兽类学报

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雄性高原鼠兔长鸣时间分配及其影响因素

华铣泽 周睿 叶国辉 花蕊 包达尔罕 花立民   

  1. (甘肃农业大学草业学院,国家林业草原高寒草地鼠害防控工程技术研究中心,兰州 730070)
  • 出版日期:2020-12-01 发布日期:2020-12-03
  • 通讯作者: 花立民 E-mail: Hualm@gsau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    科技部重点研发计划(2017YFC0504803);甘肃省重点研发计划(17YF1NA059); 甘肃省高校协同创新科技团队支持计划

The temporal distribution of the long call and its influencing factors in male plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)

HUA Xianze, ZHOU Rui,YE Guohui, HUA Rui, Baodaerhan, HUA Limin   

  1. (Pratacultural College,Gansu Agricultural University,Engineering and Technology Research Center for Alpine Rodent Pest Control,National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Lanzhou 730070,China)
  • Online:2020-12-01 Published:2020-12-03

摘要:

长鸣是高原鼠兔常见的鸣声类型之一。了解高原鼠兔长鸣发生的时间分配规律及其影响因素对于理解其生存策略具有重要意义。本研究从2018年2月至2019年2月,采用录音机记录其鸣叫声音与单反相机录制其鸣叫行为相结合的方法,在青藏高原东缘的甘肃省玛曲县记录了高原鼠兔一年内长鸣发生的时间规律,并研究其长鸣发生频率与外界非生物因素(温度和风速)以及内在生理因素(睾酮和孕酮)的关系。结果表明:(1)高原鼠兔长鸣是雄性个体发出,主要出现在3—5月的繁殖季节,每只个体平均每日长鸣总时长为130~180 s,每日长鸣主要发生在日出后2 h内和日落前2 h内;(2)高原鼠兔繁殖期长鸣发生与睾酮激素水平增高呈正相关。当睾酮激素水平为40 pg/mL左右时,长鸣时长达到1000 s,睾酮激素下降到36 pg/mL以下时,长鸣时长只有150 s左右。非繁殖期长鸣发生与气温和风速呈负相关。综述,高原鼠兔雄性个体全年长鸣发生呈现明显的季节性,繁殖季长鸣与睾酮激素增高密切相关。

关键词: 长鸣, 时间分配, 高原鼠兔, 影响因素

Abstract:

Long call is a common type of sound uttered by plateau pika( Ochotona curzoniae). It is important to study the temporal distribution of plateau pikas’ long call for a whole year and its influencing factors for better understanding the survival strategies of plateau pika. In this study, we used a digital recorder and video camera to record the duration of the long call by plateau pika and investigated the potential influence factors related to long call, involving temperature, wind speed, testosterone and progesterone between February 2018 and February 2019 in Maqu County, located in the eastern Tibet Plateau. The results show: (1) The long call was uttered by male plateau pika and mainly occurred in the breeding period from March to May, which was significantly higher than in other months. The duration of long call ranges in each individual male was 130-180 seconds per day and mainly uttered 2 hours after sunrise and 2 hours before sunset throughout the year. (2) The occurrence of long call uttered by male plateau pika throughout the year is closely related to pikas’ testosterone levels. When the testosterone level was about 40 pg/mL, the duration of long call was 1000 seconds, and when the testosterone level was below 36 pg/mL, the duration of long call was around 150 seconds. The long call in plateau pikas during the non-breeding period was negatively correlated with air temperature and wind speed. In conclusion, the long call uttered by male plateau pika has a typical seasonal pattern and the occurrence of long call was closely related to the testosterone levels increasing of male plateau pika during the breeding season.

Key words: Long call, Temporal distribution, Plateau Pika, Hormone levels