 and to evaluate its antinematode activity on the intestinal fourthstage larvae (L4s) and adults of B. schroederi. The results showed that the recombinant Bt YBT-1518 Cry5B protein consisted of 1 246 amino acids with a molecular weight (MW) of 139. 889 kDa, contained Endotoxin_N, δ-Endotoxin_C, Endotoxin_C, Endotoxin_C2, and Cry1Ac_D5 domains, and shared the closest relationship with that of Bt PS86Q3. After optimization, the recombinant Cry5B protein was expressed in the supernatant with the maximum yield when IPTG was up to 1. 4 mmol/L. Further analysis of antinematode activity indicated a significant dose-dependent response to the recombinant Cry5B protein with ED50 of 14. 5 μg/mL on day 3 and 0. 16 μg/mL on day 7 for L4s. It appeared that adults were more sensitive to this protein than L4s as all worms became immotile on day 2 and even dead on day 7. Combined, these findings suggested that the recombinant Bt YBT-1518 Cry5B protein is able to completely intoxicate B. schroederi. These results provided insights into the development and clinical application of Bt YBT-1518 recombinant Cry5B protein as a new drug against the giant panda baylisascariasis.
    Methodological advances in explaining community assembly with nichebased theory
    SONG Wenyu, LI Xueyou, ONDITI Kenneth Otieno, JIANG Xuelong
    2022, 42(3):  312-324.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150613
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    Disentangling community assembly processes could help to better understand the formation of biodiversity patterns and may facilitate biodiversity conservation. One of the central theoretical frameworks of community assembly is the niche-based theory, which hypothesizes that the species observed in the local community are deterministically selected by biotic and abiotic factors. Recently, as increasing attention is drawn to this field, ecologists explain community assembly by studying distributions of taxonomic, phylogenetic, or functional diversity patterns. However, the diversity indices, algorithms of null models, and the definitions of species pool are varied. This paper reviews the usages and limitations when studying community assembly from different biodiversity dimensions. We summarized some pitfalls when constructing null models and defining species pools. Some recent developments in methodology are also introduced. Finally, we provide some suggestions for further study based on recent advances in community assembly topics.
    Camera-trapping survey and activity pattern analysis on mammals and birds in Pogang Karst Forest Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province, China
    YANG Guangmei, LI Jiaqi, ZHANG Mingming, HU Canshi, SU Haijun
    2022, 42(3):  325-338.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150568
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    From 2017 to 2020, we used infrared cameras to monitor birds and mammals for four consecutive years in the Pogang Karst Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province, and analyzed species diversity and activity patterns of the main terrestrial mammals and birds. A total of 72 species of mammals and birds were recorded, including 13 mammals, belonging to 4 orders and 7 families, and 59 birds, belonging to 6 orders and 18 families. Among them, Syrmaticus humiae and Viverricula indica are listed in the CategoryⅠof State Protected species in China; and 13 species, including Lophura nycthemera, Chrysolophus amherstiae, Leiothrix lutea, Macaca mulatta, Prionodon pardicolor, and Prionailurus bengalensis, are listed in the CategoryⅡof State Protected species in China. The highest Shannon-Wiener index was in the core area of the reserve (H=2. 76). Activity pattern analysis showed that Chrysolophus amherstiae is a diurnal animal, and Paguma larvata and Melogale moschata are typical nocturnal animals. In addition, the daily activity pattern of Chrysolophus amherstiae and Melogale moschata showed a bimodal trend, while the Prionailurus bengalensis and Paguma larvata showed a unimodal pattern. The results can provide a basis for further strengthening conservation management and ecological research on birds and mammals in the Karst region.
    Clinical application of galactomannan test in early diagnosis of aspergillosis in captive marine animals
    DONG Guixin, ZHANG Delu, HUANG Zelin, ZHANG Xiaomin, LIANG Shuyu, CHEN Xiaofen, SHEN Bo, ZHANG Peng
    2022, 42(3):  339-344.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150592
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    Aspergillosis is one of the most common diseases in captive marine animals, and the early diagnosis of infection has not been reported. Galactomannan (GM) test is a good method for Aspergillus detection, which has a high clinical value in the early diagnosis of human medical Aspergillus infection, and can significantly improve the detection rate of Aspergillus patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical value of the GM test in the early diagnosis of aspergillosis infection in captive marine animals. The serum of 106 captive marine animals was tested for GM antigen, 25 were positive and 81 were negative. The dynamic changes of GM antigen levels before and after antifungal treatment were detected in 21 positive individuals. In addition, clinical data of the infected animals were collected for statistical analysis, and the value of GM detection for the early diagnosis of Aspergillus infection in captive marine animals was evaluated. When single I ≥ 0. 7 was used as the positive threshold for sea mammals and single I ≥ 1. 2 as the positive threshold for seabirds, the results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 91% for sea mammals and 94% for seabirds. This study shows that the GM test can effectively reflect the degree of Aspergillus infection in captive Marine animals through GM test, which can be an early, rapid and accurate diagnostic index, and has high clinical application value.
    Allomaternal nursing by a nulliparous pregnant female just before first parturition in free-ranging golden sub-nosed monkeys
    HU Qinglang, WU Yue, YAO Hui, YANG Wanji, YU Yang, XIANG Zuofu
    2022, 42(3):  345-348.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150582
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    Although allomaternal nursing has been extensively explored in golden sub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), this behavior in nulliparous pregnant females has not been explained in detail. In this study, we report allomaternal nursing in two nulliparous pregnant females just before their first parturition. The results indicated that the nulliparous pregnant female could secrete milk before delivery, and carry out effective allomaternal nursing. The nulliparous pregnant female can not only learn lactation skills through this behavior but also promote lactation. Our finding provides basic data for the suckling behavior of golden snub-nosed monkeys and supports the parenting hypothesis which is related to allomaternal nursing.