Table of Content

    30 March 2023, Volume 43 Issue 2
    Comparative analysis of gut microbial composition and functions of forest musk deer in different breeding centres
    Feng JIANG, Pengfei SONG, Jingjie ZHANG, Hongmei GAO, Haijing WANG, Zhenyuan CAI, Daoxin LIU, Tongzuo ZHANG
    2023, 43(2):  129-140.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150701
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    Intestinal diseases are common in the breeding of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii, FMD). Gut microbiota has evolved with the host and formed a complex microecosystem with the gastrointestinal tract of animals. To compare the effects of different breeding environments on gut microbial composition and functions of captive FMD, a total of 215 fresh feces samples were collected from 5 different breeding centres in China, and a 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing was performed. The differences in gut microbial composition, diversity, and functions of FMD from different breeding centres were analyzed. The results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroides were the absolute dominant bacteria phyla in the gut microbiota of FMD fed without compound probiotics from Qilian County, while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the absolute dominant bacteria in the gut microbiota of FMD fed with compound probiotics from Liangdang County and Feng County. The composition, dominant bacteria phyla, dominant bacteria genera, potential pathogenic bacteria, metabolism-related, and disease-related functions of gut microbiota in FMD from different breeding centres were significantly different. The α diversity and disease-related function enrichment of gut microbiota in FMD from Qilian were significantly lower than those from other breeding centres, and enterotype 2 was dominant, with Firmicutes, UCG-005,and Bacteroides as the marker bacteria. The relative abundance of potential pathogenic bacteria of gut microbiota in FMD from Liangdang and Feng Counties was low. We speculated that the difference in food composition might be the main factor leading to the difference in the gut microbiota of FMD from different breeding centres, and the use of compound probiotics might be an important factor leading to the decrease of α diversity and potential pathogenic bacteria. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the artificial breeding management of FMD, and also have certain significance for the assessment of the artificial breeding environment and the plan of reintroduction in the future.

    The activity budget and the influencing factor of a monogamous western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) group
    Ziqian LI, Yongliang ZHU, Linguo LI, Wei LI, Jianguang YANG, Zhenhua GUAN, Xuelong JIANG
    2023, 43(2):  141-148.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150726
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    The behavioral adaptation of primates to high-altitude habitats has long been a topic of interest in primate research, and recent years have seen a growing focus on behavioral differences of the same species across different habitats. The western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) is a National First-Class Protected Wild Animal in China and boasts the largest population of gibbons in the country. While the species is concentrated in the Mt. Ailao and Mt. Wuliang areas of central Yunnan, there are significant differences in their habitats and social organization between the two locations, and limited research has been conducted on Mt. Ailao gibbons. This study presents the first report on the activity budget, diet, and seasonal variations of a monogamous gibbon group in the high-altitude habitat of Mt. Ailao. Between 2014 - 2015, observations totaling 468 hours were recorded using the instantaneous scanning method at 3-minute intervals. Behavioral data showed that moving behavior was the most prevalent at 38.1%, followed by resting at 36.4%, feeding at 23.3%, singing at 1.9%, and other behavior at 1.3%. Food types were identified in 3 784 feeding behaviors, with leaves accounting for 41.1%, fruit for 33.3%, flowers for 21.0%, epiphytes for 3.9%, and other foods for 0.6%. The study found significant differences in the activity and diet of gibbons between the rainy and dry seasons, with increased fruit consumption during the former and an increased proportion of leaves and flowers during the latter. Additionally, the gibbons increased their resting time and reduced feed and move time during the cold and dry season, while they increased move time and reduced rest and feed time during the hot and rainy season, demonstrating energy-conservative behavioral strategies adopted by gibbons in high-altitude habitats. The results also highlight the influence of habitat food distribution patterns on behavioral strategies, as seen in the comparison with Mt. Wuliang. In conclusion, the study emphasizes the need for systematic research on more monogamous western black crested gibbon groups to gain a full understanding of the adaptive behavior and evolution of social organization in gibbons.

    Climate change results in imbalance population growth and change in suitable habitat for red deer in the Qinghai‒Tibet Plateau: a case study in the Leiwuqi National Nature Reserve
    Xiulin YE, Keji GUO, Xinrui LI, Qing WU, Mengfei ZHANG, Ming LI, Xumao ZHAO
    2023, 43(2):  149-156.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150706
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    The Qinghai?Tibet Plateau is the highest geographical unit on Earth and has warmed at about two times the rate of global warming over the past 50 years, which has had a great impact on high-altitude species. We used field survey information collected in the Leiwuqi National Nature Reserve (LNNR) combined with species distribution models (SDMs) and population growth model to find that (1) the population size of Cervus elaphus increased from 890 to 1 400 between 2013 and 2021, and may reach 1 735 in 2050 (1 760 in 2070), and (2) the present suitable habitat of C. elaphus will decrease by 43.4% and 5.1% in 2050s and 2070s, respectively. In addition, the suitable habitats of C. elaphus have 19%, 60% and 37% overlap with that of domestic yaks in the present, 2050s, and 2070s, which decreases the suitable habitat for C. elaphus due to food competition. The estimated increase in population size, decrease in suitable habitats, and competition with yaks will increase the threat to C. elaphus in 2050s. To protect C. elaphus, human activities, particularly for grazing yaks in and around the LNNR, should be reduced to 1 000 ? 1 500. This study integrated SDMs, population growth model, and interspecific relationships to evaluate the impact of climate change on species to the population level, which has significance for other species conservation.

    The pellet-decay rate of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Lesser Xing’an Mountains
    Xuefeng SHAO, Xiaoying PING, Yueyuan LI, Long CHEN, Zhiwen NIE, Yuanman HU, Yuehui LI
    2023, 43(2):  157-163.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150682
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    The pellet-decay rate is the time period during which pellet piles disappeared under natural conditions. Pellet-decay rate is a significant parameter for estimating the population size of deer by using the method of pellet distance sampling, providing the foundation for research on population size. In this study, we aim to answer the question of what is the pellet-decay rate of deer under continental climates in high-latitude temperate zones and solve the time-consuming and labor-consuming problem of revisiting each pellet group at their original positions when pellet piles are scattered due to low density and hidden behavior of those species in China. Within the Lesser Xing’an Mountains (46°28′ - 49°21′N)located in the temperate continental climate zone, we selected the Jianshe forest farm in Tieli Forestry Bureau as study area. In January 2015, we collected 38 groups of fresh pellets from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and moved them to a typical conveniently-revisited red deer habitat characterized by coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and sunny slope, and recorded the original number of pellets in each pile. After that, we made eight visits at certain intervals to record the remaining pellets in each pile and whether each pile was completely decayed. Then, we used logistic binary regression using the R 4.1.2 software to calculate the intercept b0and slope b1 of the model and the MATLAB R2020b software to calculate the pellet-decay rate. The result showed that the average pellet-decay rate of red deer was 646 ± 53 days. In this study, pellet piles were manually moved and set in one place for observation, which provided a feasible way to study the pellet-decay rate in areas with low density of the target population. This study enriched the research on the pellet-decay rate of deer in China, thus alleviating the obstacle of using the pellet-based distance sampling method to estimate the population size.

    Effects of cohabitation on emotion and hypothalamic oxytocin expression in middy gerbils
    Fei MIAO, Zixuan KONG, Shaobin YANG, Peng YU
    2023, 43(2):  164-170.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150725
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    Cohabitation between male and female is an important stage of long lasting pair bonding, which involves a series of physical and emotional changes. However, due to the lack of monogamous animal models, the neurobiological regulation, especially the sex difference, in the process of pair bonding is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of male and female cohabitation on emotion and the numbers of oxytocin-neuron in relative brain regions in middy gerbils (Meriones meridianus) using elevated plus maze, forced swimming and immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that, after 10 days of cohabitation, the frequency of entering the open arm of female gerbils in the cohabitation group (FF) was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the anxiety index was significantly increased (P < 0.05). In the forced swimming experiment, the frequency and time in immobility in FF were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The expression level of oxytocin in paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus in FF was significantly increased (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant changes in behavior and oxytocin levels in cohabiting males, which may be related to sexual dyssynchrony in the formation of pair bonds. In conclusion, cohabitation only causes anxiety-like behavior in female middy gerbils, which may be related to hypothalamic oxytocin system.

    Diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants and genetic evolution analysis of N and F genes of Pseudois nayaur in Qinghai
    Wei KAN, Leibin LI, Xuyang ZHAO, Lin YANG, Yu SUN, Jinshan CAI
    2023, 43(2):  171-181.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150673
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    On January 19, 2021, an unexplained death of a Pseudois nayaur occurred in the Yikegaoli area, Balong Township, Dulan County, Haixi Prefecture, Qinghai Province. The animal was characterized by being alone, lying on the ground, physical weakness, difficulty in foraging, and black attachments around the anus. It was diagnosed as peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection by clinical symptoms, pathological autopsy, and qRT-PCR. Part of PPRV N and F genes were amplified from the diseased tissues of the dead P. nayaur by RT-PCR. Megalig, NT1, and MEGA 6.0 software were used to compare and analyze the N and F gene sequences of P. nayaur PPRV and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The results show that the homology between the N and F genes of PPRV infecting the P. nayaur from Qinghai and the Xinjiang strain (China/Xinjiang/2015/16) was 99.43% and 99.73% respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belonged to the lineage Ⅳ. At the nucleic acid sequence level of N and F genes, it has the closest genetic relationship with the strains isolated in Xinjiang. Compared with foreign strains, the N gene is more related to the strains isolated from Senegal and Nigeria and the F gene is distantly related to foreign strains. In conclusion, Qinghai P. nayaur PPR strains belong to the gene Ⅳ lineage, which is the same pedigree as the wild virus strains currently prevalent in China.

    Characteristics of microsatellite distributions in genomes of Hipposideros armiger (Chiroptera)
    Weiwei SHAO, Fen QIAO, Wei CAI, Zhihua LIN, Li WEI
    2023, 43(2):  182-192.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150724
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    The vertebrate genome is rich in microsatellite information. In this study, the distribution of microsatellite (SSRs) in the complete genome and its genes of Hipposideros armiger (Chiroptera) was analyzed, and Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) containing microsatellite coding sequence (CDS) were explored. The results showed that the total genome size of H. armiger was 2.24 Gb and contained 497 883 microsatellites. Mononucleotide (173 953 microsatellites) and dinucleotide repeats (222 591 microsatellites) were the most diverse in the genome of H. armiger accounting for 34.94% and 44.71% of whole genome size, with their relative abundance of 77.78 loci/Mb and 99.52 loci/Mb, respectively. The most microsatellite types from mononucleotide repeat to hexanucleotide repeat were (A)n, (AC)n, (TAT)n, (TTTA)n, (AACAA)n and (TATATA)n, with their frequency of 95.14%, 55.25%, 38.41%, 22.17%, 48.68% and 20.30% respectively. The number and abundance of microsatellites were different in both gene regions and intergenic regions. The diversity of microsatellites was highest in intergenic region with 322 666 microsatellites, and its abundance was 2 541.57 loci/Mb, whereas lowest in coding region with 1 461 microsatellites, and its abundance was 461.98 loci/Mb. The distribution characteristics of microsatellites in intergenic region and total genome were similar. Trinucleotide repeat were the most common types of microsatellites in the coding region, while mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeat were the most common types of microsatellites in the exons. The positional specificity of microsatellites abundance distributions in 500 bp upstream, exon, intron and 500 bp downstream were 16 400.94 loci/Mb, 972.12 loci/Mb, 2 180.66 loci/Mb and 3 899.89 loci/Mb, respectively. A total of 1 461 microsatellite coding sequences (CDS) were found in the genome of H. armiger, and 1 226 genes were annotated. GO was mainly annotated into 63 functional genes and assigned to 26 439 GO items. The most significant KEGG enrichment was in the signal transduction pathway, which contained 146 genes. The results of this study not only provide a reference for the screening of high-quality microsatellites in H. armiger, it will also provide a reference for genome-wide analysis of microsatellite distribution in other Chiroptera species and the study of their biological functions in the whole genome.

    A review of wildlife conservation and management strategies of Sanjiangyuan National Park
    Tongzuo ZHANG, Feng JIANG, Jingjie ZHANG, Zhenyuan CAI, Hongmei GAO, Haifeng GU, Pengfei SONG
    2023, 43(2):  193-205.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150698
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    Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) is one of the first and largest national parks in China and the first national park on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It has landmark significance for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and even for China's accelerated construction of national parks as a natural areas protection system. The diversity of wildlife in SNP is high and the proportion of endangered species is large, among which the proportion of mammals and birds under threat is 32.26% and 19.90%, respectively. SNP also harbors abundant national key protected species and rare species endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, including 46.77% of mammals endemic to China or the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and 7.65% of birds endemic to China. Its rich biodiversity has conservation value of national and even global significance. We briefly reviewed the progress and achievements of global wildlife conservation research, analyzed the causes of wildlife endangerment in SNP, and proposed several wildlife conservation and management strategies, such as strengthening the monitoring of wildlife dynamics in SNP, innovating habitat protection techniques, establishing wildlife migration corridors and refuges, conducting research on the balanced management of grass and livestock, disease control, human-animal conflict, and establishing wildlife gene resource bank. There strategies will provide useful guarantees for the achievement of strict protection of ecological environment, harmonious coexistence between human and nature, as well as regional sustainable development strategic needs in SNP.

    Bird and mammal diversity inventory by camera trapping in the Neixiang Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Henan Province
    Qinghao ZHANG, Song YAO, Kai XU, Tong LIU, Wenhong XIAO, Bingyong BAI, Xiaoqun HUANG, Zhishu XIAO
    2023, 43(2):  206-214.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150633
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    We conducted a 3-year survey for large and medium-sized mammals and ground-dwelling birds using infrared cameras from April 2015 to September 2018 in the Neixiang Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Henan province. Based on 12 040 independent images and 37 923 effective camera days from 62 camera traps sites, we identified 54 species belonging to 12 orders and 26 families, including 35 bird species belonging to 6 orders and 12 families and 19 mammal species belonging to 6 orders and 14 families. Turdus rubrocanus, Pomatorhinus hypoleucos, and Latoucheornis siemsseni were newly recorded in the reserve. Among the recorded species, Moschus berezovskii and Aquila chrysaeto are listed as Class Ⅰ National Protected Species, and 13 species as Class Ⅱ national protected animals, e.g. Prionailurus bengalensis, Martes flavigula, Macaca mulatta, Naemorhedus griseus. According to the IUCN Red List, M. berezovskii is listed as endangered, N. griseus as vulnerable, and Arctonyx collaris as near endangered. Based on the Red List of China’s Vertebrates, M. berezovskii is classified as critically endangered, four species are listed as vulnerable and ten species as near endangered. The top three mammals with the highest relative abundance index and site occupancies were Sus scrofa, Hystrix hodgsoni, and A. collaris. The birds with higher relative abundance index and site occupancies were Pucrasia macrolopha and Chrysolophus pictus. Moreover, human activities and livestock grazing were the main disturbance in the reserve. We obtained for the first time images of captured macaques kept for ecotourism. The study provides baseline information for long-term monitoring and research of wildlife and biodiversity management and conservation of the reserve.

    Preliminary survey of mammals and birds diversity by using camera traps in the Guangxi Encheng National Nature Reserve
    Bo XIE, Xiuping NONG, Guoli HUANG, Rong HUANG, Wei YAO, Jianzhong LIN, Qihai ZHOU
    2023, 43(2):  215-223.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150653
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    In order to document the wildlife resources in Guangxi Encheng National Nature Reserve. We set up 58 infrared camera traps in this natural reserve to monitor mammals and forest birds from December 2019 to January 2021. The surveys produced a total of 17 332 camera-days of data, and 6 680 independent wildlife photographs were collected. We identified 20 mammal species belonging to 5 orders and 13 families, as well as 61 bird species belonging to 9 orders and 20 families. Among the detected species, one species is listed as first-class National Protected Wildlife: Fran?ois’s Langur (Trachypithecus francoisi), and 26 species (6 mammal species and 20 bird species) are listed as second-class National Protected Wildlife. There are 2 species are classified as Endangered (EN), 6 as Vulnerable (VU) and 19 as Near Threatened (NT) according to the Red List of China’s Vertebrates. Based on the relative abundance index, the mammal with the highest relative abundance index was Leopoldamys edwardsi, the bird was Lophura nycthemera. Camera traps technique is an effective method for wildlife survey. Our results provided the primary records on the species composition and relative abundance of mammals and birds in the Guangxi Encheng National Nature Reserve. These will provide the basic information for future investigation of wildlife and management in the reserve.

    Two new records of Chodsigoa hypsibia and Sorex bedfordiae from Ningxia in China
    Li ZHOU, Rui LIAO, Quanfen HOU, Shunde CHEN, Shaoying LIU
    2023, 43(2):  224-228.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150709
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    In September 2011, six shrew specimens were collected with traps from Mt. Liupanshan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (35°36′76″N, 106°32′79″E, 2 000 m asl). Pelage, skull, and teeth morphologies of one specimen are similar to Chodsigoa hypsibia and the others are similar to Sorex bedfordiae. Molecular analyses supported the two species C. hypsibia and S. bedfordiae to be monophyletic, and the K2P genetic distance of Cyt b gene is 0.4% (C. hypsibia) and 6.7% - 7.4% (S.bedfordiae). Thus, these specimens were identified as C. hypsibia and S. bedfordiae based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. They represent the first records of C. hypsibia and S. bedfordiae in Ningxia, and expand the known distribution range of the two species.

    Analysis of inorganic elements in the bile of Plateau zokor and Gansu zokor
    Wen QIN, Chuanhua YANG, Zhenyuan CAI
    2023, 43(2):  229-234.  DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150685
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    The content of inorganic elements provides an important basis for drug processing and finding substitutes. Inorganic elements, which play an important role in the whole life-history of animals, cannot be synthesized and can only be obtained from the environment. Plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi) and Gansu zokor (E. cansus) are two rodents that live underground for their entire lives. The analysis of inorganic elements in the bile of the two zokor species will not only provide guidance for finding alternatives for cherish medicine bear bile, but also help to explore wildlife medicinal resources. In this study, the contents of inorganic chemical elements in the bile were obtained by wet digestion and detected by an ICAP 6300 inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. An independent sample t-test was used to compare the contents of inorganic chemical elements in the bile of the two species. The linear relationship between the contents of inorganic elements was also analyzed. The results showed that the contents of inorganic elements in the bile of Plateau zokor and Gansu zokor are in different orders. The positive and negative correlation of inorganic elements in the bile of Plateau zokor is different from that of Gansu zokor. The higher content of inorganic elements in the bile of Gansu zokor than that of Plateau zokor may be related to the relatively higher content of inorganic elements in the food of Gansu zokor, and also related to the different synergistic effect of inorganic elements in the bile between the two species. The main inorganic elements in the bile of the two zokor and species are similar to that of bear bile, and the medicinal properties among them also resemble the inorganic element composition. The bile of Plateau zokor and Gansu zokor are preferred to be gas medicine, and also beneficial to the treatment of sports injury and strengthening tendons and bones. Therefore, the bile of the two zokors can be used as a potential substitute for bear bile, our research also benefits to transforming the ‘poison zokors’, which with large amounts of resources, into effective medicinal resources.