ACTA Theriologica Sinica ›› 2014, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (3): 252-.

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Diversity and conservation of cave-dwelling bats in Henan Province,China

BU Yanzhen,WANG Yanmei,LIU Wei,YU Yan,HE Xinping,PENG Tian,NIU Hongxing   

  1. College of Life Science,H enan Normal University
  • Online:2014-08-15 Published:2014-11-26
  • Contact: NIU Hongxing


卜艳珍 王艳梅 刘伟 余燕 贺新平 彭天 牛红星   

  1. 河南师范大学生命科学学院
  • 通讯作者: 牛红星
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: A field survey on species diversity,number and distribution of cave-dwelling bats was conducted in 60 caves of Henan Province from June 2011 to July 2013. Bats were captured by using mist nets and hand nets. The number of bats was calculated with the method of direct counting and taking pictures. 3 families,6 genera and 17 species bats were identified according to external and skull characteristics. Among them,three species are listed as vulnerable (VU),seven are listed as near threatened (NT),and the remaining seven are listed as least concern (LC)in the China Species Red List. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. pusillus were widespread species in Henan Province. According to the exploitation situation of caves and frequency of human activities,the interference degree of these caves was estimated. Among the 60 caves,30 caves have been seriously disturbed,10 caves disturbed lightly and only 20 caves maintained in their natural state. According to bat species,numbers and degrees of endangerment,the roosts were evaluated and divided into four levels based on their conservation importance. Caves of level 1 and most level 2 are large and complex,which are breeding and hibernation roosts,featured by multiple variety and huge amount. The total length of passages,the maximal width and height of the 60 caves were measured and compared. The three measurement data of level 1 are obviously larger than other levels. Presently,most caves in the region are not preserved well. Cave-dwelling bats are under serious threat due to several reasons, such as cave exploitation for tourism.

Key words: Bat, Cave, Conservation, Diversity, Henan Province

摘要: 2011 年6 月至2013 年7 月,利用雾网和抄网捕捉蝙蝠,采用直接计数、拍照等方法统计蝙蝠的数量,调查了河南省60 个洞穴中蝙蝠的种类、数量及分布,根据蝙蝠的外形及头骨特征鉴定种类,计3 科6 属17 种,其中易危(VU)物种3 种,近危(NT)和无危(LC)物种各7 种。马铁菊头蝠和菲菊头蝠为河南省广布种。依据洞穴的开发情况和人类入洞活动的频度等,评估洞穴的干扰程度,30 个洞穴属严重干扰,10 个洞穴属轻度干扰,20 个洞穴属自然状态。依据洞穴中蝙蝠的种类、数量及濒危程度,将洞穴的相对重要性划分为4 个级别,级别1 和多数级别2 的洞穴具有大的空间和复杂的洞穴系统,这些洞穴既是蝙蝠的繁殖地又是冬眠场所,其中栖息的蝙蝠种类多且数量大。对洞穴的总长度、最大宽度和最大高度进行了测量,比较4 个级别洞穴的测量数据,级别1 洞穴的总长度、最大宽度、最大高度的平均值明显大于其他级别。目前,多数洞穴未得到很好的保护,由于旅游开发等原因,洞栖蝙蝠正面临着严重的生存危机。

关键词: 河南省, 洞穴, 蝙蝠, 多样性, 保护