兽类学报

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基于Cyt b基因和形态学的鼠兔属系统发育研究及鼠兔属1新亚属5新种描述

刘少英 靳伟 廖锐 孙治宇 曾涛 符建荣 刘洋 王新 李盼峰 唐明坤  谌利民 董立 韩明德 苟丹   

  1. 四川省林业科学研究院
  • 出版日期:2017-02-15 发布日期:2017-02-17
  • 通讯作者: 刘少英 E-mail:shaoyliu@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(30970330, 31272274, 31470110);北京大学RAP调查项目;四川省林业厅众多自然保护区调查项目;西藏工布自然保护区本底调查项目

Phylogenetic study of Ochotona based on mitochondrial Cytb and morphology with a description of one new subgenus and five new species

LIU Shaoying, JIN Wei, LIAO Rui, SUN Zhiyu, ZENG Tao, FU Jianrong, LIU Yang, WANG Xin, LI Panfeng, TANG Mingkun, CHEN Liming, DONG Li, HAN Mingde, GOU Dan   

  1. Sichuan Academy of Forestry
  • Online:2017-02-15 Published:2017-02-17
  • Contact: LIU Shaoying E-mail:shaoyliu@163.com

摘要: 本研究扩增了169号鼠兔属样本的cyt b序列,代表13个种11亚种及5个未分类单元,下载了66条分类地位确定而完整的Cyt b序列,包括25种及9个亚种。构建了Bayesian系统发育树,计算了遗传距离,开展了物种界定分析;对13个种4亚种及5个未分类单元174号完整头骨和外形的20个形态学量度数据开展了主成分分析、判别分析和T检验;对头骨和身体外部特征进行了比较研究。结果显示:鼠兔属包含5个亚属,分别是Ochotona, Conothoa, Pika, Lagotona 和一新亚属;5个亚属间的遗传距离在12.8%-16.0%之间;高黎贡鼠兔(Ochotona gaoligongensis)是灰颈鼠兔(O. forresti)的亚种;喜马拉雅鼠兔(O. himalayana)是灰鼠兔(O. roylei)的亚种;木里鼠兔(O. muliensis)是川西鼠兔(O. gloveri)的亚种;宁夏鼠兔(O. argentata)应为蒙古鼠兔(O. pallasi)的亚种;西伯利亚鼠兔(O. turuchanensis) 为高山鼠兔(O. alpina)的同物异名。藏鼠兔循化亚种(O. thibetana xunhuaensis)应提升为种:循化鼠兔(O. xunhuaensis);东北鼠兔长白山亚种(O. hyperborea coreana)应该提升为种:长白山鼠兔(O. coreana);藏鼠兔峨眉亚种(O. thibetana sacraria)应提升为种:峨眉鼠兔(O. sacraria); 藏鼠兔锡金亚种(O. thibetana sikimaria)应提升为种:锡金鼠兔(O. sikimaria)。通过分子系统学和形态学研究,发现了鼠兔属1 新亚属和5个新种。新亚属命名为异耳鼠兔亚属(Alienauroa subgen. n.),属模为黄龙鼠兔(O. huanglongensis sp. n.),成员包括黄龙鼠兔新种、峨眉鼠兔、循化鼠兔,以及在龙门山和大巴山发现的2个新种,共计5个种。新亚属的鉴定特征是:耳上前缘内侧有一个密被短毛的异耳屏(Congenial tragus);头骨扁平,颅面平直;眼小,眼眶长和眼眶宽均小于其他亚属;被毛粗长而无光泽;腹毛多为灰白色。5个新种分别发现于四川黄龙自然保护区、四川北部龙门山、四川北部大巴山、四川西部邛崃山、西藏雅鲁藏布江中游的朗县。我们分别将其命名为黄龙鼠兔(Ochotona huanglongensis sp. n.),扁颅鼠兔(Ochotona flatcalvariam sp.n.),大巴山鼠兔(Ochotona dabashanensis sp. n.),雅鲁藏布鼠兔(Ochotona yarlungensis sp. n.)和邛崃鼠兔(Ochotona qionglaiensis sp. n.)。黄龙鼠兔的鉴定特征是:门齿孔前段平行;脑颅扁平,颅高为颅全长的33.5%;耳大,平均20mm以上(不含耳基部的管),异耳屏三角形,但顶端圆形;毛长而粗糙,无光泽,背部毛长约20mm;腹面毛色以灰白为主;前后足背面灰白色,腹面黑灰色,指(趾)垫大,橘黄色,露出毛外,爪黄白色半透明。扁颅鼠兔的鉴定特征是:脑颅异常扁平,颅高约11mm,颅高仅为颅全长的31%;眼眶很小,平均6.7mm×5.6mm;个体小,体长140mm以下;体毛长而粗糙无光泽,背部毛长22mm;耳小,平均17mm左右,异耳屏阔圆型,相对较小;背毛沙黄色,腹毛黄白。大巴山鼠兔的鉴定特征是:异耳屏镰刀状;耳相对较小,均在17mm以下,和峨眉鼠兔、扁颅鼠兔差不多,比该亚属循化鼠兔和黄龙鼠兔小。颅高相对较大,颅面更隆突,颅高平均12.45mm, 眼眶相对较大,平均8.52mm×7.13mm。雅鲁藏布鼠兔的鉴定特征是:与黑唇鼠兔(O. curzoniae)和努布拉克鼠兔拉萨亚种(O. nubrica lhasaensis)有很近的亲缘关系;唇缘有很窄的深灰色圈,深灰色圈外侧为灰白色;前后足底部毛浓密,趾端毛多而长,趾垫和爪隐于毛中;个体中等,体长150mm左右,比黑唇鼠兔和努布拉克鼠兔拉萨亚种小得多;颅面较隆突,但与黑唇鼠兔相比,颅面相对平直;被毛黑褐色。邛崃鼠兔的鉴定特征是:大小及头骨和藏鼠兔很相似,但该种和藏鼠兔的显著不同是眶间宽狭窄,平均4.05mm(3.64-4.19mm),而藏鼠兔眶间宽一般超过4.2mm,平均为4.45mm;该种毛色为沙色带黄色调,毛粗长;藏鼠兔为黑褐色调,毛相对较短;邛崃鼠兔前后足背面为显著的草黄色,而藏鼠兔前后足背面黄白色。

关键词: 鼠兔, 系统发育, 新亚属, 新种, 异耳屏, 扁颅鼠兔, 黄龙鼠兔, 大巴山鼠兔, 雅鲁藏布鼠兔, 邛崃鼠兔

Abstract: of the new subgenus includeyarlungensis sp. n. were identified in addition to the 3 assigned to Alienauroa. The identifying characteristics of O. huanglongnensis (collected at the Huanglong National Scenic Reserve; Sichuan) include: front part of incisive foramen parallel; skull flat, the height of skull (SH) only 33.5% of the greatest length of skull (GLS); ears large averaging over 20 mm; congenial tragus triangular and the distal part circular; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 20 mm; the ventral hairs gray white; the back of the palms gray white; the ventral palm gray black; finger and digital pads large and orange, exposed out of hairs, and claws translucent. The identifying characteristics of O. flatcalvariam (collected from the Longmen mountains, Sichuan province) include: skull very flat, average SH 11 mm, SH only 31% of GLS; eye sockets very small, only 6.7 mm in length and 5.6 mm in breadth; body length less than 140 mm; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 22 mm; ears small averaging over 17 mm, congenial tragus triangular and small, the distal part of congenial tragus broad-round; dorsal pelage sandy yellow, ventral pelage yellow white. The identifying characteristics of O. dabashanensis (collected from Dabashan Mountains, Sichuan province) include: congenial tragus sickle-liked; ear small, less than 17 mm on average, which is similar to O. sacraria and O. flatcalvariam, but less than O. huanglongensis and O. xunhuaensis; SH relatively large and bulged, posing the largest SH and eye sockets in Alienauroa, average SH 12.45 mm; eye sockets 8.52 mm×7.13 mm. O. yarlungensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the middle of the Yarlung Zangbo River; Xizang) has its closest relationship with O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis. Its characteristics include: margin of lips lined with very narrow gray black hair, surrounding with gray white hair; soles and palms covered with dense black hairs, long hairs cover the claws, the digital pads and claws hidden in the hairs; head and body length average 150 mm, much less than that of O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis; skull flatter than that of O. curzoniae; dorsal pelage gray brown. O. qionglaiensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the Qionglai Mountains; Sichuan) has its closest genetic relationship with O. curzoniae, although its measurements and appearance are close to that of O. thibetana. Compared with O. thibetana, O. qionglaiensis has a very narrow interorbital width (4.05 mm on average; range: 3.64 - 4.19 mm), while that of O. thibetana is >4.2mm (4.45 mm on average). O. qionglaiensis is covered with sandy yellow, coarse and long hairs, while O. thibetana is covered with black brown and relatively short hairs. The backs of the palms and feet of O. qionglaiensis are a withered grass yellow, while those of O. thibetana are yellow white.

Key words: Congenial tragus, New subgenus, Ochotona, Ochotona dabashanensis sp. n., Ochotona flatcalvariam sp. n., Ochotona huanglongensis sp. n., Ochotona qionglaiensis sp. n., Ochotona yarlungensis sp. n., Systematics