In the wild, giant pandas have access to a broad range of dietary options, however, for captive individuals, dietary options are greatly reduced. Maintaining a balanced diet, which includes the appropriate levels of micronutrients, is essential to the ex-situ conservation of the giant panda. Evaluating the micronutrient status of captive giant pandas at different feeding stages is a necessary step in constructing a scientific feeding strategy for this iconic species. In this study, seven healthy adult captive giant pandas were selected and fed bamboo leaves (bamboo leaf stage) and bamboo shoots (bamboo shoots stage) in turn. Feeding tests were carried out three times during the bamboo leaf stage and twice during the shoot stage. Each feeding test lasted for three days and the interval between each feeding test was 28 days. During the tests, the daily food intake of the giant pandas was recorded, the vitamin content of the bamboo that was provided was measured and corresponding mineral content was referenced so as to compare the daily intake of vitamins and minerals during the different feeding stages. Blood samples were collected at the end of each feeding stage, and the serum levels of 13 vitamins and 10 minerals were determined. In bamboo shoots, the contents of VA, VE, VK1, nicotinic acid, pyridoxal and pyridoxine were lower, while the contents of VB5 and VB12 were higher than those in bamboo leaves (P < 0.05). Compared with the bamboo leaf stage, the daily intakes of VE, VK1, Ca, Fe, Cu and Mn decreased significantly, while the daily intakes of VB5, VB6, VB7, VB12, Mg and Zn increased significantly during the bamboo shoot stage (P < 0.05). Moreover, the serum levels of VB2, Cr and Se were lower, while the levels of VE, VK1, VB5, VB7, VB9 and VB12 were higher during the bamboo shoot stage (P < 0.05). The results showed that feeding different bamboo parts could affect both the intake and serum levels of vitamins and minerals of captive giant pandas. The differences and patterns of micro-nutrition status between different bamboo feeding stages can provide a theoretical basis for the provisioning of bamboo as well as the nutritional supplementation in the daily feeding and management of captive giant pandas.